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Scientific American Vol XXXVI. No. 8. February 24, 1877



Vol XXXVI. No. 8. February 24, 1877. A weekly journal of practical information, art, science, mechanics, chemistry, and manufactures.

TitleScientific American Vol XXXVI. No. 8. February 24, 1877
AuthorMunn & Co.
PublisherMunn & Co.
Year1877
Copyright1877, Munn & Co.
AmazonScientific American Science Desk Reference

Scientific American. A Weekly Journal Of Practical Information, Art, Science, Mechanics, Chemistry, And Manufactures. New York, February 24, 1877

Issue Title.

Vol XXXVI. No. 8 [New Series.]

$3.20 per Annum. [Postage Prepaid.]

Scientific American

Established 1845.

Munn & Co., Editors and Proprietors.

Published Weekly At No. 37 Park Row, New York.

O. D. Munn. A. E. Beach.

-Terms For The Scientific American
One copy, one year, postage included. $3.20 One copy, six months, postage included. 1.60 Clubs One extra copy of The Scientific American will be supplied gratis for every club of five...
-Publishers' Notice
New subscriptions to the Scientific American and the Scientific American Supplement will, for the present, be entered upon our books to commence with the year, and the back numbers will be sent to eac...
-Dates And The Date Palm
Even those whose knowledge of the customs of the Orient extends no further than a recollection of the contents of that time-honored story book, the Arabian Nights, are doubtless aware that, since ti...
-Panthers As Seed Distributors
It is well known that bees carry pollen from flower to flower, and that eggs of marine animals are often carried long distances in the stomachs of aquatic birds. A very curious instance of this kind, ...
-For Posterity - A Suggestion
The Irish gentleman who declined to aid an enterprise for the benefit of posterity, remarking that posterity had never done anything for him, was, after all the sport made of him, no unfair representa...
-The Lost Arts In New York
While the objects of ancient art contained in the Castellani collection, recently placed on exhibition in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in this city, are individually of great rarity and archo...
-The Blue Glass Deception
On September 26, 1871, General A.J. Pleasonton, of Philadelphia, Pa., obtained a patent for utilizing the natural light of the sun transmitted through clear glass, and the blue or electric(!) solar r...
-The Wetli Mountain Railroad And Its Disastrous Trial Trip
Among the various means proposed of late years for building lines of railroad on the steep slopes of mountains, that of M. Wetli, of Zurich, Switzerland, has attracted considerable attention from Euro...
-Leghorn Hens
If a man keeps Leghorns he must have no garden, or he must cover the top of his hen yards. That Leghorns are great layers and active hens, there can be no denying, but they are great flyers. We have b...
-Sawdust In Rough Casting
Siehr recommends very highly the use of sawdust in mortar as superior even to hair for the prevention of cracking and subsequent peeling off of rough casting under the action of storms and frost. His ...
-Suint For Waterproofing Fabrics
A German chemist has patented the waterproofing of finely woven fabrics, linen, cotton, etc., by means of suint composition. He adapts his method to securing the suint to wool-washing establishments a...
-Absence Of White Color In Animals
Some very curious physiological facts bearing upon the presence or absence of white colors in the higher animals have lately been adduced by Dr. Ogle. It has been found that a colored or dark pigment ...
-Improved Trolling Hook
Mr. Henry C. Brush, of Brush's Mills, N.Y., has patented through the Scientific American Patent Agency an improved troller, the novel feature in which consists in attaching a float to the shank of the...
-Purification Of Wool And Woolen Stuff
The process, patented some time ago, for the removal of straw, burrs, etc., from wool, by treatment with sulphuric acid, has been modified by Lisc as follows: The stuff is worked for one to two hours ...
-Caffeone
Caffeone, the aromatic principle of coffee, may be isolated by distilling 5 or 6 lbs. roasted coffee with water, agitating the aqueous distillate with ether, and afterwards evaporating the ether. It i...
-The Hemi-Plunger
The novel form of vessel, to which the above odd name has been given by its inventor, M. Donato Tommasi, of Paris, France, is a combination of a boat wholly submerged with a raft: a connecting link, t...
-Supreme Court Patent Decision
A United States patent was granted May 23, 1854, to John Myers and Robert G. Eunson for a wood-sawing machine for cutting boards into thin stuff for making picture frame and mirror backs. One of the p...
-Planing Mill Machinery
The planing machine, next to the saw, is perhaps the most important agent for the conversion and manipulation of wood in use; and before proceeding to consider it, in its present form, says the author...
-Suicide Statistics
