A thermo battery, for producing electricity direct from heat, can be made of a wooden frame, A, with a number of nails, B, driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires, C. The connections should all be soldered to give good results, as the voltage is very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device, and the current may then be detected by means, of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. 14 or No. 16 single-covered wire, E, with a pocket compass, F, placed on top. Turn the spool in a north and south direction, or parallel with the compass needle. Then, when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed, the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. --Contributed by A. C. A., Chicago.
Illustration: Thermo Battery
Cotter Pin Wire Terminal.
Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins, Fig. 1, about 1-1/2 in. long. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin, twisted around itself and soldered. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. 2. When connecting to batteries, spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. --Contributed by Howard S. Bott.