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Scientific American Supplement Volumes 275, 286, 288, 299, 303, 312, 315, 324, 344 and 358



Supplement Volumes for Scientific American 275-358

TitleScientific American Supplement Volumes 275, 286, 288, 299, 303, 312, 315, 324, 344 and 358
AuthorVarious Authors
PublisherMunn & Co.
Year1881-1882
Copyright1882, Munn & Co.
AmazonScientific American Reference Book
-Wheat And Wheat Bread
By H. MGE-MOURIS. In consequence of the interest that has been recently excited on the subject of bread reform, we have, says the London Miller, translated the interesting contributio...
-Anatomical Structure And Chemical Composition Of Wheat
The figure represents the longitudinal cut of a grain of wheat; it was made by taking, with the aid of the microscope and of photography, the drawing of a large quantity of fragments, which, joined to...
-Endosperm Or Floury Portion, Nos. 7, 8, 9
This portion is composed of large glutinous cells, in which the granules of starch are found. The composition of these different layers offers a particular interest; the center, No. 9, is the softest ...
-The Embryo And The Coating Of The Embryo
To be intelligible, I must commence by some very brief remarks on the tissues of vegetables. There are two sorts distinguished among plants; some seem of no importance in the phenomena of nutrition; o...
-The Embryo And The Coating Of The Embryo. Part 2
To determine the action of this tissue through its presence, take 100 grammes of wheat, wash it and remove the first coating by decortication; then immerse it for several hours in lukewarm water, and ...
-The Embryo And The Coating Of The Embryo. Part 3
Cerealine The cells composing the embryous membrane contain, as already stated, the cerealine, but after the germination they contain cerealine and diastase, that is to say, a portion of the cerealin...
-Phosphate Of Calcium
Mr. Payen was the first to make the observation that the greatest amount of phosphate of chalk is found in the teguments adjoining the farinaceous or floury mass. This observation is important from tw...
-The Origin Of New Process Milling
The following article was written by Albert Hoppin, editor of the Northwestern Miller, at the request of Special Agent Chas. W. Johnson, and forms a part of his report to the census bureau on the manu...
-The Origin Of New Process Milling. Continued
The next step in the development of the new process, also originating in Minneapolis, was the abandonment of the old system of cracking the millstone, and substituting in its stead the use of smooth ...
-The Milling Structures And Machinery
Mr. Johnson added the following, showing the present status of the milling industry in Minneapolis: The description of the process of the manufacture of flour so well given above, conveys no idea of...
-Direct Foreign Trade
The flour of Minneapolis, holding so high a rank in the markets of the world, is always in active demand, especially the best grades, and brings from $1.00 to $1.60 per barrel more than flour of the b...
-The Guenon Milk-Mirror
The name of the simple Bordeaux peasant is, and should be, permanently associated with his discovery that the milking qualities of cows were, to a considerable extent, indicated by certain external ma...
-Two Good Lawn Trees
The negundo, or ash-leaved maple, as it is called in the Eastern States, better known at the West as a box elder, is a tree that is not known as extensively as it deserves. It is a hard maple, that gr...
-Cutting Sods For Lawns
I am a very good sod layer, and used to lay very large lawns--half to three-quarters of an acre. I cut the sods as follows: Take a board eight to nine inches wide, four, five, or six feet long, and cu...
-Horticultural Notes. New Apples, Pears, Grapes, Etc
The Western New York Society met at Rochester, January 26. New Apples, Pears, Grapes, Etc Wm. C Barry, secretary of the committee on native fruits, read a full report. Among the older varieties of t...
-Discussion On Grapes
C. W. Beadle, of Ontario, in allusion to Moore's Early grape, finds it much earlier than the Concord, and equal to it in quality, ripening even before the Hartford. S. D. Willard, of Geneva, thought i...
-New Peaches
A. C. Younglove had found such very early sorts as Alexander and Amsden excellent for home use, but not profitable for market. The insects and birds made heavy depredations on them. While nearly all v...
-Insects Affecting Horticulture
Mr. Zimmerman spoke of the importance of all cultivators knowing so much of insects and their habits as to distinguish their friends from their enemies. When unchecked they increase in an immense rati...
-Insect Destroyers
Prof. W. Saunders, of the Province of Ontario, followed Mr. Zimmerman with a paper on other departments of the same general subject, which contained much information and many suggestions of great valu...
-Observations On The Salmon Of The Pacific
By DAVID S. JORDAN and CHAS. H. GILBERT. During the most of the present year, the writers have been engaged in the study of the fishes of the Pacific coast of the United States, in the interest of th...
-Observations On The Salmon Of The Pacific. Part 2
Little blue-backs of every size down to six inches are also found in the Upper Columbia in the fall, with their organs of generation fully developed. Nineteen twentieths of these young fish are males,...
-Observations On The Salmon Of The Pacific. Part 3
These distorted males are commonly considered worthless, rejected by the canners and salmon-salters, but preserved by the Indians. These changes are due solely to influences connected with the growth ...
-The Relation Between Electricity And Light
[Footnote: A lecture by Dr. O. J. Lodge, delivered at the London Institution on December 16, 1880.] Ever since the subject on which I have the honor to speak to you to-night was arranged, I have been...
-The Relation Between Electricity And Light. Part 2
Now, how much connection between electricity and light have we perceived in this glance into their natures? Not much, truly. It amounts to about this: That on the one hand electrical energy may exist ...
-The Relation Between Electricity And Light. Part 3
This is the fundamental experiment on which Clerk-Maxwell's theory of light is based; but of late years many fresh facts and relations between electricity and light have been discovered, and at the pr...
-Interesting Electrical Researches
During the last six years Dr. Warren de la Rue has been investigating, in conjunction with Dr. Hugo Muller, the various and highly interesting phenomena which accompany the electric discharge. From ti...
-Measuring Electromotive Force
Coulomb's torsion balance has been adapted by M. Baille to the measurement of low electromotive forces in a very successful manner, and has been found preferable by him to the delicate electrometers o...
-Telephony By Thermic Currents
While in telephonic arrangements, based upon the principle of magnetic induction, a relatively considerable expenditure of force is required in order to set the tightly stretched membrane in vibration...
-The Telectroscope
By MONS. SENLECQ, of Ardres. This apparatus, which is intended to transmit to a distance through a telegraphic wire pictures taken on the plate of a camera, was invented in the early part of 1877 by ...
-The Telectroscope. Continued
Receiver A small slide, Fig. 2, having at one of its angles a very narrow piece of brass, separated in the middle by an insulating surface, used for setting the apparatus in rapid motion. This small ...
-The Various Modes Of Transmitting Power To A Distance
[Footnote: A paper lately read before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers.] By ARTHUR ACHARD, of Geneva. But allowing that the figure of 22 H. P., assumed for this power (the result in calculati...
-The Various Modes Of Transmitting Power To A Distance. Part 2
. The following are the details of the experiments: First series of experiments: Conduit consisting of cast or wrought iron pipes, joined by means of flanges, bolts, and gutta percha rings. D = 0.2...
-The Various Modes Of Transmitting Power To A Distance. Part 3
The only real practical advance made in this matter is M. Mkarski's compressed air engine for tramways. In this engine the air is made to pass through a small boiler containing water at a temp...
-The Various Modes Of Transmitting Power To A Distance. Part 4
Omitting the subject of the pumps, and passing on at once to the discharge main, the author may first point out that the distinction between the ascending and descending mains of the system is of no i...
-The Various Modes Of Transmitting Power To A Distance. Part 5
ESCHER WYSS & CO'S TURBINE. Effective Head of Water. Revolutions Efficiency. per minute. Meters. Feet. Revs. Per cent. 20.7 67.9 628 68.5 20.7 67.9 847 47.4 24.1 79.0 645 68.5 27.6 90.5 612 65...
-The Various Modes Of Transmitting Power To A Distance. Continued
General Results Casting a retrospective glance at the four methods of transmission of power which have been examined, it would appear that transmission by ropes forms a class by itself, while the thr...
-The Hotchkiss Revolving Gun
The Hotchkiss revolving gun, already adopted in the French navy and by other leading European nations, has been ordered for use in the German navy by the following decree of the German Emperor, dated ...
-Thallium Papers As Ozonometers
Schoene has given the results of an extended series of experiments on the use of thallium paper for estimating approximately the oxidizing material in the atmosphere, whether it be hydrogen peroxide a...
-The Audiphone In England
The audiphone has been recently tried in the Board School for Deaf and Dumb at Turin street, Bethnal Green, with very satisfactory results--so satisfactory that the report will recommend its adoption ...
-Conductivity Of Moist Air
Many physical treatises still assert that moist air conducts electricity, though Silberman and others have proved the contrary. An interesting experiment bearing on this has been described lately by P...
-Floating Pontoon Dock
Considerable attention has been given for some years past to the subject of floating pontoon docks by Mr. Robert Turnbull, naval architect, of South Shields, Eng., who has devised the ingenious arrang...
-Weirleigh, Brenchley, Kent
Some few years since, Mr. Harrison Weir (whose drawings of natural history are known probably to a wider circle of the general public than the works of most artists), wishing to pursue his favorite st...
-Rapid Breathing As A Pain Obtunder In Minor Surgery, Obstetrics, The General Practice Of Medicine And Of Dentistry
[Footnote: Read before the Philadelphia County Medical Society, May 12, 1880, by W. G. A. Bonwill, M.D., D.D.S., Philadelphia.] Through the kind invitation of your directors, I am present to give you...
-Rapid Breathing As A Pain Obtunder In Surgery, Obstetrics, Dentistry. Part 2
The births at first seemed to come at very short intervals; but see how long it was between the fourth and the fifth birth. It was soon after that my mind became involved in inventions--a hereditary o...
-Rapid Breathing As A Pain Obtunder In Surgery, Obstetrics, Dentistry. Part 3
Has it proven in my practice what has been claimed for it--a substitute for the powerful anaesthetics in minor operations in surgery? Most emphatically, yes! So completely has it fulfilled its humble ...
-Rapid Breathing As A Pain Obtunder In Surgery, Obstetrics, Dentistry. Part 4
I further claim that for the past four years, so satisfactory has been the result of this system in the extracting of teeth and deadening extremely sensitive dentine, there was no longer any necessity...
-Rapid Breathing As A Pain Obtunder In Surgery, Obstetrics, Dentistry. Part 5
He declared there was no pain, and we needed no such assertion, for there was not the first manifestation from him that he was undergoing such a severe operation. Another case, the same day, when I h...
-Rapid Breathing As A Pain Obtunder In Surgery, Obstetrics, Dentistry. Part 6
It is not necessary we should argue the point as to whether oxygen displaces carbonic acid in the tissues proper or the capillaries. The theory of Lavoisier on this point has been accepted. We know f...
-Rapid Breathing As A Pain Obtunder In Surgery, Obstetrics, Dentistry. Part 7
I think we are now prepared to show clearly the causes which effect the phenomena in rapid breathing. The first thing enlisted is the diversion of the will force in the act of forced respiration at...
-Rapid Breathing As A Pain Obtunder In Surgery, Obstetrics, Dentistry. Part 8
When Vierordt was performing his experiments upon himself in rapid breathing from six times per minute to ninety-six, I cannot understand why he failed to observe and record what did certainly result-...
-Addenda
Sphygmographic tracings of the pulse of the essayist. Normal pulse 60 to the minute. Ten seconds necessary for the slip to pass under the instrument. A, A, normal pulse. B, pulse taken af...
-Tap For Effervescing Liquids
When a bottle of any liquor charged with carbonic acid under strong pressure, such as champagne, sparkling cider, seltzer water, etc., is uncorked, the contents often escape with considerable force, f...
-Pentathionic Acid
Chemical Society, London, Jan. 20, 1881. Prof. H.E. Roscoe, President, In The Chair Mr. Vivian Lewes read a paper on Pentathionic Acid. In March last the author, at the suggestion of Dr. Debus, und...
-Rose Oil, Or Otto Of Roses
By CHARLES G. WARNFORD LOCK. This celebrated perfume is the volatile essential oil distilled from the flowers of some varieties of rose. The botany of roses appears to be in a transition and somewhat...
-Rose Oil, Or Otto Of Roses. Continued
But the one commercially important source of otto of roses is a circumscribed patch of ancient Thrace or modern Bulgaria, stretching along the southern slopes of the central Balkans, and approximately...
-A New Method Of Preparing Metatoluidine
By OSKAR WIDMAN. The author adds in small portions five parts metanitro-benzaldehyd to nine parts of phosphorus pentachloride, avoiding a great rise of temperature. When the reaction is over, the who...
-Petroleum And Coal In Venezuela
MR. E. H. PLUMACHER, U. S. Consul at Maracaibo, sends to the State Department the following information touching the wealth of coal and petroleum probable in Venezuela: The asphalt mines and petroleu...
-One Thousand Horse-Power Corliss Engine
FIG. 1. DIA. OF CYLINDER = 40'' STROKE = 10 ft. REVS = 41 SCALE OF DIAGRAMS 40 LBS = 1 INCH FIG. 2. We illustrate one of the largest Corliss engines ever constructed. It is of the single cylind...
