books



previous page: Scientific American Supplement Volumes 810, 819, 821, 822, 829, 832, 841, 1082, 1157 and 1178
  
page up: Scientific American Journalno next page

Wrinkles And Recipes, Compiled From The Scientific American | by Park Benjamin



A collection of practical suggestions, processes, and directions for the mechanic, the engineer, the farmer, and the housekeeper. Illustrated.

TitleWrinkles And Recipes, Compiled From The Scientific American
AuthorPark Benjamin
PublisherH. N. Munn
Year1875
Copyright1875, H. N. Munn
AmazonWrinkles and Recipes, Compiled From The Scientific American

Edited By Park Benjamin

Revisers and Contributors:, Professor R. H. Thurston, C.E., Professor P. H. Vander Weyde, M.D., Richard H. Buel, Mechanical Engineer., Joshua Rose, Mechanical Engineer.

Wrinkles And Recipes

If any worker in the great army of those in whose intelligent labor lies the surest, foundation for the prosperity of us all, finds among the suggestions here compiled one thought, as it is hoped he may many, which shall lighten his toil or aid him in the production of better work, then the editor sincerely trusts that that worker will deem this little volume as prepared for his especial benefit, and to him especially dedicated.

-Preface
The aim in the following pages has been to compile a collection of suggestions for the every-day use of the workiug-man, in his shop, about his dwelling, or in his household. The book is not an encycl...
-Master-Tools: Their Manufacture And Use
The master-tools, here illustrated and described, comprise all that are necessary for plain machine-work in every description of metal; and if they are made of the precise shape, and according to the ...
-Boring-Tool For Brass
The boring tool for brass-work, here shown, is a standard tool for either roughing out or finishing, both of which duties it will perform equally well. It is bent further round at the end than is the ...
-Boring-Tool For Wrought-Iron Or Steel
For turning out small holes, the tool here represented has no equal, providing it be made of the precise shape shown, the reasons for which are as follows: The cutting end must not be bent, in forging...
-Finishing-Tool For Cast-Iron
Cast-iron may be finished true and smoothly by a tool having a much broader cutting and scraping surface than is applicable to any other metal; and we are therefore enabled to apply to it, for finishi...
-Finishing-Tool For Wrought-Iron, Cast-Iron, Or Steel
This is a finishing-tool for wrought-iron which will cut smoothly, clean, and true. being far preferable to the square-nosed tools sometimes used for the purpose of finishing iron, since such tools do...
-Front-Tool For Brass-Work
This is a complete master-tool, filling every necessary qualification for all plain outside brass work, and doing the duty on that metal which the- front tool and righl and left hand side-tools do on ...
-Parting Or Grooving Tool For Iron Or Steel
The part ing tool is applicable either to catting grooves or for parting, or, in other words, cutting work apart. The cutting point, or end of the tool, is made thicker than the metal, both vertically...
-Parting-Tool For Brass
The parting-tool for brass is governed by the same principle as that for iron, save that its top face must be ground level, except in cases where the cutting edge stands far out from the tool-post, in...
-Roughing-Out Front Tool For Wrought-Iron
The engraving represents the best possible form of tool for roughing out wrought-iron, or for removing a large mass of that metal in the lathe or planing-iuachine. When used on large work, it should b...
-Side-Tool For Brass
This tool fills the same place with reference to that metal that the side-tool and knife-tool do to ironwork; and it has no superior for taking out corners, for cutting out holes or recesses which do ...
-Side-Tool For Squaring Ends Of Wrought-Iron Work
The illustration represents a side-tool for wrought-iron, to be employed for squaring the ends of work held between the lathe centres, and in other cases wherein there is not sufficient room to admit ...
-Side-Tool For; Wrought-Iron, Cast-Iron, Or Steel
The engraving represents the mostsuperior side-tool for either wrought or cast in., , or steel, the only difference being that it requires to be less keen for the latter than, .as here shown, for the ...
-Spring-Tool For Use On Wrought-Iron, Cast-Iron, Steel. Or Brass
The spring-tool is especially adapted to finishing sweeps, curves, or round or other corners, and will answer for any metal whatever. As illustrated, the face is given an up ward incline to make it su...
-Boring-Bar For Lathe-Work
In boring work chucked and revolved in the lathe, such, for instance, as axle-boxes for locomotives, the boring-bar here shown is an excellent tool. A represents a cutter-head, which slides along, at ...
-Shapes Of Boring-Tools
The pressure on the cutting edge of a tool acts in two directions, the one vertical, the other lateral. The downward pressure remains at all times the same; the lateral pressure varies according to th...
-Chipping
The chisel requires special notice since it is frequently made of the most ill-advised shape (for either cutting smoothly or standing the effects of the blow), that is, hollow, as in Fig. 1, in which ...
-How To Grind Chisels Cold
Grind a cold-chisel so that its cutting edge is rounding and not hollow, as it is often made. A rounded chisel is stronger and cuts smoother. A hollow chisel has no useful place as a chipping-tool. ...
-Cone-Plate For Boring In The Lathe
For chucking shafts and other similar work in the lathe (to bore holes in the ends of the shafts, etc.), the cone-plate shown in the engraving is the best appliance known to machinists. A is a standar...
-Cutters For Boiler-Plate And Similar Work
Cutters are steel bits, usually held in either a Mock or bar, being fitted and keyed to the same; by this means, cutters of various shapes and sizes may be made to fit one stock or bar, thus obviating...
-Cutting Versus Scraping Tools
A tool will either cut or scrape, according to the position in which it is held, as. for instance, below the line A in the illustration. Line A is in each case one drawn from the centre of the work to...
-Countersink-Pin Drills
Of these tools there are various forms. The following figure represents a taper countersink such as is employed for holes to receive flush rivets or countersunk head-bolts, this form of tool being mai...
-Slot Drills For Keyways
For drilling out oblong holes, such as keyways, or for cutting out recesses such as are required to receive short feathers in shafts, the drill known as a slotting-drill, here shown, is brought into r...
-The Use Of Files
In draw-filing, take short, quick strokes, which will prevent the file from pinning and scratching. Long strokes, no matter how long the work may be, are useless save to make scratches. Remember that ...
-Half-Round Bits
For drilling or boring holes very true and parallel in the lathe, the half-round bit shown in the engraving is unsurpassed. The cutting edge, A, is made by backing off the end, as denoted by the space...
-Tools Used For Metal Having A Very Hard Skin
When the skin of the metal to be cut is unusually hard, as frequently occurs in cast-iron, the shape of the cutting part of the boring-tool must be such that its point will enter the cut first, so tha...
-Hardening Saws And Springs
The usual way of proceeding is to heat the saws in long furnaces, and then to immerse them horizontally and edgewise in a long trough containing the composition; two troughs are commonly used alternat...
-Speeds For Circular Saws
Diameter of saw, inches. Revolutions per minute for English or thin saws. Revolutions per minute for American or thick saws. 36 1000 1500 30 1200 ...
-Hints Concerning Saws
A saw just large enough to cut through a board will require less power than a saw larger, the number of teeth, speed, and thickness being equal in each. The more teeth, the more power, provided the th...
-Shapes Of Saw-Teeth
No. 1 is a good-shaped tooth for very soft wood, the wide bevel being the front of the tooth. The point would be liable to break or bend in very hard wood or in knots. No. 2 will stand to saw the hard...
-Tempering And Hardening Taps
To harden a tap, heat to a cherry-red, in a clear and not a blazing fire, or, what is better, heat in charcoal, holding the tap by the square end; dip it endwise in the water, immersing the whole of t...
-Spring Of Tools
To obviate the spring of tools which must, of necessity, be held out a long way from the tool-post, the ful-crum off which the tool springs must be adjusted so as not to stand in advance of the cuttin...
-Value Of Hollow Axles
An old apprentice of Sir William Fairbairn writes: For several years it has cost me five dollars a week to keep the bolts on my trip or cushioned hammer-heads in repair, and, finding it to wear on m...
-How To Unscrew Standing Bolts On Studs
Studs that have be come so corroded in their holes that, they are liable to break off, should be well warmed by a red hot washer; because the strength of the stud increases by being heated up to about...
-Fitting Brasses
In doing this, a piece of wood must be used to hammer on in driving them in and out, since driving them with the bare hammer, a piece of metal, or a mandril, stretches the skin and enlarges the diamet...