A curious and suggestive table of statistics has recently appeared in France, which will doubtless prove of much value in the hands of students of psychology and nervous mental ailments. It relates to...
-Communications. The Frost Plant Of Russia
To the Editor of the Scientific American: Mr. Charles Williams, of Winoa, Ohio, has written a letter to that veteran botanist, Humphrey Marshall, of Chester county, Pa., on the subject of the abovena...
-Patent Matters In Washington, D.C
To the Editor of the Scientific American: From the report of the Commissioner of Patents, just issued, it appears that its surplus revenue for the past year amounts to over one hundred and five thous...
-List Of Applicants For Extensions Of Patents Now Before Congress
- - Reynolds, power loom brake. Strong & Ross, scales. Wm. & W.H. Lewis, photographic plates. T.A. Weston, differential pulley. S.S. Hartshorn, buckles. H.A. Stone, making cheese. N. Wh...
-Tyrian Purple Ink For Marking Linen
Von Bele gives the following method for preparing an ink for marking linen and cotton: Neutralize 75 grains of carbonate of ammonia with pure nitric acid, and triturate 45 to 60 grains of carmine with...
-New York Academy Of Sciences
On Monday evening, January 29, 1877, a meeting of this Academy was held at the School of Mines, Columbia College, Dr. J.S. Newberry, President, in the chair. Mr. A.A. Julian, A.M., read a paper on the...
-Preparation Of Rock And Mineral Sections For Microscopic Study
The speaker described in detail the various operations, exhibited the different kinds of apparatus employed, showed the operations, and exhibited the finished sections. In some rocks a thin chip can b...
-Laboratory Manipulations
The points referred to were the apparently unimportant details which often contribute so much to the ease and pleasure of working. First, the use of square pieces of felt, such as are used under beer ...
-Annual Report Of The Patent Office
The annual report to Congress of the Commissioner of Patents, for the year 1876, has made its appearance. The amount received on applications for patents, reissues, designs, extensions, caveats, disc...
-The Iron Trade In England
The British Mercantile Gazette of January 15 states that the situation and prospects of the iron trade have not materially improved in the month of December, but some week or two must elapse yet befor...
-Improved Lathe Chuck
The annexed engravings represent a new lathe chuck, which may be constructed of any size, which holds tools with great firmness, and which is provided with an improved device for taking up wear and fo...
-Screw-Cutting Lathes
Screw-Cutting Lathes An English lathe, now in use at the Rogers Locomotive Works, Paterson, N.J., contains several novel features. The ways are flat on the faces, instead of having raised Vs; and t...
-Natural Ornaments In Winter
Now that the hedges are no longer green, and the trees stand black and bare on the landscape, is the time to seek for endless variety and beauty waiting to be admired in its turn. What miniature fairy...
-Improved Harness Cockeye
We illustrate herewith a very simple little device for attaching traces to the single tree. It forms a secure fastening which may be instantly attached, and which, by its construction, is prevented fr...
-Proposed Cremation Temple
Cremation, in this country at least, is not popular. For a time, it occupied here some public attention, but only in a sensational way; and the sober discussion of the subject, which followed after it...
-How To Rejuvenate An Old Rose Bush
Never give up a decaying rose bush till you have tried watering it two or three times a week with soot tea. Make the concoction with boiling water, from soot taken from the chimney or stove in which w...
-A Clock Collector
One of those odd geniuses, who spend their lives and means in collecting curious and rare articles, lately died. His name was Sylvester Bonaffon, a retired merchant of Philadelphia. His elaborate coll...
-Fertilizing Influence Of Snow
Snow is often called the poor man's manure; and if it is true that it has any manurial value, the farmer's prospects for the next season are certainly flattering. The body of snow upon the ground in...
-Action Of Sea Water On Lead
The Journal of the Chemical Society says that freshly cut strips of lead were kept in a bottle of sea water for four days, the bottle being frequently shaken. No trace of lead could be detected in the...
-Papin's Steam Engine
By Professor Charles A. Joy It is a matter of history that, as early as 1688, Denis Papin, Professor of Physics and Mathematics at the University of Marburg, proposed to substitute steam for powder i...
-The Speaking Telegraph
We have heretofore given accounts of the wonderful success of Professor Bell in transmitting the vibrations of the human voice by electrical means over a telegraph wire. He has lately made improvement...
-Crossing A River On A Wire
A reporter of the New York Sun wanted to realize the sensation of being suspended on a wire 275 feet from the surface of the earth. He applied to the engineer of the Brooklyn bridge for permission to ...