-One Thousand Horse-Power Corliss Engine. Continued
1000 Horse Power Corliss Engine BY HICK. HARGREAVES & CO. Result of Trials with Saltaire Horizontal Engine on February 14th and 15th, 1878. Trials made by Mr. L.E. Fletcher, Chief Engineer Steam ...
-Opening Of The New Workshop Of The Stevens Institute Of Technology
In our SUPPLEMENT No. 283 we gave reports of some of the addresses of the distinguished speakers, and we now present the remarks of Prof. Raymond and Horatio Allen, Esq.: Speech Of Prof. R. W. Raymon...
-Opening Of The New Workshop Of The Stevens Institute Of Technology. Continued
Speech Of Mr. Horatio Allen Impressed with the very great step in advance which has been inaugurated here this evening, I feel crowding upon me so many thoughts that I cannot make sure that, in selec...
-Light Steam Engine For Balloons
We here illustrate one of a couple of compound engines designed and constructed by Messrs. Ahrbecker, Son & Hamkens, of Stamford Street, S.E., for Captain Mojaisky, of the Russian Imperial Navy, who i...
-Complete Prevention Of Incrustation In Boilers
The chemical factory, Eisenbuettel, near Braunschweig, distributes the following circular: The principal generators of incrustation in boilers are gypsum and the so-called bicarbonates of calcium and...
-Arrangement For Purifying Boiler-Water With Lime And Carbonate Of Soda
We need for carrying out these manipulations, according to the size of the establishment, one or more reservoirs for precipitating the impurities of the water, and one pure water reservoir, to take up...
-Arrangement For Purifying Boiler-Water With Lime And Carbonate Of Soda. Continued
Example If we use for ten cubic meters water, one kilogramme lime, or in one day (in twenty-four hours), 240 cubic meters 24 kg. lime, a vessel four or five feet high and about 700 liters capacity, i...
-Eddystone Lighthouse
The exterior work on the new Eddystone Lighthouse is about two thirds done. In the latter part of April fifty-three courses of granite masonry, rising to the height of seventy feet above high water, h...
-Rolling-Mill For Making Corrugated Iron
MESSRS. SCHULZ, KNAUDT & Co., of Essen, who are making an application of corrugated iron in the construction of the interior flues of steam boilers, have devised a new mill for the manufacture of this...
-Railway Turn-Table In The Time Of Louis XIV
The small engraving which we reproduce herewith from La Nature is deposited at the Archives at Paris. It is catalogued in the documents relating to Old Marly, 1714, under number 11,339, Vol. 1. The de...
-New Signal Wire Compensator
To the Editor of the Scientific American: I send you a plate of my new railway signal wire compensator. Here in India signal wires give more trouble, perhaps, than in America or elsewhere, by expansi...
-Tangye's Hydraulic Hoist
TANGYE'S HYDRAULIC HOIST. The great merits of hydraulic hoists generally as regards safety and readiness of control are too well known to need pointing out here. We may, therefore, at once procee...
-Power Loom For Delicate Fabrics
The force with which the shuttle is thrown in an ordinary power loom moving with a certain speed is always considerable, and, as a consequence of the strain exerted on the thread, it is frequently nec...
-How Veneering Is Made
The process of manufacture is very interesting. The logs are delivered in the mill yard in any suitable lengths as for ordinary lumber. A steam drag saw cuts them into such lengths as may be required ...
-The Constituent Parts Of Leather
The constituent parts of leather seem to be but little understood. The opinions of those engaged in the manufacture of leather differ widely on this question. Some think that tannin assimilates itsel...
-New High School For Girls, Oxford
The new High School for Girls at Oxford, built by Mr. T.G. Jackson, for the Girls' Public Day School Company, Limited, was opened September 23, 1880, when the school was transferred from the temporary...
-Progress In American Pottery
No advance in any industry has been more sure than in that of pottery and chinaware, under the American tariff, or more rapid in the past four or five years. It took Europe three centuries and the jea...
-Photographic Notes
Mr. Warnerke's New Discovery.--Very happily for our art, we are at the present moment entering upon a stage of improvement which shows that photography is advancing with vast strides toward a position...
-Method For Converting Negatives Directly Into Positives
Captain Bing, who is employed in the topographic studios of the Ministry of War, has devised a process for the direct conversion of negatives into positives. The idea is not a new one; but several exp...
-Experiments Of Captain Bing On The Sensitiveness Of Coal Oil
The same Captain of Engineers has undertaken a series of very interesting experiments on the sensitiveness to light of one or two substances to which bitumen probably owes its sensitiveness, but which...
-Bitumen Plates
A new method of making bitumen plates by contact has also been introduced into the topographical studios. The plan, or the original drawing, is placed against a glass plate, coated with a mixture of b...
-Succinate Of Iron Developer
I have received a letter from M. Borlinetto, in which he states that he has been induced by the analogy which exists between oxalic and succinic acids to try whether succinate of iron can be substitut...
-Method Of Making Friable Hydro-Cellulose
At the meeting of the Photographic Society of France, M. Girard showed his method of preparing cellulose in a state of powder, specially adapted for the production of pyroxyline for making collodion. ...
-Photo Tracings In Black And Color
Two new processes for taking photo tracings in black and color have recently been published--Nigrography and Anthrakotype--both of which represent a real advance in photographic art. By these two ...
-On M. C. Faure's Secondary Battery
The researches of M. Gaston Plant on the polarization of voltameters led to his invention of the secondary cell, composed of two strips of lead immersed in acidulated water. These cells accumu...
-Physical Science In Our Common Schools
[Footnote: Read before the State Normal Institute at Winona, Minnesota, April 28, 1881, by Clarence M. Boutelle, Professor of Mathematics and Physical Science in the State Normal School.] Very little...
-Physical Science In Our Common Schools. Part 2
Besides this there is the fact that traits, habits, and peculiarities of animals are not always manifested when we wish them to be. Suppose a teacher asks a child to notice the way in which a dog drin...
-Physical Science In Our Common Schools. Part 3
2. Associated facts would be learned in studying in this way which would remain unknown otherwise. But all the advantages would be associated with disadvantages too. Long periods of time would have t...
-Physical Science In Our Common Schools. Part 4
4. The learning of the importance of following directions. Chemistry, especially, is full of those cases where this means everything. Sometimes, not often in experiments performed in school, however, ...
-Physical Science In Our Common Schools. Part 5
In selecting just the work to be taken up with a given class of children, attention must be paid to the selection of the appropriate matter to be presented and the well adapted method of presenting it...
-Physical Science In Our Common Schools. Part 6
But teachers, with more of imagination than good sense, teach distinctions which do not exist, generalizations which do not generalize, and do incalculable mischief by so doing. 8. Experimental work ...
-Geographical Society Of The Pacific
This society is a recent organization, the objects of which are to encourage geographical exploration and discovery; to investigate and disseminate geographical information by discussion, lectures, an...
-The Behring's Straits Currents
It will be remembered that a short time since we mentioned the fact that W.H. Dall, of the U. S. Coast Survey, who has passed a number of years in Alaskan waters, on Coast Survey duty, denied the exis...
-Experimental Geology. Artificial Production Of Calcareous Pisolites And Oolites
Mr. Stanislas Meunier communicates to Le Nature an account of some interesting specimens of globular calcareous matter, resembling pisolites or peastones both in appearance and structure, which were a...
-On Crystals Of Anhydrous Lime
Some time ago it was discovered that some limestone, which had been submitted for eighteen months to a heat of nearly 1,000 degrees in the smelting furnaces of Leroy-Descloges (France), had given rise...
-Coccidae
[Footnote: A paper recently read before the California Academy of Sciences.] By DR. H. BEHR. With the exception of Hymenoptera there is no group of insects that interfere in so many ways in good and...
-Agricultural Items
The exportation of dried apples from this country to France has greatly increased of late years, and now it is said that a large part of this useful product comes back in the shape of Normandy cider a...
-Timber Trees
A paper was read by Sir R. Christison at the last meeting of the Edinburgh Botanical Society upon the Growth of Wood in 1880. In a former paper, he said, he endeavored to show that, in the unfavorab...
-Medical Uses Of Figs
Prof. Bouchut speaks (Comptes Rendus) of some experiments he has made, going to show that the milky juice of the fig-tree possesses a digestive power. He also observed that, when some of this preparat...
-Blood Rain
The sensibilities of ignorant or superstitious people have at various times been alarmed by the different phenomena of so-called blood, ink, or sulphur rains. Ehrenberg very patiently collected record...
-Topical Medication In Phthisis
Dr. G.H. Mackenzie reports in the Lancet an acute case of phthisis which was successfully treated by him by causing the patient to respire as continuously as possible, through a respirator devised for...
-On The Law Of Avogadro And Ampere
The Scientific American Supplement of May 14,1881, contains, under this head, Mr. Wm. H. Greene's objections to my demonstration (in No. 270 of the same paper) of the error of Avogadro's hypothesis. T...
-On The Law Of Avogadro And Ampere. Continued
5. Is the molecular weight not in every instance = two volumes? These conclusions overthrow all the fundamental assumptions on which the hypothesis rests, and leave it, in the full meaning of the ter...
-Dyeing Reds With Artificial Alizarin
By M. MAURICE PRUD'HOMME. Since several years, the methods of madder dyeing have undergone a complete revolution, the origin of which we will seek to point out. When artificial alizarin, thanks to th...
-Alcohol In Nature--Its Presence In The Earth, Water, And Atmosphere
A Chemist of merit, Mr. A. Mntz, who has already made himself known by important labors and by analytical researches of great precision, has been led to a very curious and totally unexpected dis...
-Detection Of Alcohol In Transparent Soaps
By H. JAY. It appears that every article manufactured with the aid of alcohol is required on its introduction into France to pay duty on the supposed quantity of this reagent which has been used in i...
-On The Calorific Power Of Fuel, And On Thompson's Calorimeter
By J.W. THOMAS, F.C.S., F.I.C. A simple experiment, capable of yielding results which shall be at least comparative, has long been sought after by large consumers of coal and artificial fuel abroad i...
-On The Calorific Power Of Fuel, And On Thompson's Calorimeter. Part 2
Since the calorific power of a coal is determined by the number of degrees Fahrenheit which a given quantity of water is raised in temperature by a known weight of fuel, it follows that every care sho...
-On The Calorific Power Of Fuel, And On Thompson's Calorimeter. Part 3
The following is a brief outline of the method of procedure recommended: Sample the coal until an average portion passes through a sieve having 64 meshes to the square inch. Take about 300 grains (20 ...
-Explosion As An Unknown Fire Hazard
Words pass along with meanings which are simple conventionalities, marking current opinions, knowledge, fancies, and misjudgments. They attain to new accretions of import as knowledge advances or opin...
-Explosion As An Unknown Fire Hazard. Continued
Purely chemical explosives like nitro-glycerine, gun-cotton, the picrites, and the fulminates, present a terrible danger from the unknown mode of the new union of atoms, and reaction of the particles ...
-Carbon. Symbol C. Combining Weight 12
By T.A. POOLEY, B.Sc., F.C.S. This element, which next deserves our attention, is one of great importance and wide distribution; it occurs in nature in both the free and the combined states, and the ...
-Carbon Dioxide, Or Carbonic Acid, Symbol Co
Carbonic acid occurs, as we have already stated, in large quantities in combination with lime and magnesia, forming immense rock formations of limestone, chalk, marble, dolomite, etc.; it also issues ...
-Seyfferth's Pyrometer
The thermometers and pyrometers usually employed are almost all based on the expansion of some fluid or other, or upon that of different metals. The first can only be constructed with glass tubes, thu...
-Application Of The Pyrometer In Bone Black Furnaces
The temperature necessary for the complete carbonization of the organic substances of animal charcoal is from 430 to 500 C. In order to transmit this temperature from the cylinder to the cha...
-Manufacturers' Soaps And Their Production
By W. J. MENZIES. Potash soaps are generally superior to soda soaps for most purposes, but more especially in washing wool and woolen goods. The difference between the use of a potash and a soda soap...
-The Preparation Of Perfume Pomades
We have, on a previous occasion, described the process of maceration or enfleurage, that is, the impregnation of purified fat with the aroma of certain scented flowers which do not yield any essen...
-Organic Matter In Sea-Water
At a recent meeting of the London Chemical Society, Mr. W. Jago read a paper On the Organic Matter in Sea-water. On p. 133 of the Sixth Report of the Rivers Commission, it is stated that the propo...
-Bacteria Life
W. M. Hamlet, in a paper before the London Chemical Society, said: Flasks similar to those of Pasteur (Etudes sur la Biere, p. 81), holding about liter, were used. The liquids employed were...
-On The Composition Of Elephants' Milk
[Footnote: Read before the American Chemical Society, June 3,1881.] By CHAS. A. DOREMUS, M.D., Ph.D. Noticing the recent advertisements in the city regarding the Baby Elephant, it occurred to me t...
-The Chemical Composition Of Rice, Maize, And Barley
By J. STEINER, F.C.S. Rice contains much more starch, but on the other hand, much less albuminous matter and ash, than maize and barley. The compositions of different kinds of dried rice do not vary ...