-Setting Brasses
In setting brasses or any other journal-boxes to be bored, place a piece of sheet-tin between the joint of the brasses, and bore the brasses or boxes the thickness of the tin too large, which thicknes...
-Filling Holes In Burr Stones
Use melted alum mixed with burr-stone pulverized to the size of grains of sand. Burrs, To prevent heating, -Dress from centre to circumference, leaving no bosom. Draw a line across the centre, each w...
-How To Make Carpenter's Bench
Take three pieces of 2 x 5 in. stuff, 3 feet long, for supports for top. Take two 12 in. boards, 12 feet long and 1 in. thick, for sides; nail the side-boards firmly on to the ends of the 2 x 5 cross-...
-Shrinkage Of Castings
Shrinkage sideways and endwise, on tings of 3 inches and Less size, is compensated for by the shake in the sand given by t he moulder to the pattern in order to extract it from the mould. Castings, Sm...
-How To Estimate The Weight Of Castings
A pattern weighing 1 lb., and made of Will weigh when cast in Cast Iron. Zinc. Copper. Yellow Brass. Gun Metal. Mahogany 8 8 10 9.8...
-An Electric Chuck-Lathe
In order to obviate the inconvenience and loss of time involved in the ordinary mode of fixing upon a lathe-chuck certain special kinds of work, such as thin steel disks or small circular-saws, the ch...
-How To Grind Plugs In Cocks
The best material for this purpose is the red, well-burnt sand from the core of a brass casting, the sand being sifted, before using, through fine wire gauze. It will cut more truly and smoothly than ...
-Fitting Cones In Holes
Rub the cone with either red marking or else chalk, giving it in either case a very thin coat. A narrow strip of marking, running from end of the cone, will do. Put the cone into its place, press it f...
-Grindstone-Spindles
Common grindstone-spindles, with a crank at one end, are open to the objection that the stone will never keep round, because every person is inclined, more or less, to follow the motion of his foot wi...
-Iron Plates With True, Flat Surfaces
To make a true surface-plate, it is necessary to plane up three plates, which we will term A, B, and C. First fit the faces of A and B together as nearly as possible with a smooth file (using a hardly...
-How To Close Holes In Wrought Iron
If a washer or other piece of wrought-iron is a trifle too large, fill the hole and part of the outside faces with fire-clay; heat the iron to a bright red, and plunge it in cold water. The contractio...
-Setting Work On The Face-Plate Of Lathe
Let the work be set out and first lightly prick-punched; then clamp to place lightly as near as possible, but never set the dead-centre against the work, for that will not bring it true; now with a ...
-How To Close A Quadrant Or Link That Has Sprung Or Opened In Hardening Links
Clamp it with bolts and plates, placing the die in the slot to support any part which does not require to be closed. To open the slot of a quadrant or link that has closed in being hardened: Take two...
-Patterns For Brasses
In making a pattern for a brass to fit in a semi-octagonal bed such as is employed in pillar-blocks, and sometimes in the small ends of connecting-rods and axle-boxes: after having made the bed of the...
-Setting Work By Pening
The operation termed pening, is stretching the skin on one side of work to alter its shape, the principle of which is that, by striking the face of the metal with a hammer, the face of the metal st...
-Pipes, Gas Or Steam, Threads Used In Screwing
Inside diameter. Threads per inch. 1/8 27 1/4 18 3/8 18 1/2 14 3/4 14 1 11 1/2 1 1/4 11 1/2...
-Piston-Rod Glands
If these are rather tight, the piston-rod may be eased by rubbing the gland up and down the rod, and giving it at the same time a revolving motion back and forth at each stroke. Oil must be supplied t...
-Reducing The Size Of Work By Shrinking With Fire And Water
For reducing the size of wrought-iron work, the process shown in the following engraving may be employed. a a is the section of a wrought-iron square box or tube, which is supposed to be made red hot ...
-The Advantage Of Long Screw Drivers
The reason that a screw is driven more easily into wood by a long than by a shorl Screw-driver, is that the tool is held at an angle, and consequently the Long screw driver affords a greater leverage ...
-Hints About Screws
When screws are driven into soft wood and subjected to considerable strain, they are likely to work loose; in such case, dip the screw in thick glue before inserting. When buying screws, see that the ...
-The Whitworth Thread
Diameter in inches.. 3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 Threads per inch 21 20 18 16 14 12 11 ...
-Standard American Proportions
Diameter in inches. . . . 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 Threads per inch.......... 20 18 16 14 13 ...
-Accuracy Of The Spirit-Level
The best length of bubble depends on the length or curvature of the tube, a short babble being required for a tube with a small radius of curvature, and increasing regularly in proportion with the inc...
-The Color-Tests For Tempering
Says Mr. J. Richards: Procure eight pieces of cast-steel, about 2 in. long by 1 in. wide, and 3/8 of an inch thick; heat them to a high red heat, and drop them into a salt-bath. Leave one without tem...
-Testing The Strength Of Materials
The engraving which accompanies this article illustrates a very convenient, yet quite accurate, method of determining the strength of materials, which has been devised by the writer. The test-piece is...
-How To Steam-Engines Gain From The Application Of Condensers
In the early days of the steam-engine, very low pressure was ordinarily employed for engines with condensers, while, on the contrary, what was considered a very high pressure was adopted for engines t...
-Power Required To Drive Cotton Machinery
The following are fair approximate rules: Cotton openers. 1 horse-power per 1000 lbs. cotton delivered. Cotton pickers, 3 horse-power per 1000 lbs. cotton delivered. Cotton cards, 1/20 horse-power per...
-Balancing Heavy Cylinders
The cylinder, being keyed upon its axle as it is intended to run, is lifted by a tackle or crane, and lowered so that each of its journals rests upon a stout steel straight-edge placed so that its upp...
-Placing In Line Locomotive Cylinders
To test the accuracy of the work after the bed-piece has been permanently fixed to the boiler, clamp a cylinder to its seat on the bed-piece, and fit a wooden cross (with a pin-hole through its centre...
-Thick Cylinders
Thick cylinders are those in which the thickness is considerable in comparison with the internal diameter. To find the bursting pressure of a thick cylinder, take the produel of (1) the tenacity of th...
-Small Engines And Boilers
By the aid of the accompanying table, the effective horse-power (that available for useful work) of small engines can be approximately determined. The table is designed for non-condensing engines, wit...
-Piston-Speeds
Pressure.* Horse-power corresponding to piston-speed (in feet per minute) of 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 200 3...
-Pressure And Temperature Of Steam
Pressure by gauge. Temperature Fahrenheit. 0........ ...........2120 10........ ...........2890 20........ ...........2600 80........ ...
-Factors Of Evaporation
Temperature of the steam. Temperature of the feed-water. 32 50 68 86 104 122 140 158 ...
-Derangements Of Engines
These are hot bearings, loose keys, and leaky joints. If a bearing heats continually, when properly adjusted and well lubricated, it is too small. Sometimes bearings heat on account of dirt or grit, b...
-Steam-Engine Governors
The ordinary pendulum governor consists of a vertical spindle, which is made to revolve by suitable mechanism, and carries, on opposite sides, a pair of arms, to which heavy weights are attached, form...
-Different Kinds Of Horsepower
In making an estimate or measure of the effect of any piece of mechanism that is used to overcome resistance, it is necessary to have a unit of reference. In whatever manner the resistance is overcome...
-The Indicator
The indicator is a recording steam-gauge, very accurately made, for determining the pressure acting on the piston of an engine, at every point of the stroke. It is connected to the cylinder, close to ...
-The Indicator. Continued
IV. How To Draw The True Diagram The indicator diagram from .......end of the cylinder, it is evident, only shows what takes place on the side of the piston on which the indicator is applied hut at t...
-Setting Slide-Valve
The methods of adjusting the lap and travel of slide valves, and the position of the eccentric, given below, are taken, with some slight modifications, from the work of Dr. Zeuner, on Slide-Valve Gear...
-Testing Small Engines
The apparatus needed is quite simple, and can be readily constructed by the young mechanic. The following embrace the principal points that are generally of interest in regard to engines and boilers: ...
-Effective Power Of Turbine Wheels
It is important, in selecting a good wheel, to be assured that it will furnish ample power. After ascertaining a reliable maker, in order to determine the exact size of the wheel it is necessary that ...
