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Scientific American Supplement Volumes 360, 362, 363, 365, 384, 385, 388, 392, 401, 415 and 417



Supplement Volumes for Scientific American 360-417

TitleScientific American Supplement Volumes 360, 362, 363, 365, 384, 385, 388, 392, 401, 415 and 417
AuthorVarious Authors
PublisherMunn & Co.
Year1882-1883
Copyright1883, Munn & Co.
AmazonScientific American Reference Book
-Soaking Pits For Steel Ingots. On The Successful Rolling Of Steel Ingots With Their Own Initial Heat By Means Of The Soaking Pit Process
By Mr. JOHN GJERS, Middlesbrough. [Footnote: Paper read before the Iron and Steel Institute at Vienna.] When Sir Henry Bessemer, in 1856, made public his great invention, and announced to the world ...
-Tempering By Compression
L. Clemandot has devised a new method of treating metals, especially steel, which consists in heating to a cherry red, compressing strongly and keeping up the pressure until the metal is completely co...
-Economical Steam Power
[Footnote: A paper read by title at a recent stated meeting of the Franklin Institute] By WILLIAM BARNET LE VAN. The most economical application of steam power can be realized only by a judicious ar...
-Economical Steam Power. Continued
Against these advantages are to be set the greater first cost of the automatic engine, and the consequent annual charge due to capital sunk. These several items should all be fairly estimated when an ...
-River Improvements Near St. Louis
The improvement of the Mississippi River near St. Louis progresses satisfactorily. The efficacy of the jetty system is illustrated in the lines of mattresses which showed accumulations of sand deposit...
-Bunte's Burette For The Analysis Of Furnace Gases
For analyzing the gases of blast-furnaces the various apparatus of Orsat have long been employed; but, by reason of its simplicity, the burette devised by Dr. Bnte, and shown in the accompanying...
-The "Universal" Gas Engine
The accompanying engravings illustrate a new and very simple form of gas engine, the invention of J. A. Ewins and H. Newman, and made by Mr. T. B. Barker, of Scholefield-street, Bloomsbury, Birmingham...
-Gas Furnace For Baking Refractory Products
In order that small establishments may put to profit the advantages derived from the use of annular furnaces heated with gas, smaller dimensions have been given the baking chambers of such furnaces. T...
-The Efficiency Of Fans
Air, like every other gas or combination of gases, possesses weight; some persons who have been taught that the air exerts a pressure of 14.7 lb. per square inch, cannot, however, be got to realize th...
-Machine For Compressing Coal Refuse Into Fuel
The problem as to how the refuse of coal shall be utilized has been solved in the manufacture from it of an agglomerated artificial fuel, which is coming more and more into general use on railways and...
-Hank Sizing And Wringing Machine
We give a view of a hank sizing machine by Messrs. Heywood & Spencer, of Radcliffe, near Manchester. The machine is also suitable for fancy dyeing. It is well known, says the Textile Manufacturer, tha...
-Improved Coke Breaker
The working parts of the breaker now in use by the South Metropolitan Gas Company consist essentially of a drum provided with cutting edges projecting from it, which break up the coke against a fixed ...
-Improvement In Printing Machinery
This is the design of Alfred Godfrey, of Clapton. According to this improvement, as represented at Figs. 1 and 2, a rack, A, is employed vibrating on the pivot a, and a pinion, a1, so arranged that in...
-A Characteristic Mining "Rush."--The Prospective Mining Center Of Southern New Mexico
A correspondent of the Tribune describes at length the mining camps about Lake Valley, New Mexico, hitherto thought likely to be the central camp of that region, and then graphically tells the story o...
-The Soy Bean
The British Medical Journal says that Prof. E. Kinch, writing in the Agricultural Students' Gazette, says that the Soy bean approaches more nearly to animal food than any other known vegetable product...
-On A New Arc Electric Lamp
[Footnote: Paper read at the British Association, Southampton. Revised by the Author.--Nature.] By W.H. PREECE. Electric lamps on the arc principle are almost as numerous as the trees in the forest,...
-Apparatus For Obtaining Pure Water For Photographic Use
Our readers are well aware that water as found naturally is never absolutely free from dissolved impurities; and in ordinary cases it contains solid impurities derived both from the inorganic and orga...