-Petroleum Oils
Nothing is in more general use than petroleum, and but few things are known less about by the majority of persons. It is hydra-headed. It appears in many forms and under many names. Burning fluid is...
-Petroleum Oils. Continued
In regard to the danger of using the lighter petroleum oils, the following, under the head of Naphtha and Benzine under False Names, is taken from Prof. C. F. Chandler's article on Petroleum in Jo...
-Composition Of The Petroleum Of The Caucasus
By MM. P SCHUTZENBERGER and N. TONINE. All portions of this petroleum contain saturated carbides of the formula C, which the authors name paraffenes. At a bright red heat they yield benzinic carbides...
-Notes On Cananga Oil Or Ilang-Ilang Oil
[Footnote: From the Archiv der Pharmacie.] By F. A. FLCKIGER. This oil, on account of its fragrance, which is described by most observers as extremely pleasant, has attained to some importance...
-Notes On Cananga Oil Or Ilang-Ilang Oil. Continued
[Footnote 1: A beautiful figure of this also is given in Blume's Flora Jav, iii., Magnoliace, tab. I.] [Footnote 2: Junghuhn, Java, Leipsic, 1852, 166.] It is not known to me whether...
-Chian Turpentine
The following letter has been received by the editors of the Repertoire de Pharmacie: For some months past, a good deal has been heard about a product of our island that had quite fallen into disuse, ...
-On The Change Of Volume Which Accompanies The Galvanic Deposition Of A Metal
By M. E. BOUTY. In previous notes I have established, first, that the galvanic depositions experience a change of volume, from which there results a pressure exercised on the mould which receives the...
-Analyses Of Rice Soils From Burmah
By R. ROMANIS, D.Sc., Chemical Examiner, British Burmah. The analyses of rice soils was undertaken at the instance of the Revenue Settlement Survey, who wanted to know if the chemical composition of ...
-Dry Air Refrigerating Machine
A large number of scientific and other gentlemen interested in mechanical refrigeration lately visited the works of Messrs. J. & E. Hall, of Dartford, to inspect the working of one of their improved h...
-Thomas's Improved Steam Wheel
The rotary or steam wheel, the invention of J.E. Thomas, of Carlinville, Ill., shown in the annexed figure, consists of a wheel with an iron rim inclosed within a casing or jacket from which nothing p...
-The American Society Of Civil Engineers. Address Of The President, James Bicheno Francis, At The Thirteenth Annual Convention Of The Society At Montreal, June 15, 1881
You have assembled in convention for the first time outside the limits of the United States, and I congratulate you on the selection of this beautiful city, in which and its immediate neighborhood the...
-Water Power
Water power in many of the States is abundant and contributes largely to their prosperity. Its proper development calls for the services of the civil engineer, and as it is the branch of the professio...
-Anchor Ice
A frequent inconvenience in the use of water power in cold climates is that peculiar form of ice called anchor or ground ice. It adheres to stones, gravel, wood, and other substances forming the beds ...
-A Pair Of Cottages
This drawing has been admitted into the Exhibition of the Royal Academy this year. The cottages are of red brick, tiled roof, white woodwork, as usual, rough-cast in the gables; but they are not built...
-Delicate Scientific Instruments
By EDGAR L. LARKIN, New Windsor Observatory, New Windsor, Illinois. Within the past five years, scientific men have surpassed previous efforts in close measurement and refined analysis. By means of i...
-Delicate Scientific Instruments. Part 2
In 1780, Sir Wm. Herschel measured double stars and made catalogues with distances and positions. Within twenty years, he startled intellectual man with the statement that many of the fixed stars actu...
-Delicate Scientific Instruments. Part 3
Thus the micrometer revealed to man the magnitude and general structure, together with the motions and revolutions of the sidereal heavens. Above all, it demonstrated that gravity extends throughout t...
-The Future Development Of Electrical Appliances
Prof. J. Perry lately delivered a lecture on this subject at the Society of Arts, London, which contains in an epitomized form the salient points of the hopes and fears of the more sanguine spirits of...
-Rate Of Production Of Heat, Calculated In The Shape Of Horse-Power
In the whole of a circuit=current in webers x electro-motive force in volts / 746. In any part of circuit=current in webers x difference of potential at the two ends of the part of the circuit in ques...
-Researches On The Radiant Matter Of Crookes And The Mechanical Theory Of Electricity
By DR. W. F. GINTL, abstracted by DR. VON GERICHTEN. The author discusses the question whether, according to the experiments of Crookes, the assumption of an especial fourth state of aggregation is n...
-Economy Of The Electric Light
Mr. W. H. Preece writes to the Journal of Arts as follows: At the South Kensington Museum, very careful observations have been made on the relative cost of the two systems, i. e., gas and electricity...
-On The Space Protected By A Lightning-Conductor
By WILLIAM HENRY PREECE. [Footnote: From the Philosophical Magazine for December, 1880.] Any portion of non-conducting space disturbed by electricity is called an electric field. At every point of t...
-Photo-Electricity Of Fluor-Spar Crystals
Hantzel has communicated to the Saxon Royal Society of Science some interesting observations on the production of electricity by light in colored fluor-spar. The centers of the fluor-spar cubes become...
-The Aurora Borealis And Telegraph Cables
The January and February numbers of the Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift contain a number of articles on this interesting subject by several eminent electricians. Professor Foerster, director of the obse...
-The Photographic Image: What It Is
[Footnote: A communication to the Sheffield Photographic Society in the British Journal of Photography.] It is quite possible that in the remarks I propose making this evening in connection with the ...
-Gelatine Transparencies For The Lantern
[Footnote: A communication to the Photographic Society of Ireland.] Few of those who work with gelatine dry plates seem to be aware of the great beauty of the transparencies for lantern or other uses...
-An Integrating Machine
[Footnote: Read at a meeting of the Physical Society, Feb. 26.] By C.V. BOYS. All the integrating machines hitherto made, of which I can find any record, may be classed under two heads, one of which...
-Upon A Modification Of Wheatstone's Microphone And Its Applicability To Radiophonic Researches
[Footnote: A paper read before the Philosophical Society of Washington. D. C., June 11, 1881.] By ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL. In August, 1880, I directed attention to the fact that thin disks or diaphrag...
-Achille Delesse
The death of this distinguished man must be recorded. An interesting rsum of his labors by M. Daubree has appeared, from which we take the following facts. After a training in his nati...
-The Electric Light At Earnock Colliery
On the afternoon of August 9, Earnock Colliery, near Hamilton, belonging to Mr. John Watson, of Earnock, was the scene of an interesting ceremonial which may well be said to mark a new era in mining a...
-Lightning And Telephone Wires
M. Bede, of Brussels, has an article in L'Ingnieur-Conseil on the above subject. He considers that a system of such wires forms the best and most complete security against lightning with which...
-Condition Of Flames Under The Influence Of Electricity
The experiments of the author have been principally directed to the alterations in shape and color produced in a flame when under the influence of positive or negative electricity. The flames were arr...
-The Electric Stop-Motion In The Cotton Mill
The number of inventions for use as stop-motions in and about the various machines in the cotton mill has been to a certain extent something like the search after perpetual motion. Very available and ...
-On The Progress And Development Of The Marine Engine
[Footnote: A paper recently read before the Society of Mechanical Engineers by F.C.Marshall.] The author began by referring to a paper read at the Liverpool meeting in 1872, by Mr. F. J. Bramwell, F....
-On The Progress And Development Of The Marine Engine. Part 2
Steel Boilers The writer stated that his experience in the manufacture and working of steel boilers was satisfactory. Many steel boilers of sizes varying from six feet diameter to fourteen feet six i...
-On The Progress And Development Of The Marine Engine. Part 3
Consumption Of Fuel In Marine Engines Coming to the question of the consumption of fuel, a considerable saving has been effected in nine years, as shown in the following table: Item. 1872. 1881. W...
-Marine Locomotive Boilers
Mr. Thornycroft has for some years used the locomotive form of boiler for his steam launches, working them under an air pressure--produced by a fan discharging into a close stokehold--of from 1 in. to...
-Screw Propellers
The screw propeller is still to a great extent an unsolved problem. We have no definite rule by which we can fix the most important factor of the whole, namely, the diameter. Mr. Froude has pointed ou...
-Steam Ferry Boats Of The Port Of Marseilles
The small steam ferry boats represented in the accompanying cut are doing service in the port of Marseilles, and the following description of them has been given by Mr. Flecher in the Bulletin de la S...
-Opening Of A New English Dock
In July last, Admiral the Duke of Edinburgh, with the Naval Reserve Squadron under his command, arrived in the Firth of Forth and anchored in Leith Roads. His Royal Highness performed the ceremony of ...
-Improved Grain Elevator
The illustration shows the apparatus at work transferring a cargo of grain from the hold of a ship by means of an elevating band fitted with buckets. By a simple contrivance shown in the engraving by ...
-Improved Dredger
We illustrate below a useful type of dredger made by Messrs. Rennie, of Blackfriars, England. The drawing almost explains itself. The machine consists of a double barge or pontoon, in which is erected...
-Railway Alarm Whistle
In order to prevent a train passing a danger signal during a fog or snowstorm without being seen by the engineer, the Southern Railway Company of France have attached to the locomotive a steam whistle...
-Furnace For The Manufacture Of Sulphide Of Carbon
Sulphide of carbon (CS) is prepared by passing the vapors of sulphur over charcoal heated to redness. In laboratories, charcoal and roll brimstone are employed so as to obtain as pure a product as pos...
-Brouardel's Dry Inscribing Manometer
Brouardel's manometer, represented herewith, is designed for showing graphically variations in the pressure of gas, either at the works during the course of manufacture, or at any point whatever in th...
-Centrifugal Apparatus For Casting Metals
The apparatus represented in Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4 is the invention of Messrs. Taylor & Wailes, and is designed for casting metallic objects in annular form, its arrangement being slightly varied accor...
-Apparatus For The Manufacture Of Wood Pulp
For manufacturing wood pulp Mr. Dresel employs an apparatus such as represented in Figs. 1 and 2, consisting of an upright cylindrical reservoir, A, supported on a frame by means of trunnions, z. This...
-Recent Progress Of Industrial Science
The thirty-fourth annual summer meeting of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers began on Aug. 2, at Newcastle-on-Tyne. The following is an abstract from the address of the president, Mr. E. A. Cowp...
-Recent Progress Of Industrial Science. Continued
No doubt the use of iron, and now of steel, has contributed most largely to the increase of shipbuilding in this country. Good arrangements of water ballast have also proved very useful; and steam cra...
-The Hoboken Drainage Problem
Our thriving neighbor, Hoboken, just across the Hudson River, has a large and vitally important problem to solve. Of the 720 acres within the city limits, 270 acres lie at a considerable height above ...
-Artists' Homes No. 14. "Bent's Brook."
Our plate illustrates the residence of Mr. J. E. Boehm, A.R.A., the sculptor. Bent's Brook is situated at Holmwood, not far south of Dorking, on the Mid-Sussex line, and commands some fine views of we...
-On Some Recent Improvements In Lead Processes
[Footnote: Lately read before the Institute of Mechanical Engineers.] By NORMAN C. COOKSON, of Newcastle. The author began by stating that probably in few trades have a smaller number of changes bee...
-Apparatus Used In Berlin For The Preparation Of Gelatine Plates. I. Mixing Apparatus For Gelatine Emulsion
The mixing vessel--a porcelain kettle capable of containing twenty liters, made at the Royal Porcelain Factory at Berlin, whose products are unequaled for chemical purposes--is also the boiling vessel...
-Apparatus Used In Berlin For The Preparation Of Gelatine Plates. Continued
III.--Triturating Apparatus The apparatus hereafter described is in general use, and was invented by Herr Paul Grundner, of Berlin. It is particularly adapted for finely dividing large quantities of ...
-How To Make Emulsion In Hot Weather
By A. L. HENDERSON. Numerous complaints have reached me within the last few weeks of the difficulty experienced in preparing emulsion and coating plates; one is very likely to blame everything but th...
-The Distillation And Rectification Of Alcohols By The Rational Use Of Low Temperatures
By RAOUL PICTET. The industrial problem of the rectification of alcohols is based entirely upon the properties of volatile liquids, upon the laws of the maximum tensions of the vapors of these liquid...
-The Distillation And Rectification Of Alcohols By Use Of Low Temperatures. Part 2
It results from all the laws that we have cited that by properly regulating the tensions of the vapors of a mixture of alcohol and water, and the temperature of the liquid, we shall be able to obtain ...
-Distillation And Rectification Of Alcohols By Use Of Low Temperatures. Part 3
Above the boiler rises a rectifying column composed of superposed plates inclined one over the other, and surmounted by a tubular condenser, which serves to effect the retrogression of the first conde...
-Electrolytic Determinations And Separations
[Footnote: NOTE.--Each of these determinations was accompanied by a series of results in which the practical determinations obtained from the method described were compared with the theoretical conten...
-Electrolytic Determinations And Separations. Part 2
Determination Of Nickel This process is precisely identical with the previously described method for cobalt. The ammonium oxalate is added in excess to the solution, which is then heated, and four mo...