-Cleaning The Boiler
The flues or tubes of a boiler should be cleaned about once a week, with a brush or scraper. In case incrustation has formed in them, they can be cleaned by a jet of steam from a rubber hose. A boiler...
-Cylindrical Boilers
To find the necessary thickness in inches for the shell.Multiply the pressure of steam in pounds per square inch by the diameter of the boiler in inches, and multiply this product by 0.0002 for a copp...
-How To Find The. Safe Pressure In Pounds Per Square Inch
Divide the thickness of the plate in inches by the diameter of the boiler in inches, and multiply the quotient by 5000 for a copper boiler with single-riveted shells; by 6400 for a copper boiler with ...
-Safe Pressure, In Pounds Per Square Inch, For Flat Heads (Not Stayed)
Divide the square of the thickness of the plate in inches by the square of the radius of the shell in inches, and multiply the quotient by 5625 for a head of copper; by 9000 tor a head of wrought-iron...
-Cylindrical Flue Boilers
Take the product of the diameter of the boiler, the length, and1.5708, and add it to the product of (1 )interior diameter of flue, (2) length of flue, (8) number of flues, and (4) 3.1416. Suppose tha...
-(C) Cylindrical Tubular Boilers
Find the product of the diameter of the boiler, the length, and 1.5708, and add this to the product of the length of the boiler, the number of tubes, and the beating surface of a tube per foot of leng...
-Setting Horizontal Boilers
The best way is to have the fire-box at least as wide as the boiler, and have as much heating surface as possible; but below the water-line all passages should be made large, so as to allow a free pas...
-Rules For Firing Under Boilers
(1) Begin to charge the furnace at the bridge end, and keep firing to within a few inches of the dead-plate. (2) Never allow the fire to be so low before a fresh charge is thrown in, so that there sha...
-How To Straighten Tall Chimneys
Have a number of oak wedges made . of sufficient length to pass through the entire thickness of the chimney and project sufficiently on the outside. Place them in sets of three each, one over the othe...
-Proportioning Chimneys
The general rule is to make the cross-section of the chimney, which may be either round or square, from 1/6 to 1/10 of the grate-surface, and the height from 50 to 70 feet. To determine the amount of...
-Effect Of Damp Air On Coal
It has been found by recent experiments on this subject, that the loss in weight, due to a slow oxidation and to the disengagement of gases which form the richest part of bituminous coal, may equal on...
-Combustion And Fuel
The principal constituents of coal are carbon, hydrogen, water, a little sulphur, ashes and clinker, the latter two substances consisting generally of silica, alumina, iron, lime, magnesia, and oxide ...
-Gain From The Use Of Feed-Water Heaters
A unit of heat is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a pound of water one degree, the water being at the temperature of maximum density, about 39.1 Fahrenheit. The table belo...
-Wrought-Iron Flues
Thickness in inches of a wrought-iron flue exposed to external pressure: I. Find (1) the product of the diameter of the flue in inches, (2) the length of the flue in feet, (3) the pressure of steam in...
-Gauges, Water And Steam
When a boiler is in use, the gauge-cocks should frequently be tried to see that they are not choked up , and the glass gauge should often be blown out. After ascertaining the proper place for the weig...
-Proportions Of Riveted Joints
(a) Diameter of rivet in inches: Multiply the thickness of plate in inches by 2 for plates up to 3/8 of an inch thick, by 1.5 for plates Iron of an inch thick, by 1.25 for plates from 5/8 to 3/4 of an...
-How To Burn Sawdust As Fuel
A saw-mill owner solves the problem of using saw-dust as fuel as follows. His boiler was a return tubular, 14 feet 6 inches long and 54 inches in diameter, with 64 three-inch tubes, and brick firebox ...
-Prevention Of Scale In Steam Boilers
(1) Use as pure water as your locality affords. (2) Clean and scrape your boiler as often as you possibly can. (3) Blow off without excess. (I) In case of salt or brackish waters, never use steam of o...
-How To Burn As Fuel Black
A correspondent, who has practically investigated this subject extensively, says: Slack requires the prate-bars to be very open. I have used bars with openings of 1-1/2 inches. The only secret in usin...
-Specific Heat
Table showing the number of units of heat required to raise the temperature of one found of a substance one degree Fahrenheit. Air................... 0.23740 Alcohol (liquid)........
-Distance Between Stats, In Inches
Divide the thickness of the plate, in inches, by the square root of the pressure, in lbs. per square inch, and. multiply the quotient by 130, if the stayed surface is copper; by 164, if the stayed sur...
-A Simple Test For Determining The Accuracy Of Safety Valve
Secure the valve-stem of the safety-valve to the lever with wire or string, and attach a loop to the lever, into which pass the hook of an accurate spring-balance, arranging the loop so that it is dir...
-Hints Concerning The Safety Valve
Some convenient ar rangment, such as a cord or lever, should be fitted to a safety-valve, so that it can readily be opened by hand; and the valve should be moved at least once a day, to keep it in goo...
-Proper Diameter For Safety Valve, In Inches
This de-pends upon (1) the steam-pressure to which the valve is exposed; (2) the lift of the valve; (3) the quantity of steam that must be discharged in a given time, in order to prevent an increase o...
-Proportions Of Parts Of Safety Valve
1st. To find the pressure per square inch at which a given valve will open. Measure the following distances horizontally from the fulcrum to (1) the centre of the valve-stem; (2) the centre of the wei...
-Laying Out Belt-Holes, Through Floors
If a belt is to be carried from a pulley on an overhead shaft to one on any floor above, the distance from centre of lower shaft to ceiling-under side of floor-should be measured and noted; then the t...
-How To Find The Length Of Belt Passing Over Two Pulleys
Measure the distance between the centres of the pulleys, the diameters of the pulleys, and the thickness of the belt. Add the thickness of the belt to the diameter of a pulley, and this gives the effe...
-Power Transmitted By Leather Belts
By the aid of the accompanying tables, now published for the first time, it will be easy for any one to ascertain the amount of power that can be safely transmitted by good leather belts under ordinar...
-Horse-Power Transmitted By A Leather Belt One Inch Wide
SPEED OF BELT IN FEET PER MINUTE Horse-power transmitted for arc of contact of 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 ...
-Coupling Belts
In Fig. 1, A, B, C, and D are pieces of No. 16 sheet-iron, riveted to the ends of the belt; E E are hooks, shown in the natural size in Fig. 2, riveted to B. After the belt is laid over the pulleys, t...
-Mending Belts
Lay the two ends of the belt exactly even. With the insides together, and punch one straight row of holes across the end, driving the punch through both pieces so that the holes may correspond. Now t...
-How To Lay Out Quarter-Twist Belts
To make holes through floors for the belts, lay out on a floor with chalk-line and train two views of the pulley, or by scale on paper as shown in the annexed diagram. B is the belt running in the dir...
-The Pressure Per Square Inch On The Bearing Surface Should Not Exceed The Following Limits
Velocity of periphery of journal. Limiting pressure per sq. in. of bearing surface. 1 feet per second........................ .........................382 lbs. 2-1/2 ...
-Testing Vulcanized Rubber For Belts
These trials consist in examining the comparative degrees of elasticity and tenacity. The manner in which they are conducted in the French navy appears practical and easily followed. The first test c...
-How To Place Belt-Tighteners
The loss of power occasioned by the use of a tightener, is the power required to bend the belt under that pulley and to drive the pulley. By placing the tightener near the smaller pulley of two of une...
-Securing Hangers
It it should be required to place a hanger between flooring beams, the floor to which it is attached should be strengthened with a generous piece of plank. For securing hangers, lag-screws are superio...
-How To Design Cone Pulleys
The following rules will enable any one who understands arithmetical operations to make the calculations necessary for designing a set of cone pulleys in such a manner that the belt can be shifted fro...
-Preventing Shafting Accidents
Accidents are common in large manufactories through the engagement of some portion of a workman's garments with a swiftly rotating shaft. A simple way of rendering these casualties impossible is to co...
-Lining Shafting
Every one operating long lines of shafting should provide- an adjusting rod, as shown in the engraving. A may be a rod or a piece of gas pipe, of sufficient Length to reach from the shaft, (), to with...
-Cements
Air and water-tight, for casks and cisterns: Melted glue 8 parts, linseed-oil 4; boil into a varnish with litharge. This hardens in 48 hours. Plumbers': Black resin 1 part, brick-dust 2. Melt together...