-Black Phosphorus
By P. THENARD. The author refers to the customary view that black phosphorus is merely a mixture of the ordinary phosphorus with traces of a metallic phosphide, and contends that this explanation is ...
-Composition Of Steep Water
According to M. C. Leeuw, water in which malt has been steeped has the following composition: Organic matter. 0.56 per cent. Mineral matter. 0.52 ---- Total dry matter. 1.08 ---- Nitrogen. ...
-Schreiber's Apparatus For Revivifying Bone-Black
We give opposite illustrations of Schreiber's apparatus for revivifying bone-black or animal charcoal. The object of revivification is to render the black fit to be used again after it has lost its de...
-The Animal Black Furnace
This consists of a masonry casing of rectangular form, in which are arranged on each side of the same fire-place two rows of cast-iron retorts, D, of undulating form, each composed of three parts, set...
-Soap And Its Manufacture, From A Consumer's Point Of View
In our last article, under the above heading, the advantages to be gained by the use of potash soap as compared with soda soap were pointed out, and the reasons of this superiority, especially in the ...
-Cotton Seed Oil
By S.S. BRADFORD, Ph.G. Having had occasion during the last six years to manufacture lead plaster in considerable quantities, it occurred to me that cotton seed oil might be used instead of olive oil...
-The Food And Energy Of Man
[Footnote: From a lecture delivered at the Sanitary Congress, at Newcastle-on-Tyne, September 28, 1882.] By PROF. DE CHAUMONT, F.R.S. Although eating cannot be said to be in any way a new fashion, i...
-Rattlesnake Poison
By HENRY H. CROFT. Some time since, in a paper to which I am unfortunately unable to refer, a French chemist affirmed that the poisonous principle in snakes, or eliminated by snakes, was of the natur...
-The Chinese Sign Manual
[Footnote: Dr. D. J. Macgowan, in Medical Reports of China. 1881.] Two writers in Nature, both having for their theme Skin-furrows on the Hand, solicit information on the subject from China.[1] As ...
-Lucidity
At the close of an interesting address lately delivered at the reopening of the Liverpool University College and School of Medicine, Mr. Matthew Arnold said if there was one word which he should like ...
-On Some Apparatus That Permit Of Entering Flames
[Footnote: A. de Rochas in the Revue Scientifique.] In the following notes I shall recall a few experiments that indicate under what conditions the human organism is permitted to remain unharmed amid...
-The Building Stone Supply
The use of stone as a building material was not resorted to, except to a trifling extent, in this country until long after the need of such a solid substance was felt. The early settler contented hims...
-The Building Stone Supply. Continued
St. Genevieve, Mo., yields a stone of fine grain of a light straw color, which is quite equal to the famous Caen stone of France. The Lake Superior sandstones are dark and coarse grained, but strong. ...
-An Industrial Revolution
The most interesting change of which the Census gives account is the increase in the number of farms. The number has virtually doubled within twenty years. The population of the country has not increa...
-A Farmer's Lime Kiln
For information about burning lime we republish the following article furnished by a correspondent of the Country Gentleman several years ago: Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. A (Fig. 1), Railway Track--B...
-The Manufacture Of Apple Jelly
[Footnote: From the report of the New York Agricultural Society.] Within the county of Oswego, New York, Dewitt C. Peck reports there are five apple jelly factories in operation. The failure of the a...
-Improved Grape Bags
It stands to reason that were our summers warmer we should be able to grow grapes successfully on open walls; it is therefore probable that a new grape bag, the invention of M. Pelletier, 20 Rue de la...
-Utilization Of Solar Heat
At a popular fte in the Tuileries Gardens I was struck with an experiment which seems deserving of the immediate attention of the English public and military authorities. Among the attractions...
-How To Establish A True Meridian
[Footnote: A paper read before the Engineers' Club of Philadelphia.] By PROFESSOR L. M. HAUPT. Introductory The discovery of the magnetic needle was a boon to mankind, and has been of inestimable s...
-To Find The Azimuth Of Polaris
As we have shown the azimuth of Polaris to be a function of the latitude, and as the latitude is now known, we may proceed to find the required azimuth. For this purpose we have a right-angled spheric...