-Electrolytic Determinations And Separations. Part 3
Determination Of Lead The nitric solution of lead acts similarly to that of manganese. When the amount of peroxide separated is so large that it does not adhere firmly, and becomes mechanically preci...
-Separation Of Iron From Manganese
If a solution of ferric oxide and manganese ammonium oxalate is submitted to electrolysis, without the previous addition of ammonium oxalate, the characteristic color of permanganic acid immediately m...
-Separation Of Iron And Aluminum
The quantitative separation of iron from aluminum, which presented many difficulties according to the older methods, may be easily performed by electrolysis. If a solution of iron ammonium oxalate and...
-The Cultivation Of Pyrethrum And Manufacture Of The Powder
In accordance with an announcement in the March number of the Naturalist, the editor of this department has sent out the seed of two species of pyrethrum, viz. P. roseum and P. cinerarioefolium, to a ...
-The Removal Of Noxious Vapors From Roasting Furnace Gases
In a paper read before the Aix-la-Chapelle section of the Verein deutscher Ingenieure, Herr Robert Hasenclever presents a summary of the results obtained with various methods for the absorption of the...
-New Gas Exhauster
In common practice, the new exhauster at the Old Kent Road passes about five million cubic feet of gas per day of twenty-four hours, and requires the attention of two men and two boys for driving and ...
-Advance In The Price Of Glycerine
The continued advance in the price of glycerine continues to excite comment among those who deal in or use it, and no one seems to know exactly where or when the advance is likely to stop, or by what ...
-Analysis Of Oils, Or Mixtures Of Oils, Used For Lubricating Purposes
Oils, fats, waxes, and bodies somewhat similar in nature, may--according to the substance of a paper recently read before the Chemical Society, by Mr. A. H. Allen, of Sheffield, and Mr. Thomson, of Ma...
-Nitrite Of Amyl
Dr. Edgar Kurtz, of Florence, has found this medicament so useful in the various aches and pains of every-day life that he has persuaded many families of his acquaintance to keep it on hand as a domes...
-The Treatment Of Acute Rheumatism
By ALFRED STILL, M.D. The treatment of simple acute articular rheumatism may be abandoned to palliatives and nature. Apart from complications, such cases nearly always recover under rest and ...
-Method In Madness
No psychologist has hitherto been able, and probably it is impossible, to define madness, or to give a clearly marked indication of the boundary line between sanity and insanity. Mental soundness is m...
-Simple Methods To Staunch Accidental Hemorrhage
By EDWARD BORCK, M.D., St. Louis, Mo. At first sight it seems almost superfluous to write or say a word about any method of arresting hemorrhage from wounds; for the practitioner, as a rule, is well ...
-Simple Methods To Staunch Accidental Hemorrhage. Continued
Bleeding From The Upper Arm (Art. Brachialis) Bring the elbows of the patient as near as possible together upon the back, and fasten them with a bandage. From this point let a doppelt bandage pass do...
-Hot Water Compresses In Tetanus And Trismus
Sporer has successfully treated cases of tetanus by merely applying to the nape of the neck and along the spine large pieces of flannel dipped in hot water, of a temperature just bearable to the hand ...
-Trials Of String Sheaf Binders At Derby, England
After a week's postponement, rendered necessary by the unripe condition of the crops on the first of the month, the trials of sheaf-binding machines, using any other binding material than wire, instit...
-The Culture Of Strawberries
Messrs. Ellwanger & Barry, of the Mount Hope Nurseries, at Rochester, give the following directions for setting out and cultivating strawberries, the result of long and successful experience, in their...
-Some Hardy Flowers For Midsummer
Pretentious gardens are now gayly decorated with glowing masses of pelargoniums and vincas, belts of rich coleuses and fiery alternantheras, patchwork of feverfew and mesembryanthemum, and scroll-work...
-The Time-Consuming Match
Mr. Edward Prince, splint manufacturer, of Horseshoe Bay, Buckingham township, is authority for the statement that there are about twenty-two match factories in the United States and Canada, and that ...
-New Eighty Ton Steam Hammer At The Saint Chamond Works
Ever since the improvements that have been introduced into the manufacture of steel, and especially into the erection of works for its production, have made it possible to obtain this metal in very la...
-The Anvil-Stock
The anvil-stock, which is pyramidal in shape, and the total weight of which amounts to 500 tons, is composed of superposed courses, each formed of one or two blocks of cast iron. Each course and every...
-Great Steamers
The Brooklyn Eagle gives a very interesting description of the three new steamships now almost completed and shortly to be placed in the New York and Liverpool trade by the Cunard, Inman, and Williams...
-Improved Road Locomotive
Several attempts have been made to connect the leading wheels of a traction engine with the driving wheels, so as to make drivers of all of them, and thus increase the tractive power of the engine, an...
-American Milling Methods
[Footnote 1: A paper read before the meeting of the Pennsylvania State Millers Association at Pittsburgh, Pa., by Albert Hoppin, Editor of the Northwestern Miller.] By ALBERT HOPPIN. To speak of the...
-American Milling Methods. Part 2
At first this merely consisted of purifying and regrinding the middlings made in the old way. In its perfected state it may be said to be halfway between the old style and gradual reduction, and is in...
-American Milling Methods. Part 3
And right here let me say that no miller should undertake to build a gradual reduction mill, or to change over his mill to the gradual reduction system, until he has consulted with some good milling e...
-American Milling Methods. Part 4
The portions of the material which have not been traced either to the baker's flour or the bran and shorts bins are the middlings which have gone to the middlings stones, the germy middlings which hav...
-American Milling Methods. Part 5
The building is four stories high, including basement, and thirty-two feet square. It would be some better to have it larger, but it is made this small to show how small a space a mill of this size ca...
-Machine For Dotting Tulles And Other Light Fabrics
Dotted or chenilled tulles are fabrics extensively used in the toilet of ladies, and the ornamentation of which has hitherto been done by the application to the tissue, by hand, either of chenille or ...
-The Reproduction And Multiplication Of Negatives
By ERNEST EDWARDS, B.A. A question, relative to the subject of reproducing negatives, which was put at a meeting of one of your New York societies, prompts me to make a few remarks on the subject. A...
-A New Method Of Making Gelatine Emulsion
Since gelatine emulsion first came into use one of the greatest troubles in connection with the manufacture of it has been that of washing. According to the first methods the time taken for this part ...
-The Pottery And Porcelain Industries Of Japan
Japanese chronicles claim that the first pottery was made in the year 660 B.C.; it was not, however, until the Christian era that the art made any considerable advances. In the year 1223 A.D., great i...
-The French Crystal Palace
The first idea of the French Crystal Palace was suggested by the English structure of the same name at Sydenham, about eight miles from London. Such a structure, as may be readily conceived, requires ...
-The Great Heat Of The Sun
Prof. S. P. Langley has made the following calculation: A sunbeam one centimeter in section is found in the clear sky of the Alleghany Mountains to bring to the earth in one minute enough heat to warm...
-Chateau In The Aegean Sea
From the site of this building, magnificent views are obtained over the island-dotted sea and the mainland of Asia Minor: but, though every prospect pleases, it is a land of earthquakes, and unfortu...
-Electric Power
Just now nothing save electricity is talked about in scientific circles. During the meeting of the British Association the greatest possible prominence was given to electrical questions and propositio...
-Electric Power. Continued
It has been proved to a certain extent that electricity can be used to transmit power to a distance, and that it can be used to store it up. Thus far the man of pure science. The engineer now comes on...
-On A Method Of Obtaining And Measuring Very High Vacua With A Modified Form Of Sprengel-Pump
By Ogden N. Rood, Professor of Physics in Columbia College. In the July number of this Journal for 1880, I gave a short account of certain changes in the Sprengel-pump by means of which far better va...
-Method Of Obtaining Very High Vacua With A Modified Sprengel-Pump. Part 2
Vacuum-Bulb Leaving the reservoir, the mercury enters the vacuum-bulb, B, Figure 2, where it parts with most of its air and moisture; this bulb also serves to catch the air that creeps into the pump ...
-Method Of Obtaining Very High Vacua With A Modified Sprengel-Pump. Part 3
Manipulation The necessary connections are effected with a cement made by melting Burgundy pitch with three or four per cent of gutta percha. It is indispensable that the cement when cold should be s...
-Method Of Obtaining Very High Vacua With A Modified Sprengel-Pump. Part 4
Measurement Of The Vacuum The cylinder into which the gauge-tube dips is first elevated by a box sufficiently thick merely to close the gauge, afterwards boxes are placed under it sufficient to eleva...
-Method Of Obtaining Very High Vacua With A Modified Sprengel-Pump. Part 5
Rate Of The Pump's Work It is quite important to know the rate of the pump at different degrees of exhaustion, for the purpose of enabling the experimenter to produce a definite exhaustion with facil...
-Method Of Obtaining Very High Vacua With A Modified Sprengel-Pump. Part 6
Exhaustion Obtained With A Plain Sprengel Pump I made a series of experiments with a plain Sprengel pump without stopcocks, and arranged, as far as possible, like the instrument just described. The l...
-Crystallization Table
The following table, prepared by E. Finot and Arm. Bertrand for the Jour. de Ph. et de Chim., shows the point at which the evaporation of certain solutions is to be interrupted in order to procure a g...
-The Principles Of Hop-Analysis
By Dr. G. O. CECH [Footnote: 'Zeitschrift fur Analyt. Chemie,' 1881.] Hop flowers contain a great variety of different substances susceptible of extraction with ether, alcohol, and water, and distin...
-Water Gas. A Description Of Apparatus For Producing Cheap Gas, And Some Notes On The Economical Effect Of Using Such Gas With Gas Motors, Etc
[Footnote: Abstract of paper read in Section G. British Association, York] By MR. J. EMERSON DOWSON, C.E., of London. In many countries and for many years past, inventors have sought some cheap and ...
-Water Gas. A Description Of Apparatus For Producing Cheap Gas. Notes On The Economical Effect Of Using Such Gas With Gas Motors, Etc. Continued
Appendix TABLE I. _Generator A Size_ (producing 1,000 cubic feet per hour): Anthracite to make gas at the rate of 1,000 s. d. cubic feet per hour=l2 lb x 9 working hours=l08 lb., or say, 1 cwt. ...
-On The Fluid Density Of Certain Metals
[Footnote: Abstract of paper read before Section C (Chemical Science), British Association meeting, York.] By PROFESSOR W. CHANDLER ROBERTS, F.R.S., and T. WRIGHTSON. The authors described their exp...
-Hydrophobia Prevented By Vaccination
M. Pasteur and other French savants have lately been devoting special attention to hydrophobia. The great authority on germs has, in fact, definitely announced that he does not intend to rest until he...
-On Diptera As Spreaders Of Disease
By J.W. SLATER. The two-winged flies, in their behavior to man, stand in a marked contrast to all the other orders of insects. The Lepidoptera, the Coleoptera, the Neuroptera, the Hymenoptera no doub...
-On Diptera As Spreaders Of Disease. Continued
Now it is very true that no one has seen a fly feasting upon the blood of a heifer or sheep dying or just dead of splenic fever, has then watched it settle upon and bite some person, and has traced th...
-On The Relations Of Minute Organisms To Certain Specific Diseases
At the recent Medical Congress in London, Professor Klebs undertook to answer the question: Are there specific organized causes of disease? A short historical review of the various opinions of mank...
-The Centenary Of The Discovery Of Uranus
By W. F. DENNING, F.R.A.S. The year 1781 was signalized by an astronomical discovery of great importance, and one which marked the epoch as memorable in the annals of science. A musician at Bath, Wil...
-The Centenary Of The Discovery Of Uranus. Part 2
As soon as the existence of the new orb was confirmed and the fact rendered indisputable, the question naturally arose whether it had ever been seen in former years by the authors of star catalogues, ...
-The Centenary Of The Discovery Of Uranus. Part 3
The discovery soon attracted the notice of royalty, and the reigning sovereign, George III., anxious to practically express his appreciation of the valuable labors of Herschel, awarded him a pension o...
-The Centenary Of The Discovery Of Uranus. Part 4
Notwithstanding the extreme difficulty with which the Uranian satellites are observed, the two brighter ones, Titania and Oberon, discovered by William Herschel in 1787, have been occasionally detecte...
-The Centenary Of The Discovery Of Uranus. Part 5
In commenting upon the centenary of an important scientific discovery we are naturally attracted to inquire what progress has been made in the same field during the comparatively short interval of one...
-The Varying Susceptibility Of Plants And Animals To Poisons And Diseases
Much attention is being devoted to the causes which determine the aptitude or immunity with animals for maladies. This is in a general sense called medical geography, as a physician who has prescribed...
-Kind Treatment Of Horses
It has been observed by experienced horse trainers that naturally vicious horses are rare, and that among those that are properly trained and kindly treated when colts they are the exception. It is s...
-Improved Fifteen Ton Crane
IMPROVED FIFTEEN TON TRAVELING CRANE. The machine illustrated on first page has been constructed for Port Alfred Harbor, this being one of several harbors now being made by Sir J. Coode in Sout...