-How To Test Portland Cement
Three tests are used: (1) Resistance to tensile force. (2) Specific gravity. (3) Water test. The first is by making a specimen briquette in a mould with a transverse section of 2.25 square inches, the...
-Strength Of Glued Joints
The Absolute Strength Of A Well-Glued Joint Is Given As Follows In Pounds Per Square Inch Across the grain. With the grain, Beech, 2133 1095 Elm, 14...
-Marine Glues
(1) Pure india-rubber 1 pt., dissolved by heat in naphtha; when melted, ;add shellac, 2 pts. (2) Glue, 12 pts., water to dissolve, and yellow resin, 3 pts. Melt, add turpentine, 4 pts., and mix. Porta...
-Test For Goodness Of Glue
Assuming that that is the best glue which will take up most water, take 50 grains of the specimen and dissolve it in 3 ozs. water in a water-bath. When dissolved, set it by for 12 hours to gelatinize,...
-Composition For Picture-Frames
(1.) To make composition ornaments for picture-frames: Boil 7 lbs. best glue in 3-1/2 pints water, melt 3 lbs. white resin in 3 pints raw linseed-oil; when the ingredients are well boiled, put them i...
-Allot Of Copper, Which Will Attach Itself To Glass, Metal, Or Porcelain
20 to 30 parts finely blended copper (made by reduc lion of oxide of copper with hydrogen or precipitation from solution of its sulphate with zinc) are made into a paste with oil of vitriol. To this a...
-Bronzing Hardware
Brown bronze dip, for coating hat-hooks and similar small hardware articles, is made of iron scales 1 lb., arsenic 1 oz., muriatic acid 1 lb., zinc, solid, 10 ozs. The zinc should be kept in only when...
-Coloring Metals
Take hyposulphite of soda 4 Ozs., dis solved in 1-1/2 pints of water; add a solution of 1 OZ. acetate of Lead in same quantity of water. Articles to be colored are placed in the mixture, which is then...
-Strength Of Hollow Columns
The hollow cylinder is the strongest form of section under compressive force. The experiments by which this was proved were conducted upon hollow tapering columns of cast-iron, upon cross-sections, as...
-Crucibles
The best crucibles are composed of the following compositions, which are of two kinds-namely, with and without plumbago. 3 parts by measure of the Stourbridge best crucible clay, 2 parts cement, consi...
-Etching Upon Steel
Warm the steel, and rub on a coating of white-was or hard tallow. When hard, mark the device through the wax with a sharp-pointed tool; apply nitric acid, and allow it to stand for a few minutes; then...
-Hardness And Tenacity Of Minerals And Metals
In mineralogy, in which science the hardness is an important characteristic, ten bodies are usually taken as points of comparison-the softest being termed 1 and the hardest 10. These are: 1, talc; 2, ...
-Producing Satin Finish On Silver By Sand Blast
The following is the method adopted at a large silver plating establishment: Air is compressed by the driving engine of the works into an or dinary reservoir, and thence distributed through pipes whic...
-Restoring Color To Silver
This is adapted to treating silver filagree ornaments, rendering them dead white. The process has long been a trade secret. If any pewter is found in the articles, it should not be attempted. Pound to...
-Utilization Of Prussian Slag Method
The high furnaces are provided with a continual overflow for the slag, which runs through a narrow gutter formed in the sand into a shallow pit, through which a small stream of water is kept running. ...
-Crystallization Of Tin
A platinum capsule is covered with an outer coating of paraffine or wax, leaving the bottom only uncovered. This capsule is set upon a plate of amalgamated zinc in a porcelain capsule. The platinum is...
-Simple Spring Balance
A is a deal stand 12 by 3 inches; B is a hard-wood block firmly attached to A; C is a spring; D is an index-pillar; E is a scale-holder; F is a small bent pin to hold the spring steady while changing ...
-How To Make A Cheap Barometer
Obtain a straight fine glass tube, about 33 inches long, and with as clean an interior as possible, sealed at one end, and having an even uniform bore of about 2-1/2 lines diameter. The mercury to be ...
-How To Make Baroscope
Take any bottle; pour colored water into it, about of the quantity the bottle will hold; insert in it a glass tube, from 3 to 4 feet long, and passing air-tight through the stopper, which must also be...
-How To Make Wonder Camera
A wonder camera is a sort of magic lantern, so contrived as to enable one to use opaque objects for projection upon the screen instead of glass transparencies. For example, if a ]photograher wishes to...
-A Simple Electrical Machine
A B, in the annexed engraving, is a glass tube fixed at one end in a wooden handle. The rubber, with its flap, D, carries a little Leyden jar, the end of which is visible at F. This jar is coated insi...
-How To Accompany The Above Machine Electrical Orrery
This is represented below. It is balanced on a pivot at F. The light hollow brass ball, A, represents the sun, and pith balls, B and D, the earth and moon, rotating about the pivot E. The metallic poi...
-How To Paint Magic-Lantern Slides
(1) Use transparent colors, like Prussian blue, gamboge, and carmine. These will give the three primary colors, and by their mixture, the other tints. Apply with a brush, and a transparent drying varn...
-Determining Proportions Of Pipes
The instrument consists simply of a piece of wood shaped like a set-square, as shown in Fig. 1, or a diagram of the same form drawn on paper, and divided out along the two edges, which are at right an...
-How To Make Rifle -Telescope
Object-glass should be half an in. in diameter, focus 24 in., or as long as convenient. Eye piece may be a single lens of low power with cross spider lines fixed in its focus. The target will then app...
-Hard-Rubber Thermometers
This instrument has been made by riveting the rubber to a thin strip of steel, about a foot in length and 1/4 in. in width. The bottom of this was held fast, while the top was free to move, and so to ...
-Dyeing Woods
All light woods may be died by immersion. A fine crimson is made as follows: Take 1 lb. ground Brazil, boil in 3 quarts of water, add 1/2 oz. cochineal, and boil another half hour; may be improved by ...
-How To Color Orange Yellow Oak
Rub the wood with a mixture of tallow 3 ozs, wax 3/4 oz., and turpentine 1 pint, mixed by heat ing together and stirring. Apply in a warm room until a dull polish is acquired. Then coat, after an hour...
-A Liquid Wood
Sawdust can be converted into a liquid wood, and afterward into a solid, flexible, and almost indestructible mass, which, when incorporated with animal matter, rolled, and dried, can be used for the m...
-Stuffing Birds
The following tools are required (see Fig. 1). -First, there is the scalpel. This can be purchased for a small sum from any maker of surgeon's instruments. The blade is short and very sharp, while the...
-How To Mount And Preserve Fish
It is impossible to preserve the iridescent tints of the living specimens; but before proceeding to the operation of skinning, it may be stated that the scales, as well as their color, may be preserve...
-Preserving Specimens Of Sea-Weed
The best time to collect is when the tide has just commenced to flow, after the lowest ebb, as the sea weeds are then floated in, in good condition. All specimens should be either red, green, purple, ...
-Stuffing Small Quadrupeds
Begin by making a Longitudinal incision between the hind legs, extending quite back to the vent, the hair having been carefully parted so that it may not be cut. Do not cut into the abdominal cavity. ...
-Balloon Varnishes
Mr. John Wise, the well-known aeronaut, says: There are two ways of preparing linseed-oil for balloon varnish: the quick and the slow process. The first is by heating the oil up to a temperature at w...
-Care Of Varnishing Brushes
A good way to keep brushes is to suspend them by the handles in a covered can, keeping the points at least half an inch from the bottom, and apart from each other. The can should be filled with slowly...
-Naturally Transparent Colors
These are terra de sienna, asphaltum, dragon's blood, carmine, rose-pink, chemical brown, all the lakes, gamboge, and all the gums. Semi-transparent: umber, Vandyke brown, chrome red, emerald green, B...
-Painting Iron Surfaces
In mixing paints for iron surfacee, it is of the first importance that the best materials only be used. Linseed-oil is the best medium, when free from admixture with turpentine. A volatile oil, like t...
-Deep Golden Lacquer
Seed-lac 3 oz., turmeric 1 oz., dragon's blood 1/4 oz., alcohol 1 pt. Digest for a week, frequently shaking. Decant and filter. Golden: Ground turmeric 1 lb., gamboge 1-1/2 ozs., gum-sandarac 3-1/2lbs...
-Camera Lucida
This is probably the most reliable optical device employed for copying. The principle of its construction will be understood in the diagram marked 2 in the engraving. The glass is simply a four-sided ...
