The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. As they are the genuine reproductions, each article can be labelled with the name, adding to each piece interest and value, says the English Mechanic, London.

Each weapon is cut from wood. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. When putting on the tinfoil, brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry, wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth.

Partisan, Fork and Halberd

Partisan, Fork and Halberd

A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 1. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed brass nails. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. Spontoon. Glaive and Voulge

Illustration: Spontoon. Glaive and Voulge

Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century, the length of which is about 5 ft. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in., and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel.

A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 3. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle, which is square. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods, the holes being about 1/4 in. in diameter.

Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon, used about the seventeenth century. It is about 6 ft. long with a round wooden handle. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. long. The edges are sharp. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. Halberd. Ranseur and Lance

Illustration: Halberd. Ranseur and Lance

A gisarm or glaive, used by Italians in the sixteenth century, is shown in Fig. 5. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on, press it well into the carved depressions.

Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century, 6 ft. long, with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade, sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands, which are a part of the axe. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood, covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard, covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round--headed brass or steel nails.

A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. 7. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft., with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil.

An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 8. This weapon is about 6 ft. long with a round staff or handle. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The spear is steel, sharp on the outer edges.

Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The extreme length is 9 ft.