-Improved Steam-Boiler
An improvement in steam-boilers, best understood by reference to the ordinary vertical form, has been introduced by Mr. T. Moy, London. Here the flue is central, and, as shown in the accompanying illu...
-The Elevated Railways Of New York
But few persons who have not been in New York since the construction of the elevated roads, and witnessed their equipments and operations, can have any adequate idea of the extent of them, and of the ...
-American Antimony
A Baltimore dispatch informs us that a carload of antimony, ten tons in all, was lately received by C.L. Oudesluys & Co., from the southern part of Utah Territory, being the first antimony received in...
-Some Of The Developments Of Mechanical Engineering During The Last Half-Century
By Sir Frederick Bramwell, V.P. Inst. C.E., F.R.S., Chairman of the Council of the Society of Arts. I am quite sure the section will agree with me in thinking it was very fortunate for us, and for sc...
-The Steam-Engine Employed For Manufacturing Purposes
In 1831, the steam-engine for these purposes was commonly the condensing beam engine, and was supplied with steam from boilers, known, from their shape, as wagon boilers; this shape appears to have be...
-The Evaporative Condenser
Moreover, all the parts of the engine are self-contained; they no longer depend upon the foundation, and in many cases the condensing is effected either by surface condensers, or, where there is not s...
-Steam Navigation
In 1831, there were a considerable number of paddle steamers running along some of the rivers in England, and across the Channel to the Continent. But there were no ocean steamers, properly so-called,...
-Marine Governors
We have also now marine engines, governed by governors of such extreme sensitiveness as to give them the semblance of being endowed with the spirit of prophecy, as they appear rather to be regulating ...
-Light Engines And Boilers
I wish, before quitting this section of my subject, to call your attention to two very interesting but very different kinds of marine engines. One is the high-speed torpedo vessel, or steam launch, of...
-The Perkins System
The second marine engine to which I wish to call your attention is one that has been made with a view to great economy. The principles followed in its construction are among those suggested by the Pre...
-Ether Engine
Our president alluded to the employment of ether as a means of utilizing the heat which escaped into the condenser, and gave some account of what was done by Mons. Du Tremblay in this direction. It so...
-The Quicksilver Engine
These was another kind of marine engine that I think should not be passed over without notice; I allude to Howard's quicksilver engine. The experiments with this engine were persevered in for some con...
-Locomotive Engines
I come now to the engines used for railways. At the British Association meeting of 1831, the Manchester and Liverpool Railway had been opened only about a year. The Stockton and Darlington coal line, ...
-Brakes
Further, we have continuous brakes of various kinds, competent in practice to absorb three miles of speed in every second of time; that is to say, if a train were going 60 miles an hour, it can be pul...
-Motors
The next subject I intend to deal with is that of motors. In 1831, we had the steam-engine, the water-wheel, the windmill, horse-power, manual power, and Stirling's hot air engines. Gas engines, indee...
-Transmission Of Power
I now come to the subject of the transmission of power. I do not mean transmission in the ordinary sense by means of shafting, gearing, or belting, but I mean transmission over long distances. In 1831...
-Compressed Air Locomotives
We have also compressed air in a portable form, and it is now employed with great success in driving tram-cars. I had occasion last January to visit Nantes, where, for eighteen months, tram-cars had b...
-Hydraulic Transmission Of Power
Then there is, although not much used, the transmitting of power by means of long steam pipes. There is also the transmission hydraulically. This may be carried out in an intermittent manner, so as to...
-Electric Transmission Of Power
In addition to the modes of transmission I have already mentioned, there is the transmission of power by means of gas. I think that there is a very large future indeed for gas engines. I do not know w...
-The Manufacture Of Iron And Steel
In 1831, Neilson's hot blast specification had been published for two and a half years only. The Butterly Company had tried the hot blast for the first time in the November preceding the meeting of th...
-Bridges
In the year 1831, bridges of cast iron existed; but no attempt had been made to employ wrought iron in girder bridges, although Telford had employed it in the Menai Suspension Bridge; but in 1881, the...
-Machine Tools
In 1831, the mention of lathes, drilling machines, and screwing machines brings me very nearly to the end of the list of the machine tools used by turners and fitters, and at that time many lathes wer...
-The Sewing Machine
In 1831, there was no means of making a seam except by the laborious process of the hand needle. In 1846, Eldred Walker patented a machine for parsing the basting thread through the gores of umbrellas...
-Agricultural Machinery
In 1831, we had thrashing machines and double plows, and even multiple plows had been proposed, tried, and abandoned. Reaping machines had been experimented with and abandoned; sowing machines were in...
-Printing Machinery
and especially as applied to the printing of newspapers. In 1831, we had the steam press sending out a few hundred copies in an hour, and doing that upon detached sheets, and thus many hours were requ...
-Amateur Mechanics. Metal Turning
In selecting a lathe an amateur may exercise more or less taste, and he may be governed somewhat by the length of his purse; the same is true in the matter of chucks; but when he comes to the selectio...
-Rotary Cutters
The saving of files, time, materials, and patience, by the employment of such rotary cutters as may be profitably used in connection with a foot lathe, can hardly be appreciated by one who has never a...
-Wood Working
It is not the intention of the writer to enter largely into the subject of wood working, but simply to suggest a few handy attachments to the foot lathe which will greatly facilitate the operations of...
-A New Method Of Keeping Mechanical Drawings
The system of keeping drawings now in use at the works of the Southwark Foundry and Machine Company, in Philadelphia, has been found so satisfactory in its operation that it seems worthy of being comm...
-Achard's Electric Brake
ELEVATION. PLAN. ACHARD'S ELECTRIC BRAKE - EASTERN RAILWAY OF FRANCE. The merits of a brake in which electric apparatus is used, that has been adopted by one large railway company, and is about ...
-Electricity; What It Is, And What May Be Expected Of It
By Jacob Reese In the consideration of this subject it is not my purpose to review the steps of discovery and development of electrical phenomena, but the object of this paper is an effort to explain...
-Electricity
What is it? Why, it is dynamic caloric. Now let us take this oxide of zinc (ZnO) and place it with charcoal in a reducing apparatus which stands on an insulated table; the apparatus is then heated, th...
-What May We Expect Of Electricity
Let us take the steam engine, and see what we are now doing by luminous combustion. Good Pittsburg coal contains 87 per cent. of carbon, 5 per cent. of hydrogen, 2 per cent. of oxygen and 6 per cent. ...
-Electric Light Apparatus For Photographic Purposes
By A.J. Jarman. For some time past it has been the desire of many photographers to have at hand a ready means of producing a powerful and highly actinic artificial light, suitable for the production ...
-Desruelles's Electric Lighter
ELECTRIC LIGHTER. The little apparatus shown in the accompanying cut will certainly find favor with smokers, as well as with persons generally who often have need of a fire or light. It forms one o...
-Solenoid Underground Wires In Philadelphia
The Evening Bulletin of the 29th October has the following: This afternoon a series of experiments were conducted at the Public Buildings which will be of great interest to electricians all over the ...
-Dr. Herz's Telephonic Systems
In an article by Count du Moncel, published in Scientific American Supplement, No 274, page 4364, the author, after describing Dr. Herz's telephonic systems, deferred to another occasion the descripti...
-Decision Of The Congress Of Electricians On The Unities Of Electric Measures
For these measures there are adopted the fundamental unities - centimeter, gramme, second, and this system is briefly designated by the letters C., G., S. The practical units, the ohm and the volt, wi...
-Secondary Batteries
By J. Rousse. In order to accumulate electricity for the production of light or motive power, the author has arranged secondary batteries, which differ from those of M.G. Plant. At the negati...
-The Treatment Of Quicksilver Ores In Spain
Though known from remote times, the date of the first opening of the famous mines of quicksilver of Almadn has not been precisely determined. Almost all the writers on the subject agree that c...
-The Balloon In Aeronautics
While it is undoubtedly true that the discovery of the balloon has very greatly retarded the science of aerostation, yet, in my opinion, its field of usefulness as a vehicle for pleasure excursions, f...
-Artists' Homes. No. 12 - Mr. William Emerson's House At Little Sutton, Chiswick
Little Sutton was an old house, parts of which were in existence before the time of Cromwell. It is situated in a picturesque old garden, surrounded by ivy-clad walls and fine trees, one of the ced...
-Memorable English Houses
In the year 1864, a letter appeared in the Journal of the Society of Arts from a correspondent, who suggested that the Society of Arts should offer a prize or prizes for designs of memorial tablets to...
-Domestic Sugar Production
The value of sugar imported into the United States, is greater than that of any other single article of commerce. In the year 1880 it appears that over one thousand eight hundred and twenty-nine milli...
-Herald Island
John Muir, the geologist with the Corwin Arctic Expedition, describes, as follows, the characteristics of Herald Island, hitherto known only as an inaccessible rock seen by a few venturesome whalers a...
-On The Summit
Kellet, who discovered this island in 1849, and landed on it under unfavorable circumstances, describes it as an inaccessible rock. The sides are, indeed, in general, extremely sheer and precipitous a...
-A Midnight Observation
The midnight hour I spent alone on the highest summit, one of the most impressive hours of my life. The deepest silence seemed to press down on all the vast, immeasurable, virgin landscape. The sun ne...
-Plant Life On Herald Island
I therefore began the return journey about one o'clock this morning, after taking the compass bearings of the principal points within sight on Wrangell Land, and making a hasty collection of the flowe...
-Inhabitants Of The Cliffs
Innumerable gulls and murres breed on the steep cliffs, the latter most abundant. They kept up a constant din of domestic notes. Some of them are sitting on their eggs, others have young, and it seems...
-Franz Liszt
On the 22d day of October, 1811, Franz Liszt, the greatest pianist of the last half century, was born at Raiding, in Hungary, and the entire musical world was united in celebrating his seventieth birt...
-M. Garnier's New Methods Of Photoengraving
By Major J. Waterhouse, B.Sc. In one of the upper rooms of the Electrical Exhibition in Paris, there is an interesting collection of plates and proofs produced by various methods of photo-engraving, ...
-Photogravure
In photo-engraving a distinction must always be made between the reproduction of drawings in line and those with shaded tints. A. - Photo-engraving of Line-work. - A plate of copper is prepared by co...
-Photographic Printing By Vapor - Atmography
This process consists in tracing or transferring by means of vapors or fumes an image of any object from one surface to another, whence the name of atmography it is proposed to give it. The operations...
-Dangers Of Pyrogallic Acid
By Dr. T.L. Phipson. Some time ago, Dr. Napias, of Paris, who devotes much of his time to matters connected with hygiene, took up the subject of the hygiene of the photographer, and published in the ...
-The Electro-Magnetic Apparatus Of Dr. Pacinotti
In admiring the recent developments of electric science as evidenced by the number of important inventions which have during the past few years been given to the world, especially in those branches of...
-The Electro-Magnetic Apparatus Of Dr. Pacinotti. Part 2
The commutator consists of a small boxwood cylinder, carrying around its cylindrical surface two rows of eight holes, one above the other, in which are fitted sixteen contact pieces of brass which sli...
-The Electro-Magnetic Apparatus Of Dr. Pacinotti. Part 3
In the part to which we refer, Dr. Pacinotti states that it occurred to him that the value of the apparatus would be greatly increased if it could be altered from an electro-magnetic to a magneto-elec...
-The Elias Electromotor
We lately published a short description of a very interesting apparatus which may be considered in some sense as a prototype of the Gramme machine, although it has very considerable, indeed radical di...
-Bjerknes's Experiments
As a general thing, too much trust should not be placed in words. In the first place, it frequently happens that their sense is not well defined, or that they are not understood exactly in the same wa...
-Bjerknes's Experiments. Part 2
We may now enter into the details of the experiments: The first is represented in Fig. 2. In a basin of water there is placed a small frame carrying a drum fixed on an axle and capable of revolving. ...
-Bjerknes's Experiments. Part 3
Fig. 5. Very curious effects are also obtained with the arrangement shown in Fig. 6. Between the two drums there is introduced a body sustained by a float such as represented at a, Fig. 4. Various ...
-The Arc Electric Light
By Leo Daft. I shall experience one difficulty in addressing you this evening, which is, that although I do not wish to take up your time with purely elementary matter, I wish to make the subject cle...
-The Arc Electric Light. Part 2
Let us now for a few moments consider what the electric light really accomplished at about this period, I mean from an economical standpoint. It appears from some data furnished by an engineer commiss...
-The Arc Electric Light. Part 3
Again, it has frequently been urged that persons working by electric light have thus induced inflammation of the eyes. No doubt this is so with light containing the highly refrangible rays in excess; ...
-Success Of The Elevated Railways, New York
The travel over the elevated steam street railways of New York city for month of October, 1881, was the heaviest yet recorded, aggregating 7,121,961 passengers, as against 5,881,474, for the correspon...
-Hedges' Electric Lamps
We illustrate a very curious and interesting form of electric regulator which is exhibited in the Paris Exhibition of Electricity by Mr. Killingworth Hedges, whose name will be known to our readers as...