-Inflecting Drawing-Board
A flat board is provided, with two uprights, both of which, with the board, are grooved to hold a pane of glass in a perpendicular position. The drawing to be copied is secured to the board on the lef...
-Colors Used In Mechanical Drawing
The annexed table shows different materials, and the colors used to denote them: Fig. 2.-A Simple Camera Lucida Cast-iron, ... Paine's gray and a little Indian ink. (another ...
-The Pantagraph
This consists of four rulers, jointed together at their intersections, and having, at two of the angles, supports terminating in round points or smoothly-running casters. At one of the other angles is...
-Perspective Ruler
This is a simple arrangement for drawing lines in correct perspective. It consists in three arms of equal length pivoted together at one end by a screw-clamp. Two pins are inserted in the drawing-hoar...
-Sketching-Frames
A square frame is hinged to the top of an ordinary drawing lap-board, so that it will stand in an upright position (as in Fig. 1). Across this is stretched a number of threads or wires at equal distan...
-Transparent Tracing-Table
This, as shown in the illustration, consists of a square-bottomed bos, the tops of the sides of which are inclined like those of a writing-desk. The back is open, and, as the apparatus rests on the ta...
-Softening Electro-Magnets
Magnets or armatures for electro motors May be softened as follows: Heat the iron to an even dull-red heat all over; and if the surface of the iron has not been faced off in a machine, lightly file it...
-Cleansing Metals For Electro-Plating
Most articles are rapidly cleaned by chemical means. The first of these is the removal of grease by boiling in a solution of caustic soda, made by boiling 2 lbs. of common washing-soda and 1/2 lb. qui...
-Electro-Plating With Silver On Iron
The direct way: The article should first be rendered free from rust by rubbing with emery-cloth, or by dipping it into a pickle composed of sulphuric acid 2 ozs., hydrochloric acid 1 /.., wate...
-Magnetization Of Steel
If a properly-tempered steel needle be introduced into a magnetizing bobbin connected with a battery of constant current, battery and bobbin comprising the circuit, it acquires a total determined magn...
-Useful Chemical Recipes For Detection Of Adulterations, Filtering, Ink-Making, Etc
Beer, To prevent, from turning sour while on draft.-A slate cistern is made, having a wooden lid, fitting accurately, floating on the surface of the liquid. The sides of the lid are beveled, so that a...
-Testing Dyes For Adulteration
Red dyes must neither color soap-and water nor lime-water, nor must they themselves become yellow or brown after boiling. This test shows the presence or absence of Brazil-wood, archil, safflower, san...
-A Simple Filter
The engraving represents a very good filtering apparatus. The best material for the box would be soapstone; the next best material, iron. Mott's cast-iron tank-plates come of a convenient size-18 x 18...
-How To Make Charcoal Filters
One method consists in pulverizing animal charcoal until reduced to an impalpable powder. This is mixed with a definite proportion of Norway tar and a compound of other combustible substances. The com...
-Indeligible Ink For Marking Linen
(1) Bichloride of copper, 8-1/2 grains, dissolved in distilled water, 30 grains; then add common salt, 10 grains, and liquid ammonia, 9-1/2 grains. A solution of 30 grains hydrochlorate of aniline in ...
-Aniline Inks
Violet ink is obtained by dissolving one part of aniline violet-blue in 300 parts of water. This ink is quite limpid, dries quickly, and gives a remarkably dark color. It is necessary that new pens sh...
-Sympathetic Inks
Yellows (1): Sulphate of copper and salammoniac, equal parts, dissolved in water; (2) onion-juice; both visible on heating Black (1): Weak infusion of galls. This is turned black by weak solution of p...
-Bleaching Ivory And Bones
Spirit of turpentine is very efficacious in removing the disagreeable odor and fatty emanations of bones or ivory, while it leaves them beautifully bleached. The articles should be exposed in the flui...
-Refining Cotton-Seed Oil
One hundred gallons of the crude oil are placed in a tank, and 3 gallons of caustic potash-lye, of 45 Baume, are gradually added and well stirred for several hours; or the same quantity of oil is...
-On, , Sperm, To Prevent Gumming
It may be purified by agitating 100 parts oil with 1 parts chloride of lime and 12 water; a small quantity of decoction of oak hark is afterward added to remove; all traces of gelatinous matter which ...
-Test For Illuminating Petroleum
Fill a tumbler full of water at 110 Fahr. Stir in a tablespoonful of the oil to be tested, and leave until the oil reaches about the same temperature. Pass a lighted match over the oil as it floa...
-Solubility Of Resins
Copal, amber, dammar, colophony, lac (or shellac), elemi, sandarac, mastic, and carnauba wax (a resin) have been experimented upon. Amber, shellac, elemi, sandarac, and mastic swell up and increase in...
-Preserving Brickwork
To exclude dampness, use the following: 3/4 lb. mottled soap is dissolved in 1 gall, boiling water, and the hot solution spread steadily with a flat brush over the outer surface of the brickwork, care...
-Causes Of Smoky Chimneys
Want of sufficient height in the flue. The outlet of the chimney being placed in an exposed and cold situation, while the air with which the fire is supplied is drawn from a warmer and more sheltered ...
-How To Build A Cheap Greenhouse
Mr. Peter Henderson says the ordinary span-roof is best. The walls are 4 ft. high, formed of locust or cedar posts. To the outside of these are nailed boards-rough hemlock will do, if appearances are ...
-How To Build An Ice-House
A house 12 ft. square by 8 or 9 ft. high is large enough for a good-sized family. It may be a frame building, entirely above the surface of the ground, and better if supported on posts, elevated a few...
-Valuable Hints Concerning Lightning-Rods
Feather-beds are not a protection from lightning. The human body is a better conductor of electricity than feather-beds or other objects ordinarily contained in the apartments of dwellings, and theref...
-How To Make Mortar
The lime ought to be pure, completely free from carbonic acid, and in the state of a very fine powder; the sand should be free from clay, partly in the state of fine sand and partly gravel; the water ...
-Farmyard Pavement
Make a concrete of gravel or sand and Portland cement; or easier, of gravel, sand, coal-ashes, and coal-tar. Dig away the earth for 5 in., lay a bottom of pebbles as large as goose-eggs, ramming well ...
-How To Build Corduroy Roads
First lay all small poles or brush transversely and across the road. Next take long trees-the smallest ends being at least 10 inches diameter-and place them longitudinally across the poles, in two row...
-Portland Cement And Tar Roofing
The inclination of the framework of the roof (which must have an even surface) should be at the rate of from 1/2 to3/4 inch per foot. The rafters or joists should not be more than 2 feet 3 inches apar...
-Roofing Zinc
Permit perfect freedom to the sheets. Confine them nowhere, and separate lengths of guttering, and any other portions of a roof requiring to be made in long pieces, as much as possible. Eaves-gutters ...
-How To Prevent Decay Of Shingles
Put into a large tub 1 barrel of wood-ashes lye, 5 pounds white vitriol, 5 pounds alum, and as much salt as will dissolve in the mixture. Make the liquor quite warm, and put in as many shingles at a t...
-Cheap And Good Smoke-House
For 50 hams, make dimensions 7x8 feet. Dig all the ground out to below the frost line, and fill up to the surface with small stones. On this lay a brick floor with lime mortar. Walls of brick, 8 inche...
-Building Stables
Bricks, built in hollow walls, are better than any other material. Commence with a stone foundation-the bottom course of which is broader than the stone-work above it-laid in half cement mortar up to ...
-How To Put Up Water-Closet
The engraving represents sectional views of the water-closet in the upper floor of a two-story house. A A is the level of the surface of the ground at the back court and of the kitchen floor. B is a 6...
-A Good Water-Gate
This is an excellent device for fencing purposes over small streams. A gate, sliding in upright ways at the ends, like an old turnpike gate, has attached to the bottom board (a scantling is better, as...
-How To Build Windmill
Windmills can be either horizontal or vertical, but the latter are almost exclusively employed. In the vertical windmill, the shaft is inclined to the horizon at an angle of from 5 to 15 when the...
-Philadelphia Butter
The pans containing milk to the depth OF 3 inches are set in flowing water, so as to be maintained at a temperature of about 58 Fahr. After standing 24 hours, the milk is skimmed, and the cream put in...