-Blue Glass Science
There is nothing more reassuring in these days, when new isms of the scientists are slowly sapping the foundations of cherished beliefs, than to remember that, after all, the much vaunted dicta of N...
-Infectious Disease Propagation
In view of the alarming prevalence of scarlet fever in many parts of the country, the following hints by the British Medical Journal are wholesome warnings: There are three common ways by means of wh...
-Toughened Glass Making In Brooklyn
A World reporter has lately visited the works in Brooklyn where the manufacture of the La Bastie toughened glass is now in active progress. The manufacturer states that, in June last, his factory was ...
-Alexander Bain, Electrician
This ingenious man, whose inventions in connection with the electric telegraph entitle his name to be held in grateful remembrance, died in January last at the new Home for Incurables at Broomhill, Ki...
-Self-Reliance Necessary To Success
Self-reliance, conjoined with promptitude in the execution of our undertakings, is indispensable to success. And yet multitudes live a life of vacillation and consequent failure, because they remain u...
-Something To Do
It is an old trick of despots, and a good one, to employ their subjects. Why? To keep them out of mischief, Employed men are most contented. There is no conspiracy. Men do not sit down and coolly proc...
-Moneyed Men
The Cleveland Herald said, twenty years ago, during a stringency of the times, that moneyed men are the veriest cravens on earth: so timid, that on the least alarm they pull their heads, turtle-like, ...
-New Books And Publications
Archology, Or The Science Of Government. By S.V. Blakeslee. Price $1.25. New York and San Francisco: A. Roman & Co. This book is a very metaphysical treatise on theories of government and the duties ...
-Recent American And Foreign Patents. New Agricultural Inventions. Improved Gang Plow
Ezra Peak, Montana, Kan This invention is so constructed that it may be easily raised from and lowered to the ground, and adjusted to work at any desired depth in the ground. It is claimed to be of l...
-Improved Plow
James Willis Hendley, Cedar Hill, N.C., assignor to David N. Bennett and Samuel T. Wright, of same place. - The objects here are simplicity and cheapness of construction, and such arrangement of parts...
-Improved Grain Drill
George W. Osborn, Parkville, Mich. - This is an improved attachment for seed drills, for gaging the depth at which the grain shall be deposited in the earth. It consists in an adjustable spring gage b...
-Improved Horse Hay Rake
Joseph B. Wakeman and John L. Wager, Deposit, N.Y. - The construction of this implement is such that a large space is afforded beneath the rake head for the collection of hay. The pivots of said rake ...
-Improved Bee Hive
George W. Akins, Bridgeton, Pa. - In this hive, holes are bored in the sides of the compartment for ventilation, and windows are flared for the purpose of inspecting the inside of the hive. A frame is...
-Improved Plow Stock
Robert Weber, New Ulm, Texas In this invention, by loosening a nut, the point of draft attachment may be raised and lowered to cause the plow to work deeper or shallower in the ground, or turned to o...
-Improved Combined Hay Tedder And Side Rake
John Huber And Henry Snell, Girard, ILL This machine may be used simply for stirring up and turning the hay, or for turning the hay and gathering it into windrows. The shaft of a reel revolves in bea...
-Improved Grubbing Machine
Ira Burley, Redwing, Minn This invention consists in the combination of wheels and axle, tongue, adjusting bar, adjustable brace, uprights, cross bar, two ropes, and four pulley blocks with each othe...
-Improved Seed Planter
Daniel J. Davis, Red Boiling Springs, Tenn. - In this invention two wheels revolve upon the journals of the axle. Upon the end parts of the axle are attached the rear ends of side bars, the forward en...
-Improved Animal Trap
Thomas N. Hughes, Muddy Creek, Tenn. - This trap is for animals of all kinds, as rats, mice, and larger animals, as foxes, minks, coons, etc., that are allured by bait, and is automatically set again ...
-New Miscellaneous Inventions. Apparatus For The Hydration Of Chlorine Gas
William Maynard, New York City This invention relates to an improved construction of apparatus for the hydration of gases, and more particularly chlorine gas for the manufacture of chlorine water for...
-Improved Process Of Preparing Gas Fuel
Martin N. Diall, Terre Haute, Ind. - This inventor saturates wood by immersing it in any hydrocarbon oil for from six to twelve hours, as required by the nature of the wood, so that it may take up the...
-Improved Fishing Line Leader
Welmer T. Jahne and Anthony Moors, Jersey City, N.J. - This consists of a leader made of spring wire, bent into V form, provided with a swivel and eye at its middle part, and with eyes or loops at its...
-Improved Abdominal Corset