-Railway Apparatus At The Paris Electrical Exhibition
Lartigue's Switch Controller The object of this apparatus is to warn the switch tender in case the switch does not entirely respond to the movement of the maneuvering lever. Fig. 1. - Lartigue's S...
-Railway Apparatus At The Paris Electrical Exhibition. Part 2
The Brunot Controller As A Controller Of The Passage Of Trains The Brunot Controller, which has been employed for several years on the Railway of the North, is designed to control the regularity of t...
-Railway Apparatus At The Paris Electrical Exhibition. Part 3
The Annunciator Apparatus This apparatus, which performs the same role as the one just described, is simply an ingenious modification of the annunciator used in hotels, etc. It consists of a wooden ...
-The Telephonic Halls Of The Electrical Exhibition
Telephonic communication between the Opera and the Exhibition of Electricity is obtained by means of twenty conducting wires, which are divided between two halls hung with carpets to deaden external n...
-The Action Of Cold On The Volt
When the voltaic arc plays between two metallic rheophores, of copper for instance, each formed of a U-tube traversed by a rapid current of cold water, and placed horizontally opposite each other, the...
-Watchman's Detecter
We herewith illustrate an exceedingly simple form of detecter, to show if the night watchmen perform their visits regularly and punctually. In the case, C, is a clockwork apparatus driving the axle, S...
-Integrating Apparatus
At a recent meeting of the London Physical Society, Mr. C. Vernon Boys read a paper on Integrating Apparatus. After referring to his original cart machine for integrating, described at a former me...
-A Canal Boat Propelled By Air
A novelty in canal boats lies in Charles River, near the foot of Chestnut street, which is calculated to attract considerable attention. It is called a pneumatic canal boat and was built at Wiscasset,...
-Head Linings Of Passenger Cars
The veneer ceilings are considered as much superior to cloth as cloth was to the roof-ceiling. They are remarkably chaste, and so solid and substantial that but little decoration is necessary to produ...
-Improved Mortar Mixer
The engravings herewith illustrate a new form of mixing or pugging machine for making mortar or any other similar material. It has been designed by Mr. R.R. Gubbins, more especially for mixing emery w...
-Practical Notes On Plumbing
By P.J. DAVIES, H.M.A.S.P., etc. Tinning Iron Pipes, Copper Or Brass-Work, Bits, Etc Previously, I described the method of tinning the bit, etc., with resin; but before this work on joints can be co...
-Practical Notes On Plumbing. Part 2
Bends And Set-Offs Before you begin bending solid pressed pipes always put the thickest part of your pipe at the back. Lead, in a good plumber's hands, may be twisted into every conceivable shape; bu...
-Practical Notes On Plumbing. Part 3
Bending With Balls Or Bobbins This style of work is much practiced on small pipes, such as 2 in. to 3 in., especially by London plumbers. Method: Suppose your pipe to be 2 in., then you require your ...
-Practical Notes On Plumbing. Part 4
Bending By Splitting Or Split-Made Bends This method of bending is much practiced in the provinces, and, for anything I know to the contrary, is one of the best methods in use, as by it you are likel...
-Practical Notes On Plumbing. Part 5
Pulling Up Bends In London, it is the favorite plan to make bends without cutting them. Fig. 46. It is done by taking a length of pipe, and, just where you require the bend, lay it (with the seam at ...
-Practical Notes On Plumbing. Part 6
Bends Made Into Traps Or Retarders It will sometimes be found requisite to retard the flow of water when running through soil or other pipes, or to direct it to another course, or even to form a trap...
-The Grossenhain Shuttle-Driver
The manufacture of fabrics having woofs of different colors requires the use of several shuttles and boxes containing the different colors at the extremity of the driver's travel, in which these boxes...
-Industrial Art For Women - Carpet Designing
A meeting of ladies was held in this city recently to consider the possibilities of industrial art in furnishing occupation for women. Mrs. Florence E. Cory, Principal of the Woman's Institute of Tec...
-Photography Upon Canvas
One of the most extensive establishments for the purpose is that of Messrs. Winter, in Vienna. They say to photographers in general: If you will send us a portrait, either negative or positive, we wil...
-Detection Of Starch Sugar Sirup Mixed With Sugar-House Molasses
By P. Casamajor. In previous communications I have given processes for detecting the adulteration of cane-sugar by starch-sugar. The adulteration of sugar-house sirups by starch glucose is still more...
-False Vermilion
A curious case has been noticed in Germany, where a small cargo of vermilion was purchased, and, upon being analyzed, turned out to be red oxide of lead colored by eosine. This is an entirely novel so...
-The Position Of Manganese In Modern Industry
By M.V. Deshayes. No body among the metals and the metalloids (silicium, titanium, tungsten, chromium, phosphorus, etc.) has occupied a more prominent position in modern metallurgy than manganese, an...
-The Position Of Manganese In Modern Industry. Continued
Cu. Sn. Mn. Weightoffracture. Elongation Ordinary Bronze 90 10 20 kil. 4.00 Bronze with Manganese, A, 90 10 0.5 24 kil. 15.00 Do. B, 90 10 1.0 26 kil. 20.00 The White Brass Co., of Lond...
-The Economical Washing Of Coal Gas And Smoke
In a recent number of the Journal des Usines Gaz appears a note by M. Chevalet, on the chemical and physical purification of gas, which was one of the papers submitted to the Socit&ea...
-Determination Of Nitrogen In Hair, Wool, Dried Blood, Flesh Meal, And Leather Scraps
By Dr. C. Krauch. Differences obtained in the estimation of nitrogen in the above substances are frequently the source of much annoyance. The cause of these discrepancies is chiefly due to the lack o...
-Testing White Beeswax For Ceresine And Paraffins
By A. Peltz. The method which is here recommended originated with Dr. M. Buchner, and consists in preparing a concentrated solution of alcoholic caustic potash - one part caustic potash to three of 9...
-The Prevention Of Alcoholic Fermentation By Fungi
By Prof. E. Reichard. The manager of a well directed brewery, which was built according to the latest improvements and provided with ice-cooling arrangements, found that the alcoholic fermentation of...
-New Reaction Of Glycerine
If two drops of phenic acid are diluted with three thousand to five thousand parts of water, a distinct blue color is produced by one drop of solution of perchloride of iron. The addition of six or e...
-Lycopodine
While the phanerogams or flowering plants annually contribute to the list of newly discovered alkaloids, with the exception of muscarine and amanitine, no alkaloid has as yet been definitely recognize...
-Conchinamine
Some years ago, O. Hesse, when preparing chinamine from the renewed bark of Cinchona succirubra, found in the mother liquid a new alkaloid, which he then briefly designated as conchinamine. He has lat...
-Chinoline
The valuable properties of which chinoline has been found to be possessed have led to its admission as a therapeutic agent, and the discoverer of these properties, Jul. Donath, of Baja, in Hungary, in...
-Preparation Of Coniine
Dr. J. Schorm, of Vienna, the author of this paper, after remarking that in spite of the increase of the consumption of coniine, the methods hitherto in vogue for preparing it yielded an article which...
-Strontianite
Since it has been shown by Professor Scheibler, of Berlin, that strontium is the most powerful medium of extraction in sugar refining, owing to its capacity of combining with three parts of saccharate...
-Parangi - A Newly Described Disease
A peculiar contagious disease, called framboesia, or the yaws, has long been known to exist in Africa, the West Indies, and the northern parts of the British Islands. It is chronic in character, and i...
-A Castor Oil Substitute
So far back as 1849, Mr. Alexander Ure investigated the purgative properties of the oil of anda. The specimen with which the experiments were tried had not been freshly prepared, and had indeed been l...
-Household And Other Recipes
Mr. Jas. W. Parkinson gives in a recent number of the Confectioner's Journal the following useful recipes: Christmas Plum Pudding Stone a pound of bloom raisins; wash and clean a pound of Zante curr...
-Household And Other Recipes. Part 2
Egg-Nog, Or Auld Man's Milk Separate the whites and yolks of a dozen fresh eggs. Put the yolks into a basin and beat them to a smooth cream with half a pound of finely pulverized sugar. Into this sti...
-Household And Other Recipes. Part 3
Pheasants A pheasant should have a clear, steady fire, but not a fierce one. The pheasant, being a rather dry bird, requires to be larded, or put a piece of beef or a rump steak into the inside of it...
-Household And Other Recipes. Part 4
Plum Porridge For Christmas Festivities Make a good strong broth from four pounds of veal and an equal quantity of shin of beef. Strain and skim off the fat when cold. Wash and stone three pounds and...
-Household And Other Recipes. Part 5
Pumpkin Pie What moistens the lip, and what brightens the eye? What calls back the past like the rich pumpkin pie? Stew about two pounds of pumpkins, then add to it three-quarters of a pound of su...
-Household And Other Recipes. Part 6
Orange Salad This somewhat inappropriately-named dish is made by removing the rind and cutting the fruit in slices crosswise and adding equal quantities of brandy and Madeira, in proportion to the qu...
-Black Cake (Parkinson's Own)
If you have lips, prepare to smack them now. - Shakspeare, slightly altered. Take one and a half pounds of the best butter, and the same weight of pulverized sugar; beat them together to a cream;...
-The Bayeux Tapestry Comet
Professor Hind, of the British Nautical Almanac Office, recently sent an interesting letter to the London Times on the comet depicted in that famous piece of embroidery known as the Bayeux Tapestry. P...
-Lack Of Sun Light
Some interesting information as to the way in which the human system is affected under the peculiar conditions of work in mines has been furnished by M. Fabre, from experiences connected with the coal...
-Synthetic Experiments On The Artificial Reproduction Of Meteorites
By means of igneous fusion the authors have succeeded in reproducing two types of crystalline associations, which, in their mineralogical composition and the principal features of their structure, are...
-Machine Tools For Boiler-Makers
We give this week an engraving of a radial drilling machine designed especially for the use of boiler-makers, this machine, together with the plate bending rolls, forming portion of a plant constructe...
-Modern Ordnance
[Footnote: A paper read Feb. 8, 1882, before the Society of Arts, London.] By COLONEL MAITLAND. A great change has lately been taking place throughout Europe in the matter of armaments. Artillery kn...
-Modern Ordnance. Part 2
If, now, a steel tube, suitable for the lining of a gun, be prepared by having wire wound round it very tightly, layer over layer, it will be compressed as the winding proceeds, and the tension of the...
-Modern Ordnance. Part 3
There is yet one more point in which breech-loading has recently been found, in the Royal Gun Factory, to possess a great advantage over muzzle-loading as regards ballistic effect. With a shot loaded ...
-Modern Ordnance. Part 4
Having now decided on the material of which the gun is to be composed, and the manner in which it is to be constructed, and having, moreover, settled the knotty point of how it is to be loaded, we com...
-Modern Ordnance. Part 5
Now, consider the case of guns mounted in ships. You at once perceive the difficulties of the shooter. Even supposing the ship to be one of our magnificent ironclads, solid, steady, yielding little to...
-Oscillating Cylinder Locomotive
This locomotive is the design of Mr. Henry F. Shaw, of Boston. This engine has oscillating cylinders placed between the driving-wheels. Fig. 2 represents a section of one of these cylinders, from whi...
-Gas Motors And Producers
By C.W. SIEMENS, London. The cylinder of the engine--assuming that it has only a single-acting one, placed with its axis vertical--consists of two parts; the upper hot part being lined with plumbago,...
-The Bazin System Of Dredging
By MR. A.A. LANGLEY. This paper, lately read before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London, is a description of the construction and working of a dredger on M. Bazin's system, as used by the...
-Cost Of Working
The vessel or barge for carrying the machinery and pumps cost 600, and the contract price of the machinery and pumps was 1,200. But before the dredger was taken over by the company the a...
-Danger From Lightning In Blasting
Although the accident in the tunnel in process of construction at Union Hill by the New York, Ontario, and Western Railroad Company, which took place on Tuesday afternoon, was happily attended with no...
-Cast Iron In Architecture
Whatever may be the misgivings entertained by many engineers respecting the future use of cast iron for structures of certain kinds, it is clear that for architectural purposes this material is likely...
-Sir W. Palliser
We announce with regret the death of Major Sir William Palliser, which took place suddenly on February 4, 1882. Sir William had been suffering from disease of the heart for a considerable period, but ...
-The Cedars Of Lebanon
Regulations were lately issued by Rustem Pasha for the guidance of travelers and others visiting the Cedars of Lebanon. These venerable trees have now been fenced in, but, with certain restrictions, t...
-On The Mechanical Production Of Electric Currents
The object of these articles is to lay down in the simplest and most intelligible way the principles which are concerned in the mechanical production of electric currents. Every one knows now that ele...
-On The Mechanical Production Of Electric Currents. Part 2
Fig. 3 We will next consider the space surrounding a wire through which a current of electricity is flowing. This wire has magnetic properties so long as the current continues, and will, like a m...
-On The Mechanical Production Of Electric Currents. Part 3
Fig. 9. The next point to be studied is the magnetic property of a single loop of the wire through which an electric current flows. Fig. 9 represents a single voltaic cell containing the usual pl...