-Care Of Cows
Milk coming from ill-nourished, half-fed cows, having no surplus of food beyond minimum requirements of nature, is injurious, and may be a source of disease. Cows deprived of an abundance of good wate...
-How To Insure Good Milk
The following questions Mr. X. A. Willard, a well-known dairy authority, recommends to be written out and posted about the dairy: Do your cows feed in swamps and on boggy lands? Have you good, sweet...
-How To Kill Bee Moths
Bee moths can easily be killed in large numbers by setting a pan of grease, in which is a floating ignited wick, near the hives after dark. The moths will fly into the light, and fall into the grease....
-Remedy For Caterpillars
A solution (1 part in 500) of sulphide of potassium, sprinkled on the tree by means of a hand-syringe, is extensively used in France. Celery, Propagation of. -A deep trench should first be dug, at th...
-Value Of Road Dust
During a dry season, every country resident should secure several barrels of road-dust. Those who keep poultry may secure by its use a valuable fertilizer, nearly as strong as guano, with none of its ...
-How To Utilize Fallen Leaves
These should be carefully gathered, as they are excellent to mix with hot-bed material. They do not heat so rapidly as stable-manure, and in this have an advantage, as tempering the violence makes man...
-Cutting And Storing Grafts
There is no better time to cut grafts, than at the commencement of winter. In cutting and packing them away, let them be labeled. For this purpose they should be tied up in bunches, not over 2 or 3 in...
-Grassing A Slope
A steep slope may be grassed over without sodding by first smoothing the surface and then mixing a tough paste or mortar of clay, loam, and horse-manure, with sufficient water. The grass seed, which s...
-Spontaneous Combustion Of Hay
Hay, when piled damp and in too large masses, ferments and turns dark. In decomposing, sufficient heat is developed to be insupportable when the hand is thrust into the mass, and vapors begin to be em...
-Hints For Buying Horses
Examine the eyes in the stable, then in the light; if they are in any degree defective, reject. Examine the teeth to determine the age. Examine the poll or crown of the head, and the withers, or top o...
-How To Keep Ice
Select a shady spot, on the north side, if possible, of a clump of trees. Throw up a circular mound, some 12 in. in height and at least 15 ft. in diameter, flattening the summit carefully, and leaving...
-How To Discover Insects On Plants
If the leaves of the plant seem reddish or yellow, or if they curl up, a close inspection will generally disclose that the plants are infested by a very small green insect, or else with red spider, ei...
-Salt As Manure
Salt should never be applied other than in a pulverous State, and never employed on impervious, cold, and humid soils. The best manner to use it is to combine it with other manures, a dose of 2 cut. t...
-Draft Of Mowing Machines
The power required to drive a mowing machine at work may be resolved into direct draft and side draft. A good mowing machine should be so balanced between the driving wheels and the cutter bar, by pla...
-Facts Concerning Peat
When saturated with salt water, peat is generally unfit for heating purposes. The fine, clay-like powder found underlying peat-beds, of a yellowish white color, is composed of shields of infusorial an...
-Iron And Ashes For Plants
White flowers, or roses, that have petals nearly white, will be greatly improved in brilliancy by providing iron sand and unleached ashes for the roots of growing plants. Ferruginous material may be a...
-Potting Plants
The mould for potting should be light and loamy, the fertilizing material used being well decayed. If the soil is rich of itself, it is better to be either very sparing with the fertilizer or to dispe...
-Selecting Plants
Choose those whose leaves are of a deep green, and in all cases those which are short and bushy, and have no bloom upon them. If, however, they are in bloom, cut off the flowers before planting, which...
-Treating Unhealthy Plants
Mr. Peter Henderson, the celebrated horticulturist, says: Whenever plants begin to drop their leaves, it is certain that their health has been injured either by over-potting, over-watering, over-heati...
-Storing Potatoes
A plan, tested successfully for eight years, is to sprinkle the floor with fine unslaked lime, over which a layer of potatoes 4 or 5 inches in depth is spread. Then sprinkle again with lime, and add a...
-Purifying Poultry-Houses
Lime is an excellent purifier, and, when carbolic acid is added to the whitewash, will effectually keep away vermin from the walls. After every cleaning of the floor it should be sprinkled with carbol...
-Pruning Trees
The proper cut is called the clean cut, and is made by cutting at an angle of 45 , beginning at the hack of the bud, and finishing slightly above it. When pruned in this way the wound readily and r...
-How To Exterminate Red Spiders
Syringe the plants freely with water once or twice a day, taking care to wet the under side of the leaves. Keep the air of the room moist, by setting pans of water on the flues, heating-pipes, or regi...
-Spawn-Carrying Device
The apparatus represented herewith is a new invention of Mr. Seth Green. It consists of a simple wooden box, of a convenient size to be carried in the hand by means of the handle above. Its joints are...
-Stumps. Clearing Off
In the autumn, bore a hole 1 to 2 inches in diameter, according to the girth of the stump, vertically in the centre of the latter, and about 18 inches deep. Put into it from 1 to 2 ozs. saltpetre; til...
-Cultivation And Preparation Of Sumac
Sumac is largely used in tanning the liner kinds of leather, especially in the manufacture of the hard-grained moroccos and similar goods. It is also employed as the base of many colors in calico and ...
-How To Determine The Height Of Waterfall In A Running Stream
A small temporary dam, unless one exists, must be made, so as to secure a still surface. Take two poles, sufficiently long to reach from the bottom of the water to the required line-level. Make a plai...
-How To Make And Stock An Aquarium
One of the first principles, in constructing a tank for an aquarium, is to give the water the greatest possible exposure to the air. The simple rectangular form is the best. This is generally construc...
-Boot Jelly And Shirt Coffee
Some time ago, Dr. Vander Weyde, of New-York City, regaled some friends not merely with boot jelly, but with shirt coffee, and the repast was pronounced by all partakers excellent. The doctor tells us...
-Remedy For Burns
White lead rubbed to a paste in linseed-oil. Another good remedy is as follows: Take the best white glue (extra), 15 ozs.; break it into small pieces, add to it 2 pints cold water, and allow it to bec...
-How To Make Paper Caps
Provide a sheet of moderately thick brown paper, size from 18 inches to 2 feet, shape as in Fig. 1. Smooth it out perfectly flat, and double over as in Fig. 2. Turn it round with the fold from you, an...
-Utilizing Chicken Feathers
Cut the plume portions of the feathers from the stem, by means of ordinary hand-scissors. The former are placed in quantities in a coarse bag, which, when full, is closed and subjected to a thorough k...
-Prevention Of Burning Chimneys
The soot in the chimney can not burn, except as the fire of the stove is communicated to it through the pipe. If the pipe, therefore, be kept clean and free from soot, and the damper in the stove alwa...
-Care Of China And Glass Wake
One of the most important things is to season glass and china to sudden change of temperature, so that they will remain sound after exposure to sudden heat and cold. This is best done by placing the a...
-Protective Power Of Clothes
Clothes protect the body, by allowing through their interstices such ventilation that the nervous system may not be sensible to extremes in changes of temperature. Dr. Pettenkofer states that equal su...
-Preserving Flowers
The flowers must be carefully surrounded by perfectly dry, fine sand, in such a manner that they will hold their form, the pressure of the Band upon all surfaces being alike. Any line clean sand will ...
-Precautions In Case Of Fire
Keep all doors and windows of the structure closed until the firemen come; put a wet cloth over the mouth and get down on all fours in a smoky room; open the upper part of the window to get the smoke ...
-Drapers, Tailors, Makers Up And Vendors Of Male, And Female Attire
Working late, being tired and falling asleep, or becoming careless too near fires and lights. Unprotected and swinging gasbrackets. Crinolines coming in contact with fire in open fire-places. Light, p...
-Treatment Of Gold Fish
Seth Green says this as to the proper care and treatment of gold-fish: Never take the fish in your hand. If the aquarium needs cleaning, make a net of mosquito-netting and take the fish out in it. Th...
-How To Wash Flannels
Take soft water, as warm as you can bear your hands in. Make a strong suds, well blued. In washing fine flannels, wet but one piece at a time; soap the dirty spots and rub with the hands, as washboard...
-How To Detect Gas Escaping
To find the leak, first see that no burners have been left accidentally turned on. This is often the case where the cock has no stop, and is caused by the cock being partially turned around again so a...