Christina Lascell, Newark, N.J. - The object of this invention is to furnish an improved abdominal corset, which supports the weight of the abdomen in a perfectly comfortable and easy manner, and thro...
-Improved Fire Escape
John F. Werner, New York city. - The terrible disaster in the Brooklyn theater is serving as a stimulus to induce the invention of devices looking to the prevention of a like occurrence. The present i...
-Improved Electro-Magnetic Dental Plugger
James E. Dexter, New York city. - This invention consists, first, in a magnet having a centrally bored iron core, surrounded by a magnetic coil, which is enveloped by an iron shell that is concentric ...
-New Mechanical And Engineering Inventions. Improved Cotton Gin
Joseph W. Thorn, Iuka, Miss., assignor to himself and M.W. Beardsley, of same place. - In this machine there is a new construction of the brush drum for simplifying the same, and facilitating the appl...
-Improved Safety Check For Elevators
Nathan H. Fogg, Boston, Mass. - When the car is suspended normally from the rope, the rubber balls, arranged in sockets near the lower part of the car, are supported on their seats in a state of rest;...
-Improved Combination Lock
Achille Parise, Naples, Italy This is a new combination lock for doors, trunks, safes, etc., that admits of a large number of combinations, and may be opened and closed quickly. It consists of slidin...
-Improved Machine For Wiring And Binding Hats
Mari A. Cuming and Judson Knight, New York city. - This is a machine for binding hats, felt skirts, and similar articles, by a uniform and parallel pressure on the rims, and by facilitating the applyi...
-Business And Personal
The Charge for Insertion under this head is One Dollar a line for each insertion. If the Notice exceeds four lines, One Dollar and a Half per line will be charged. Manufs. of Scissors address J.W.D.E...
-Notes & Queries
S.J.S. will find good recipes for laundry soaps on pp. 331, 379, vol. 31. For toilet soaps, see p. 289, vol. 28. - B.F.T. will find directions for putting a black finish on brass on p. 362, vol. 25. -...
-Notes & Queries. Part 2
(6) A.J.S. asks: What is the best plan for putting up a cheap dry house of lumber, for drying (by steam) white oak, hickory, and other lumber used in wagon and buggy making? A. Make as tight a house a...
-Notes & Queries. Part 3
(13) L.L. asks: 1. Does it make any difference in what position a watch is in when running? A. For watches adjusted to temperature and position, it does not make much difference. 2. When not being car...
-Communications Received
The Editor of the Scientific American acknowledges, with much pleasure, the receipt of original papers and contributions upon the following subjects: On Rheumatism. By A.R.E. On Postage Stamps. By...
-Hints To Correspondents
Correspondents whose inquiries fail to appear should repeat them. If not then published, they may conclude that, for good reasons, the Editor declines them. The address of the writer should always be ...
-Official Index Of Inventions. For Which Letters Patent of the United States were Granted in the week Ending January 18, 1877, And Each Bearing That Date
[Those marked (r) are reissued patents.] A complete copy of any patent in the annexed list, including both the specifications and drawings, will be furnished from this office for one dollar. In order...
-Designs Patented
9,700, 9,701. - CHAINS. - D.A. Beam, Newark, N.J. 9,702. - BRACKETS. - O.F. Fogelstrand, Kensington, Conn. 9,703. - BOTTLE. - A.T. Francis, Paterson, N.J., et al. 9,704, 9,705. - CARPETS. -...
-Advertisements
Inside Page, each insertion 75 cents a line. Back Page, each insertion $1.00 a line. Engravings may head advertisements at the same rate per line, by measurement, as the letter press. Advertisements ...
-Advertisements. Part 2
$290 FOR BEST PIANOS IN THE WORLD - in use all over the U.S. in over 900 towns by persons you will find in our Illustrated Circular, probably residents of your own place, or very near, where you can...
-Advertisements. Part 3
A GIFT By an arrangement with the Publisher we will send every reader of this Paper a sample package of Transfer Pictures free. Send 3. stamp for postage. They are highly colored, beautiful, and...
-Advertisements. Part 4
SEE PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS & CHEMICALS complete, with directions, $10. No toy; takes pictures 45 inches. Send for illustrated circular. B. MORGAN, 14 Ann St. New York, P.O. Box 4349. ...
-Advertisements. Part 5
Any patent issued since November 27, 1867, at which time the Patent Office commenced printing the drawings and specifications, may be had by remitting to this office $1. A copy of the claims of any p...
-Advertisements. Part 6
Important For All Corporations And Manf'G Concerns Buerk's Watchman's Time Detector, capable of accurately controlling the motion of a watchman or patrolman at the different stations of his beat. Sen...









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