-On The Mechanical Production Of Electric Currents. Part 4
Faraday's great discovery was, in fact, that when the pole of a magnet is moved into, or moved out of, a coil of wire, the motion produces, while it lasts, currents of electricity in the coil. Such cu...
-On The Unit Weight And Mode Of Constitution Of Compounds
Dr. Odling delivered a lecture on the above before the Chemical Society, London, February 2, 1882. The lecturer said that it had been found useful to occasionally bring forward various points of chem...
-French Toilet Articles
Mr. Martenson, of St. Petersburg, who, it will be remembered, was one of the Russian delegates to the International Pharmaceutical Congress, has been analyzing a number of French preparations for the ...
-On The Mydriatic Alkaloids
By ALBERT LADENBURG. We translate the following important article, says the Chemists' Journal, from the Moniteur Scientifique of last month. It may be explained for the sake of our student readers th...
-I.--Atropine
Discovered by Mein in 1831 in the roots of belladonna. More thoroughly studied some time after by Geiger and Hesse, who confirmed Mein's results. Liebig next published an analysis of the alkaloid, whi...
-II.--The Atropine Of Datura Stramonium
Planta has already tried to show that atropine is identical with the daturine obtained by Geiger and Hesse, founding his opinion on facts which we nowadays look upon as doubtful. This identity was gen...
-III.--Hyoscyamine From Hyoscyamus
Discovered by Geiger and Hesse in 1833. It was first obtained in the form of needles, which were much more soluble than atropine. In the pure state it forms a viscous mass with a repulsive odor. These...
-Detection Of Small Quantities Of Morphia
By A. JORISSEN. The solution of morphia, free from foreign bodies, is evaporated to dryness, and the residue is heated on the water bath with a few drops of sulphuric acid. A minute crystal of ferrou...
-On The Estimation Of Manganese By Titration
[Footnote: From Jernkontorets Annaler, vol. xxxvi.--Iron.] By C. G. SARNSTROM. If we dissolve black oxide of manganese, permanganate of potash, or any other compound of manganese of a higher degree ...
-On The Estimation Of Manganese By Titration. Continued
As what takes place in the titration of iron with chameleon is indicated by the following formula, 10FeO + 2KMnO = 5FeO + KO + 2MnO, it appears, on making a comparison with the formula given above, ...
-On The Estimation And Separation Of Manganese
[Footnote: Read before the American Chemical Society, Dec. 16, 1881] By NELSON H. DARTON. The element manganese having many peculiarities in its reactions with the other elements, is now extensively...
-Researches On Animals Containing Chlorophyl
[Footnote: Abstract of a paper On the Nature and Functions of the 'Yellow Cells' of Radiolarians and Coelenterates, read to the Royal Society of Edinburgh, on January 14, 1882, and published by perm...
-Researches On Animals Containing Chlorophyl. Part 2
Meanwhile similar bodies were being described by the investigators of other groups. Haeckel had already compared the yellow cells of Radiolarians to the so-called liver-cells of Velella; but the broth...
-Researches On Animals Containing Chlorophyl. Part 3
But what is the physiological relationship of the plants and animal thus so curiously and intimately associated? Every one knows that all the colorless cells of a plant share the starch formed by the ...
-Compressed Oil Gas For Lighting Cars, Steamboats, And Buoys
We give in the accompanying figures the arrangement of the different apparatus necessary for the manufacture and compression of illuminating gas on the system of Mr. Pintsch, as well as the arrangemen...
-Compressed Oil Gas For Lighting Cars, Steamboats, And Buoys. Part 2
Application To Cars We show in the accompanying engravings the mode of installation that the inventor has finally adopted for railway purposes. Each car is furnished, perpendicularly to its length, w...
-Compressed Oil Gas For Lighting Cars, Steamboats, And Buoys. Part 3
Lighting Buoys in which case it is compressed into large reservoirs placed on a boat. The buoys employed are generally of from 90 to 285 cubic feet capacity, affording a lighting for from 35 to 100 d...
-Delicate Test For Oxygen
T. W. Engelmann proposes, in the Botanische Zeitung, a new test, of an extremely delicate nature, for determining the presence of very minute quantities of oxygen, namely: its power of exciting the mo...
-Determination Of Small Quantities Of Arsenic In Sulphur
By H SCHAEPPI. Ten grms. of sulphur, pulverized as finely as possible, are covered with hot water and a few drops of nitric acid digested for some time, filtered, and washed till the washings have no...
-How To Plant Trees
By N. ROBERTSON, Government Grounds, Ottawa. A great deal has been written and said about tree planting. Some advise one way, some another. I will give you my method, with which I have been very succ...
-The Growth Of Palms
In a paper (Russian) recently read before the Botanical Section of the St. Petersburg Natural History Society, Mr. K. Friderich describes in detail the anatomical structures to be met with in the aeri...
-The Future Of Silk Culture In The United States
Report By Consul Peixotto, Of Lyons In my dispatch, No. 140, dated September 1, 1880, I referred to the fact that new machinery for reeling silk had been invented, which, in my opinion, was destined ...
-The Future Of Silk Culture In The United States. Part 2
Another grave defect in the estimates alluded to is that all the profit is assumed to be paid to the reeler. This can evidently only be the case when each reeler runs her own reel, owns and cares for ...
-The Future Of Silk Culture In The United States. Part 3
Let any one who doubts this consider the dairy work and similar industries, and try to calculate how much per diem the women thus occupied at home gain in money. It may be said with entire accuracy th...
-The Hibernation Of Animals
Don't black bears sleep through the winter? questioned the writer of an attendant who was dealing out mid-day rations of bread and milk at the park. That's the general impression, was the rejoind...
-The Hibernation Of Animals. Continued
The hedgehog is a sound winter sleeper, and has been the subject of an infinite number of experiments while in this condition. One experimentalist, believing that cold was the cause of their curious c...
-The Tides
London Nature, in a recent issue, says: From a scientific point of view, the work done by the tides is of unspeakable importance. Whence is this energy derived with which the tides do their work? If t...
-Drilling Glass
The Revue Industrielle gives the following method of drilling holes in glass: First, prepare a saturated solution of gum camphor in oil of turpentine. Then take a lance-shaped drill, heat it to a whit...
-Metamorphosis Of The Deer's Antlers
Every year in March the deer loses its antlers, and fresh ones immediately begin to grow, which exceed in size those that have just been lost. Few persons probably have been able to watch and observe ...
-Monkeys
By ALFRED R. WALLACE. If the skeleton of an orang-outang and a chimpanzee be compared with that of a man, there will be found to be the most wonderful resemblance, together with a very marked diversi...
-The Different Kinds Of Monkeys And The Countries They Inhabit
Monkeys are usually divided into three kinds--apes, monkeys, and baboons; but these do not include the American monkeys, which are really more different from all those of the Old World than any of the...
-American Monkeys
The monkeys which inhabit America form three very distinct groups: 1st, the Sapajous, which have prehensile or grasping tails; 2nd, the Sagouins, which have ordinary tails, either long or short; and, ...
-Lemurs
In the general term, monkeys, considered as equivalent to the order Primates, or the Quadrumana of naturalists, we have to include another sub-type, that of the Lemurs. These animals are of a lower gr...
-Distribution, Affinities, And Zoological Rank Of Monkeys
Having thus sketched an outline of the monkey tribe as regards their more prominent external characters and habits, we must say a few words on their general relations as a distinct order of mammalia. ...
-Silk-Producing Bombyces And Other Lepidoptera Reared In 1881
By ALFRED WAILLY, Membre Laurat de la Socit d'Acclimatation de France. By referring to my reports for the years 1879 and 1880, which appeared in the Journal of the Society of ...
-Actias Selene
With sixty cocoons I only obtained one pairing. The moths emerged from the beginning of March till the 13th of August, at intervals of some duration, or in batches of males or females. I obtained a pa...
-Hybrid Roylei-Pernyi
I have said that it is extremely difficult to obtain the pairing of Roylei moths in captivity. But the male Pernyi paired readily with the female Roylei. I obtained six such pairings, and a large quan...
-Attacus Atlas
For the first time, as stated before, I attempted the rearing of a small number of Atlas larv in the open air on the ailantus tree, but had to remove the last two remaining larv in Septe...
-Attacus Cynthia, From The Province Of Kumaon
With the Atlas cocoons, a large quantity of Cynthia cocoons were collected in the province of Kumaon. Both species had, no doubt, fed on the same trees; as the Cynthia, like the Atlas cocoons, were al...
-Telea Polyphemus
As I have stated in former years, this is the best North American silkworm, producing a closed cocoon, somewhat smaller than that of Pernyi, but the silk seems as good as that of Pernyi. The cocoons ...
-Samia Gloveri
Three North American silk-producing bombyces, very closely allied, have been mentioned in my previous reports; they are; Samia ceanothi, from California; Samia gloveri, from Utah and Arizona; and Sami...
-Samia Gloveri. Continued
Here are a few and short notes from my book: 1st stage. Larv, about one-third of an inch; head, brown, shiny, and globulous. 2d stage. Larv, dark-brown, almost black; spines, white at ...
-Mosquito Oil
A correspondent from Sheepshead Bay, a place celebrated for the size of its mosquitoes and the number of its amateur fishermen, recommends the following as a very good mixture for anointing the face a...
-The Cathedral Of Burgos
This most remarkable structure, in the province of the same name, adorns the city of Burgos, 130 miles north of Madrid. The corner stone was laid July 20, A.D. 1221, by Fernando III., and his Queen Be...
-The Panama Canal
By MANUEL EISSLER, M.E., of San Francisco, Cal. I. Historical Notes When Cortez, in the year 1530, made the observation that the two great oceans could be seen from the peaks of mountains, he, in th...
-The Panama Canal. Part 2
Among them, by priority of right and by her energy, was Spain. The great emperor was urgent on the conqueror of Mexico, and on all in subordinate positions in New Spain, to solve the secret of the str...
-The Panama Canal. Part 3
The Isthmus of Nicaragua has always invited serious consideration for a ship canal route by its very marked physical characteristics, among which is chiefly its great depression between two nearly par...
-Improved Averaging Machine
At the recent meeting of the American Society of Civil Engineers, in this city, a paper on an improved form of the averaging machine was read by its inventor, Mr. Wm. S. Auchincloss. The ingenious me...
-Compound Beam Engine
The engine represented in Figs. 1 to 4 herewith is intended for a mill, and is of 530 to 800 indicated horse-power, the pressure being seven atmospheres, and the number of revolutions forty-five per m...
-Power Hammers With Movable Fulcrum
[Footnote: Paper read before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers.--Engineering.] By DANIEL LONGWORTH, of London. The movable-fulcrum power hammer was designed by the writer about five and a half...
-Power Hammers With Movable Fulcrum. Continued
Fig. 3 gives the details of the pneumatic connection between the main piston and the hammer, in which packing and packing glands are dispensed with. The hammer, G, is of cast steel, bored out to fit t...
-The Bicheroux System Of Furnaces Applied To The Puddling Of Iron
Since the year 1872, the large iron works at Ougre, near Liege, have applied the Bicheroux system of furnaces to heating, and, since the year 1877, to puddling. The results that have been obta...
-Gessner's Continuous Cloth-Pressing Machine
It is well known that there are several serious drawbacks in the usual plan of pressing woolen or worsted cloths and felts with press plates, press papers, and presses. Three objections of great weigh...
-Improvements In Woolen Carding Engines
Mr. Bolette, who has made a name for himself in connection with strap dividers, has experimented in another direction on the carding engine, and as his ideas contain some points of novelty we herewith...
-Novelties In Ring Spindles
One of the drawbacks of ring spinning is the uneven pull of the traveler, which is the more difficult to counteract as it is exerted in jerks at irregular intervals. It is argued that with spindles an...
-Photo-Engraving On Zinc Or Copper
By LEON VIDAL. This process is similar in many respects to the one which was some time ago communicated to the Photographic Society of France by M. Stronbinsky, of St. Petersburg, but in a much impro...
-Meridian Line
[Footnote: From Proceedings of the Association of County Surveyors of Ohio, Columbus, January, 1882.] The following process has been used by the undersigned for many years. The true meridian can thus...
-Angle Of Elongation
This should be computed by the surveyor for each observation. The distance between the star and the pole is continually diminishing, and on January 1, 1882, was 1 18' 48. There is a slight annu...
-Electro-Mania
By W. MATTIEU WILLIAMS. A history of electricity, in order to be complete, must include two distinct and very different subjects: the history of electrical science, and a history of electrical exagge...
-Electro-Mania. Continued
The Faure accumulator is but a very weak affair compared with this, Sir William Thomson notwithstanding. To render the date of the above fully appreciable, I may note that three months later the magaz...
-Action Of Magnets Upon The Voltaic Arc
The action of magnets upon the voltaic arc has been known for a long time past. Davy even succeeded in influencing the latter powerfully enough in this way to divide it, and since his time Messrs. Gro...
-Volckmar's Secondary Batteries
The inventive genius of the country is now directed to these important accessories of electric enterprise, and no wonder, for as far as can at present be seen, the secret of electric motion lies in th...