-Average Prices Of Gas-Light, In The United States
Maine, $3.87. New-Hampshire, $3.96. Vermont, $4.80. Massachusetts, $3.86. Rhode-Island. $3.35. Connecticut, $4.03. New-York, $3.88. New-Jersey, $3.80. Pennsylvania, $3.4(1. Delaware, $3.95. Maryland, ...
-A Cheap Incubator
One of the easiest constructed forms of incubator for the artificial hatching of eggs consists simply of a cask well buried in a manure-heap. In the bottom of the cask place one or two sieves to hold ...
-Preventives Of Lead-Colic
If working in lead, wasb the hands several times a day in a strong decoction of oak bark. Keep the Lair short, and (if a painter) wear a clean cloth cap. The clothes should be frequently washed, and ...
-How To Make Leaf And Flower Impressions
Take a small quantity of printer's ink, thinly put it on glass, evenly distribute ed. The end of the index-finger will serve as the printer's ball, to cover one side of the leaf uniformly; then lay it...
-How To Clean Marble
Common soda, 2 parts; pumice-stone (pulverized), 1; finely powdered chalk, 1. Sift through a fine sieve, and mix with water. Rub all over the marble until the stains are removed. Then wash the stone w...
-Moss Ornaments
A beautiful orrament for the sitting-room can be made by covering a common glass tumbler with moss, the latter fastened in place by sewing-cotton wound around. Then glue dried moss upon a saucer, into...
-Papering Walls
Papering and painting are best done in cold weather, especially the latter, for the wood absorbs the oil of paint much more than in warm weather; while in cold weather the oil hardens on the outside, ...
-A Housetop Or Window Plant-Case
A fernery or plant-case might he arranged to run the whole length of the front windows of a story, and be heated by a small boiler placed behind a fireplace. From this a 2- inch flow and return pipe i...
-Management Of Wardian Plant-Cases
The following principles are those upon which a fern-case should be constructed: 1. Have no apparatus or arrangement for drainage. 2. Make your case as air-tight as possible, allowing for no ventilati...
-How To Remove Ring When Tight On The Finger
In case a finger-ring- becomes too tight to pass the joint of the finger, the finger should first be held in cold water to reduce any swelling or inflammation. Then wrap a rag soaked in hot water arou...
-How To Catch N Rats
Cover a common barrel with stiff paper, tying the edge around the barrel. Place a board so that the rats can have easy access to the top. Sprinkle cheese or other bait on the paper, and allow the rats...
-How To Make Razor-Strop
Select a piece of satin, maple, or rose wood, 12 inches long, 1-3/4 inches wide, and 3/8 inch thick; allow 3-1/2 inches for Length of handle. Half an inch from where the handle begins, notch out the ...
-Cure For Sleeplessness
Mr. Frank Buckland says: If I am much pressed with work, and feel I shall not sleep, I eat two or three small onions, and the effect is magical. Onions are also excellent things to eat when much expo...
-Spatter-Work Pictures
These are delicate designs in white appearing upon a softly-shaded ground. Procure a sheet of fine uncalendered drawing-paper, and arrange thereon a bouquet of pressed leaves, trailing vines, letters,...
-How To Thaw Frozen Sink-Spouts
Place one end of a piece of lead pipe against the ice to be thawed, and then through a funnel in the upper end pour boiling water. Keep the pipe constantly against the ice, and a foot or more per minu...
-Home-Made Soap
Soap-making is not an easy process; sometimes the ashes are poor, or the right proportions of lye and grease are not used; at other times the soap appears to be good when put up, but changes entirely ...
-How To Wash Vegetables
Vegetables should never be washed until immediately before prepared for the table. Lettuce is made almost worthless in flavor by dipping it in water some hours before it is served. Potatoes suffer eve...
-Washing-Blue
Twenty lbs. white potato starch, 20 lbs. wheat starch, 20 lbs. Prussian blue, 2 lbs. indigo carmine, and 2 lbs. finely-ground gum-arabic are mixed in a trough, with the gradual addition of sufficient ...
-Compressed Yeast
Previously malted barley and rye are ground up and mixed, next put into water at a temperature of 65 to 75; after a few hours the saccharine liquid is decanted from the dregs, and the clear liquid bro...
-Vienna Yeast
Vienna bread and Vienna beer are said to be the best in the world. Both owe their superiority to the yeast used, which is prepared in the following manner: Indian corn, barley, and rye (all sprouting)...
-How To Cast Chilled Cast-Iron Tools For Cutting Chilled Iron - How To Temper Taps Without Springing
How To Cast Chilled Cast-Iron Tools For Cutting Chilled Iron Make a tool of the required shape out of wrought iron, then cast the chilled part, using charcoal-iron No. 5. How To Prevent Cutters And ...
-Annealing Iron And Steel - Connecting-Rod Straps
Annealing Iron And Steel Save the scales from the forge (oxide of iron) for this purpose. Tempering Anvils This can be done by simply heating the anvil and immersing it in a tank of cold water to a...
-Connecting-Rod Straps To Refitting Rods - How To Prevent Cracking Of Metals While Hardening
Connecting-Rod Straps To Refitting Rods Place the gib and key in the strap to prevent it from warping, and heat the crown end of the strap to a bright red; on taking it from the fire, remove the scal...
-How To Harden Cast Iron - Thickness Of Liners
How To Harden Cast Iron In 3 gallons of clean water, mix .1/2 pint oil of vitriol and 2 ozs. saltpetre. Heat the iron to a cherry red, and dip as usual. Cast Iron, Mixture For Cast-Iron Cylinders, R...
-How To Drive Nails Into Hard Wood - Sands And Facings For Castings
How To Drive Nails Into Hard Wood Dip in grease to assist penetration. How To Ease Tight Nuts To ease a nut that is a little too tight upon a bolt, place it upon the bolt, and, resting it upon an i...
-Small Saw-Blades - How To Demagnetize Steel
Small Saw-Blades Mechanics who want small gig saw blades will find that the steel springs of which hoopskirts are formed will make capital ones of any Lengths; and they vary in width, so as to be sui...
-How To Remove Blue Color From Steel - Effect Of Steam On Lead
How To Remove Blue Color From Steel (1) Use 1 part oil of vitriol to 10 parts water. (2) Dip the articles in a strong solution of cyanide of potassium nearly boiling. (3) Dip the article in hydrochlo...
-Burst Steam Pipes - How To Find The Angle Of Bevel Of Valve
Burst Steam Pipes Steam-pipes which have cracks in them from having burst, maybe repaired by heating and then soldering them. Condensation In Subterranean Steam Pipes To prevent this, inclose the p...
-Eel-Skin Belt-Lacing - Balancing Pulleys
Eel-Skin Belt-Lacing A mill-owner says: Eel-skins make the best possible strings for lacing belts. One lace will outlast any belt, and will stand wear and bard usage where books or any other fasteni...
-Rawhide Boxes For Machinery - How To Extract Silver From Old Alloys
Rawhide Boxes For Machinery A practical machinist says: I have run a piece of machinery in rawhide boxes for fourteen years without oil; it is good yet, and runs at 4500 per minute. I put it in whi...
-Aluminum Silver - Japanese Bronze
Aluminum Silver The following alloy is distinguished by its beautiful color, and takes a high polish: Copper 70, nickel 23, aluminum 7, total 100. Babbitt Metal There are a large number of recipes ...
-Strength Of Chain - Determining Presence Of Lead In Tin Vessels
Strength Of Chain To ascertain the strength of short-linked chains: (1) Multiply the square of the diameter (reckoned in six-teenths of an inch) by .035; the product will be the weight the chain will...
-How To Restore The Lustre Of Jewelry - How To Regain Silver From Broken Black-Lead Crucibles
How To Restore The Lustre Of Jewelry Take 1 oz. cyanide potassium and dissolve in 3 gills water. Attach the article to be cleansed to a wire hook, immerse and shake in the solution for a second or tw...
-Soldering Liquid - Removing Tin From Copper Vessels
Soldering Liquid Into hydrochloric acid place as much scrap-zinc as it will dissolve, still leaving a sponge of zinc. Use the mixture for soldering brass-work. To solder cast or wrought iron, add sal...
-Removing Tin From Plates Without Acid - Thermometers
Removing Tin From Plates Without Acid Boil the scrap-tin with soda lye in presence of litharge. Welding Powders For Iron And Steel (1) Iron filings 1000 parts, borax 500, balsam copaiva, or other r...
-Artificial Ebony - Preserving Wood
Artificial Ebony Treat sea-weed for 2 hours in dilute sulphuric acid. Of the charcoal thus obtained take 16 parts; dry, and grind it. Add Liquid glue 10 parts, gutta-percha 5, india-rub 2-1/2, the la...
-Preservative Preparation For Wood - Black And Flexible Japan
Preservative Preparation For Wood Mix 40 parts chalk, 50 resin, 4 linseed-oil, melting them together in an iron pot; then add 1 part of native oxide of copper, and afterward 1 part of sulphuric acid....
-Painting Machinery - Old Putty, In Sashes, To Soften
Painting Machinery The following colors contrast handsomely: 1. Black and warm brown. 2. Violet and pale green. 3. Violet and light rose-color. 4. Deep blue and golden brown. 5. Chocolate and bright ...
-Cheap Gold Varnish - Tracing Paper, That Can Be Washed
Cheap Gold Varnish The following is a cheap substitute for the expensive gold varnish used on ornamental tinware. Turpentine 1/2 gallon, asphaltum 1/2 gill, yellow aniline 2 ozs., umber 4 ozs., turpe...
-Battery Carbons - Substitutes For Rubber Insulators
Battery Carbons These can be readily cut with a hand-saw moistened in water. Substitute For Copper In Daniell's Battery Brighten sheets of ordinary sheet-tin and plunge into a very weak copper-plat...
-Electro-Plating Pewter - Purification Of Glycerine
Electro-Plating Pewter Take 1 ounce nitric acid, and drop pieces of copper in it until effervescence ceases; then add 1/2 ounce water, and the solution is ready for use. Place a few drops of the solu...
-Testing Glycerine - How To Make Brilliant White Light
Testing Glycerine When treated slowly with sulphuric acid, it should not turn brown; with nitric acid and nitrate of silver, it should not become cloudy; and when rubbed between the fingers it should...
-Mica - Preventing Effects Of Smoky Chimneys
Mica The best comes from the Eastern States. New-York mica is good. Canada mica is of several different shades, from light brown to intensely black. Extraction Of Odoriferous Oils From Plants This ...
-Building Cistern - Strength Of Timber
Building Cistern One thing is essential, and is very ge-nerally neglected. It is to have the water as it comes into the cistern conducted to the bottom. In this way, the water is entirely changed whe...
-How To Test The Soundness Of Timber - Ventilation Of Cow-Stables
How To Test The Soundness Of Timber Apply the ear to the middle of one of the ends, while another person strikes upon the opposite extremity. If the wood is sound and of good quality, the blow is ver...
-Poisonous Sour Milk - How To Fatten Chickens
Poisonous Sour Milk Sour milk, after protracted exposure to the sun. develops a poisonous quality, sufficient to cause disease and death to pigs fed thereon. Setting Milk Place the pans in cold wat...
-How To Destroy Chinch-Bugs - A Cheap Fertilizer
How To Destroy Chinch-Bugs Put old pieces of rag or carpet in the crotches of the trees attacked. When the worms spin, as they will, in the rags, throw the latter in scalding water. The bugs can thus...
-How To Preserve From Decay Fish-Net - Oiling Harness
How To Preserve From Decay Fish-Net Steep in melted paraffine. Fattening Fowls It is said that charcoal will fatten fowls, and at the same time give the meat improved tenderness and flavor. Pulveri...
-Working Team Harness - Manure
Working Team Harness Do not use martingales on working teams. See that the hames are buckled tight enough at the top to bring the draft-iron near the centre of the collar. If too low, it not only int...
-How To Destroy Moss On Trees - Hoeing Potatoes
How To Destroy Moss On Trees Use a whitewash of quicklime and wood-ashes. How To Transplant Onions Plant them tightly in the soil, with the leaves pointing to the north. When thus placed, after the...
-Poisonous Potato Sprouts - Mordants For Dyeing With Sumac
Poisonous Potato Sprouts The sprouts of the potato contain an alkaloid, termed by chemists solanine, which is very poisonous if taken into the system. It does not exist in the tubers unless they are ...
-Paint For Tools - Remedy For Currant And Gooseberry Worms
Paint For Tools White lead ground in oil, mingled with Prussian blue, similarly prepared, to give the proper shade, and finally mixed with a little carriage-varnish, is an excellent and durable paint...
-How To Drive Away Red Ants - How To Prevent Breakage In Packing Bottles
How To Drive Away Red Ants Sprigs of wintergreen or ground ivy will drive away red ants; branches of wormwood will serve the same purpose for black ants. The insects may be kept out of sugar-barrels ...
-How To Purify Rancid Butter - Determination Of Chicory, In Ground Coffee
How To Purify Rancid Butter Melt in twice its weight of boil. ing water and shake well. Pour the melted butter into ice-water, to regain its consistence. Another: Wash in good new milk, in which the ...
-Smoky Stove Or Range Chimneys - How To Can Green Corn
Smoky Stove Or Range Chimneys To prevent smoking, use a screen or blower of fine wire gauze, from 36 to 40 wires to the inch, immediately in front of the fire and about two inches therefrom. Cure Fo...
-Stuffing Cushions - How To Clean Porous Earthenware
Stuffing Cushions Flaxseed and tallow are used in Germany as a stuffing for cushions. One part of tallow to 10 parts of flaxseed are employed, the mobility of the greased seed rendering the cushion v...
-How To Preserve Eggs - Ornaments Made Of Ferns
How To Preserve Eggs Mix together in a tub or vessel 1 bushel of quicklime, 32 ozs. of salt, 8 ozs. cream of tartar, with as much water as will reduce the composition to a sufficient consistence to f...
-Curriers And Workers In Leather - How To Break In Any Required Form Glass
Curriers And Workers In Leather Lime slaked by rain. Sparks from foal flues and furnaces passing through opening and projecting eaves of drying-rooms. Friction of machinery in bark-mills. Timber, coa...
-How To Cut Glass Jars - Fitting Keys
How To Cut Glass Jars Fill The Jar With Lard-Oil To Where You Want To Cut The Jar; Then Heat An Iron Rod Or Bar To Red Heat, Immerse It In The Oil; The Unequal Expansion Will Check The Jar All Round ...
-How To Fasten Kerosene Lamp-Burners - Temporary Newspaper Binder
How To Fasten Kerosene Lamp-Burners Plaster of Paris mixed with resin soap is a good cement for this purpose. How To Water-Proof Leather Saturate with castor-oil. This is excellent for winter boots...
-Cleaning Oil- Cloths - A Superior Flour Paste
Cleaning Oil- Cloths These should not be washed with soap. A coat of good copal varnish at long intervals improves them. Oil-cloths should never be scrubbed. Wipe with a wet c loth, after brushing wi...
-Petroleum Barrels - Paper For Sharpening Razors
Petroleum Barrels These should not be used to store food or drink in. They are poisonous even after being cleaned. Potting Plants Those who find their efforts to raise house-plants frustrated by wo...
-How To Preserve Smoked Meat - Glossing Shirt-Bosoms
How To Preserve Smoked Meat The keeping qualities of smoked meat do not depend upon the amount of smoking, but upon the uniform and proper drying of the meat. It is of considerable advantage also to ...
-Bronzing Shoes - Scouring Tin
Bronzing Shoes Black shoes may be bronzed by a Strong solution of aniline red in alcohol. Black Varnish For Shoes Take 10 parts, by weight, of shellac, and 5 of turpentine. Dissolve in 40 parts alc...
-How To Prevent Shrinking Of Tubs And Pails - How To Raise Water-Lilies
How To Prevent Shrinking Of Tubs And Pails Saturate with glycerine. How To Make Vinegar From Molasses Vinegar may he made by mixing 16 parts pure water, 1 part syrup of molasses, and 1 part baker's...
-Scientific American Books
Joshua Rose, Consulting Engineer And Mechanical Expert. Extra Highly Fitted And Finished Work A Specialty. Special Tools, Machines Appliances Made To Order. New Manufactories Put into ...
-The Scientific American
For 1877. The Most Popular Scientific Paper in the World, Only $3.20 a year, including Po:tage. Sencl 10 cents for Specimen copy. The Scientific American, now in its 32st year, enjoys the widest C...









TOP
previous page: Scientific American Supplement Volumes 810, 819, 821, 822, 829, 832, 841, 1082, 1157 and 1178
  
page up: Scientific American Journalno next page