-The Mineralogical Localities In And Around New York City, And The Minerals Occurring Therein
By NELSON H. DARTON. There will be many persons in the city of New York and its suburbs who will not have the time or facilities for leaving town during the summer, to spend a part of their time enjo...
-The Mineralogical Localities In And Around New York City. Part 2
The Specific Gravity In ascertaining the specific gravity the following apparatus is necessary: a small pair of hand scales with a set of weights, from one grain to one ounce. These can be procured f...
-The Mineralogical Localities In And Around New York City. Part 3
Action Of Hot Acids This very important test is never, like the above, applicable upon the field, but applied when home is reached. From the body of the mineral as pure and clean as possible a portio...
-The Mineralogical Localities In And Around New York City. Part 4
Modes Of Occurrence Of The Minerals In general, the greater number of the specimens which are to be found in the tunnel occur in veins generally perpendicular, and with other minerals of little or no...
-Calcite
This mineral occurs in great abundance in and about the tunnel, and from all the shafts. There are two forms occurring there, the most abundant of which is the rhombohedral, after Fig. 3. It can gener...
-Natrolite
The finest specimens of this mineral that have ever been found in Bergen Hill were taken from a bed of it in this tunnel, having in its original form, before it was cut out by the tunnel passing throu...
-Datholite
This mineral has been found very frequently in the tunnel, it occurring in pockets in the softer trap near the chlorite, and also in the latter, generally at a depth of one hundred and fifty feet from...
-Apopholite
This beautiful mineral has been found in fair abundance at times in Shafts No. 1 and 2 in pockets, and seldom in place, most of it being taken from the loose stone at the mouth of the shaft, and it ma...
-Phrenite
This mineral is quite abundant in Shafts No. 1 and 2, in very small masses, incrustations, and even in small crystals. It occurs embedded in or incrusting the trap, and also with calcite and apopholit...
-Iron And Copper Pyrites
Both of these common but frequently beautiful minerals occur in the tunnel and adjacent rocks in great abundance. The crystals are generally about one-fourth of an inch in diameter, and groups of thes...
-Stilbite
Small quantities of this beautiful mineral have been found in Shaft No. 2, in a small bed of but a few square feet in area, but quite thick and appearing much like natrolite. This bed was about one hu...
-Heulandite
This rare mineral has been found under the same conditions as laumonite in Shaft No. 2, but it is seldom to be met with, and then in small crystals. It is of a pure white color, sometimes transparent....
-To Distinguish The Minerals Together The One From The Other
Calcite by effervescing on placing a drop of acid upon it. Natrolite resembles stilbite, but may be distinguished by gelatinizing readily with hydrochloric acid and by not intumescing when heated befo...
-Antiseptics
The author has endeavored to ascertain what agents are able to destroy the spores of bacilli, how they behave toward the microphytes most easily destroyed, such as the moulds, ferments, and micrococci...
-Crystallization And Its Effects Upon Iron
By N.B. WOOD, Member of the Civil Engineers' Club, of Cleveland. [Footnote: Read January 10th. 1882.] The question has been asked, What is the chemically scientific definition of crystallization? ...
-Crystallization And Its Effects Upon Iron. Continued
Fresenius defines it thus: Every operation, or process, whereby bodies are made to pass from the fluid to the solid state, and to assume certain fixed, mathematically definable, regular forms. It wo...
-The New Parliament Building, Berlin
In the accompanying engravings are represented the two prize designs for the new Capitol or Parliament Building at Berlin, of which one is by Prof. Friedrich Thiersch, of Munich, and the other by Mr. ...
-The British Sanitary Congress. Address Of President Galton
The Congress of the Sanitary Institute of Great Britain was opened in Newcastle on September 26. The inaugural public meeting was held in the Town Hall. Prof. De Chaumont presided, in the place of the...
-The British Sanitary Congress. Address Of President Galton. Part 2
As an instance of this nearer home, I may mention that last winter at Cannes, in the south of France, some extensive works adjacent to the town were begun which required a large quantity of earth to b...
-The British Sanitary Congress. Address Of President Galton. Part 3
From this point the President proceeded to speak of the increased toxical power of volatile compounds given off by neglected decomposed matter, and was thence led to dwell upon the dangers arising fro...
-The British Sanitary Congress. Address Of President Galton. Part 4
He remarked that these improved dwellings afford accommodation to a population per acre as dense as, and in most cases even denser than, that afforded by the buildings which they replaced. Within lim...
-Psychological Development In Children
[Footnote: Die Seele des Kindes Beobachtungen ueber die geistige Entwickelung des Menschen in den ersten Lebensjahren. Von W. Preyer, ordentlichen Professor der Physiologie an der Universitaet und Dir...
-Psychological Development In Children. Part 2
A chapter is devoted to imitative movements. At the end of the fifteenth week the child would imitate the movement of protruding the lips, at nine months would cry on hearing other children do so, and...
-Psychological Development In Children. Part 3
The long disquisition on the acquirement of speech is supplemented by a chapter conveying the observations of other writers upon the same subject. This is followed by an interesting chapter on the dev...
-The Racial Characteristics Of Man
DR. ZERFFI, F. R. Hist. S., recently delivered the first of the inaugural lectures in connection with the opening of the Crystal Palace Company's School of Art, on The Racial Characteristics of Man S...
-Eccentricity And Idiosyncrasy
[Footnote: An extract from a Treatise on Insanity shortly to be published by D. Appleton & Co.] By WILLIAM A. HAMMOND, M.D., Surgeon-General U.S. Army (Retired List), Professor of Diseases of the Min...
-Eccentricity And Idiosyncrasy. Part 2
The subjects of the other form occupy a lower level. They affect singularity for the purpose of attracting attention to themselves, and thus obtaining the notoriety which they crave with every breath ...
-Eccentricity And Idiosyncrasy. Part 3
Idiosyncrasy By idiosyncrasy we understand a peculiarity of constitution by which an individual is affected by external agents in a manner different from mankind in general. Thus, some persons cannot...
-Pyorrhea Alveolaris
[Footnote: Abstract from a paper lately read before the Southern Dental Association, Baltimore, Md.] By Dr. J. M. RIGGS, of Hartford, Conn. A gentleman, a physician, aged thirty-two years, strong an...
-Pyorrhea Alveolaris. Continued
Another Case A lady called in great distress. Nearly all her teeth were affected, and the discharge was most offensive and abundant; if she lay on her side in bed, the pillow would be covered with la...
-Sulphur As A Preservative Against Marsh Fever
At a recent meeting of the Paris Academy, M. D'Abbadie called attention to some facts regarding marsh fever, which African travelers and others might do well to ponder. Some elephant hunters from plat...
-Hydraulic Filtering Press For Treating Oleaginous Seeds
Messrs. Laurent Bros. & Collot exhibited at the Paris Universal Exhibition in 1878 a patented hydraulic apparatus styled a filtering press, the principle and construction of which it will prove of int...
-Hydraulic Filtering Press For Treating Oleaginous Seeds. Continued
General Manipulation Of The Press Supposing the filter in the position shown in Figs. 3 and 4, at the moment the seedcake is about to drop out: the operator takes hold of the lock lever, N, with his ...
-Laurent & Collot's Automatic Injection Pump
As well known, in every well-constructed injection pump, there is a system of gearing which acts upon the suction valve and stops the operation of the pump as soon as the requisite pressure is reached...
-History Of The Fire Extinguisher
The first fire extinguishers were of the annihilator pattern, so arranged in a building that when a fire occurred carbonic acid gas was evolved, and, if the conditions were right (as the mediums say...
-How To Tow A Boat
A correspondent of Engineering News says: Those living on swift streams, and using small boats, often have occasion to tow up stream. So do surveyors, hunters campers, tourists, and others. One man ca...
-Railways Of Europe And America
The following table, which has been prepared by the French Ministry of Public Works, gives the railway mileage of the various countries of Europe and the United States up to the end of last year, with...
-Before It Happened
AT 9 A.M. on Wednesday, September 13, the correspondent of a press agency dispatched a telegram to London with the intimation that the great battle at Tel-el-Kebir was practically over. It may possibl...
-The Ader Relay
This new instrument has excited considerable interest among telegraph and telephone men by its exceeding sensitiveness. It is so sensitive to the passage of an electric current that a battery formed w...
-The Platinum Water Pyrometer
By J. C. HOADLEY. The following description of the apparatus used for the determination of high temperatures, up nearly to the melting point of platinum, is offered in answer to several inquiries on ...
-The Platinum Water Pyrometer. Part 2
Heat Carriers For these platinum is greatly to be preferred to any other known substance. Its rather high cost is the only objection to its use. Its heat capacity is low, by weight, but its specific ...
-The Platinum Water Pyrometer. Part 3
Manipulation Small graphite crucibles with covers, as shown in section, in Fig. 2, serve to guard against losing the ball, to handle it by when hot, and to protect it against loss of heat during tran...
-Locomotive Painting
[Footnote: A paper read before the Master Car Painters' Association, Chicago, September, 1883.] By JOHN S. ATWATER. The subject of locomotive painting has been pretty well discussed at the former me...
-"Crackle" Glass
An ingenious process of producing glass with an iced or crackled surface, suitable for many decorative purposes, has been invented in France by Bay. The product appears in the form of sheets or panes,...
-How Marbles Are Made
Marbles are named from the Latin word marmor, by which similar playthings were known to the boys of Rome, 2,000 years ago. Some marbles are made of potter's clay and baked in an oven just as earthen...
-Drawing-Room Photography
Among the examples we have received are some which would certainly do credit to any professional artist, alike for the posing, lighting, and general treatment; indeed, we may say that some of the pose...
-A New Method Of Preparing Photographic Gelatine Emulsion By Precipitation Of The Bromide Of Silver
By FRANZ STOLZE, Ph.D. I consider the method of precipitation described below as far superior to any other hitherto employed, particularly on account of its infallible certainty. I began at first wit...
-Taylor's Freezing Microtome
This microtome presents all the advantages of any plan heretofore employed in hardening animal or vegetable tissues for section cutting, while it has many advantages over all other devices employed fo...
-Vincent's Chloride Of Methyl Ice Machine
Chloride of methyl was discovered in 1840 by Messrs. Dumas and Peligot, who obtained it by treating methylic alcohol with a mixture of sea salt and sulphuric acid. It is a gaseous product at ordinary ...
-Vincent's Chloride Of Methyl Ice Machine. Part 2
The Freezer This consists of a rectangular iron tank, 1 meter x 1 meter x 1.5 meters, containing a galvanized plate iron cylinder, A, kept in place by iron supports. This cylinder contains 24 horizon...
-Vincent's Chloride Of Methyl Ice Machine. Part 3
The Liquefier This apparatus consists of a cylindrical tank, L, of 3 mm. thick boiler plate, mounted vertically on a masonry base and designed to be constantly fed with cool water. It contains a seco...
-Carbonic Acid In The Air
[Footnote: An address before the Paris Academy.] By M. DUMAS. Of all the gases that the atmosphere contains, there is one which offers a special interest, as well on account of the part ascribed to ...
-Carbonic Acid In The Air. Continued
J. Reiset, who has conducted a long and tedious series of experiments on this subject, has adopted a process that seems to offer every guarantee of accuracy. The air that furnishes the carbonic acid i...
-The Influence Of Aqueous Vapor On The Explosion Of Carbonic Oxide And Oxygen
[Footnote: Read before the British Association, Southampton Meeting, Section B, 1882.] By HAROLD B. DIXON, M.A., Millard Lecturer in Chemistry, Balliol and Trinity Colleges, Oxford. Two years ago I ...
-Composition Of Beers Made Partly From Raw Grain
At the present time English brewers are being denounced for substituting properly-prepared maize, rice, and other raw grain for barley malt, and the beers produced partly from such materials are descr...
-Double Buttercups
Among early summer flowers in open borders few are prettier than the double-flowered kinds of ranunculus of the herbaceous type. Having been established favorites for ages, most of them are familiar t...
-Ligustrum Quihoui
This is a Chinese species, at present little known in this country. It forms a low bush with spreading wiry purplish downy branches, and loose terminal panicles of white flowers. Its peculiar spreadin...
-Raphiolepis Japonica
This handsome Japanese shrub is not an uncommon plant in greenhouses, in which it is generally known under the garden name of R. ovata. It is, however, perfectly hardy, and it is with the view of maki...
-Rivina Laevis
The brilliant little scarlet berries of this plant render it, when well grown, one of the prettiest of ornaments for the hothouse, conservatory, or even for a warm room. It is quite easily managed, st...
-Apples In Store
Apples always, whether in barrels or piles, when the temperature is rising so that the surrounding air is warmer than the apples, condense moisture on the surface and become quite moist and sometimes ...
-On Determining The Sun's Distance By A New Method
By T.S.H. EYTINGE, Cainsville, Canada. It is well known that the sun's distance has been determined from the velocity of light. It has been found, by terrrestrial experiments, about how fast light tr...
-Professor Haeckel On Darwin
In Nature appears a report of the remarkable address given by Professor Haeckel at the recent Eisenach meeting of the German Association of Naturalists on the theories of Darwin, Goethe, and Lamarck. ...









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