-The Ocellated Pheasant
The collections of the Museum of Natural History of Paris have just been enriched with a magnificent, perfectly adult specimen of a species of bird that all the scientific establishments had put down ...
-The Maidenhair Tree
The Maidenhair tree--Gingkgo biloba--of which we give an illustration, is not only one of our most ornamental deciduous trees, but one of the most interesting. Few persons would at first sight take it...
-The Woods Of America
A collection of woods without a parallel in the world is now being prepared for exhibition by the Directors of the American Museum of Natural History. Scattered about the third floor of the Arsenal, i...
-Gustave Trouve
The accompanying portrait of M. Gustave Trouv is taken from a small volume devoted to an account of his labors recently published by M. Georges Dary. M. Trouv, who may be said to have ...
-Friedrich Wohler
At the age of eighty-two years, and full of honor, after a life actively devoted to scientific work of the highest and most accurate kind, which has contributed more than that of any other contemporar...
-Friedrich Wohler #2
No one but a chemist can appreciate the full significance of the brief message which came to us a month ago without warning - Whler is dead! What need be added to it? No chemist was better kno...
-Our Hebrew Population
The United Jewish Association has made a canvass of the denomination in this country, finding 278 congregations, and a total Jewish population of 230,984. New York has the largest number--80,565. Then...
-The Mysteries Of The Baikal
The Angara is cold as ice all the summer through, so cold, indeed, that to bathe in it is to court inevitable illness, and in winter a sled drive over its frozen surface is made in a temperature some ...
-Traveling Sand Hills On Lake Ontario
An interesting example of sand-drift occurs near Wellington Bay, on Lake Ontario, ten miles from Pictou. The lake shore near the sand banks is indented with a succession of rock-paved bays, whose grad...
-Recent Improvements In Textile Machinery
At the recent exhibition at Boston of the New England Institute, several interesting novelties were shown which have a promise of considerable economic and industrial value. Fig. 1 represents the gen...
-Recent Improvements In Textile Machinery. Continued
This simple and efficient device is exhibited by Howard & Bullough & Riley, of Boston. New Positive Motion Loom Fig. 6 shows the essential features of a positive motion loom, intended for weaving na...
-New Gas Burner
Speaking at the last meeting of the Gaslight and Coke Company, Mr. George Livesey said many things with a view to inspire confidence of the future in the minds of timid gas proprietors. Among others h...
-New Gas Burner. Continued
Mr. Grimston also uses separate tubes of large area for his hot gas, but dispenses with deflectors, save in so far as the same duty may be performed by the plain lower edge of the inner cylinder of th...
-Defty's Improvements In Gas Burners And Heaters
Among other inventors who have turned their attention to gas consumption is to be found Mr. H. Defty, who has made several forms both of heating and lighting burners. Mr. Defty has sought in the latte...
-New Binding Machines
The accompanying cuts represent two new machines for binding together books and pamphlets. They are the invention of Messrs. Brehmer & Co., and are now much used in England and Germany. The material u...
-Flumes And Their Construction
In crossing ravines in this State, flumes or wrought iron pipes are used. Many miners object to flumes on account of their continual cost and danger of destruction by fire. Where used and practicable,...
-Chuwab's Rolling Mill For Dressing And Rounding Bar Iron
This new forge apparatus has been devised for the purpose of finishing up round irons of all diameters while hot, as they come out of the ordinary rolling mill, by rendering them perfectly circular, c...
-The Burning Of Town Refuse At Leeds
[Footnote: From selected papers of the Institution of Civil Engineers, London, by Charles Slagg, Assoc. Memb. Inst. C.E.] In large towns it is necessary to adopt some regular system of removal and di...
-The Burning Of Town Refuse At Leeds. Continued
At first sight it would probably appear that no good mortar could be made from such refuse as has been described, but having passed through the furnace, the clinkers are, of course, perfectly clean, a...
-Green Wood
The specific volume of the different constituents of green woods has been estimated by M. Hartig to be as follows, per 1,000 parts: Hard green wood, fiber stuff, 441; water, 247; air, 312. Soft green ...
-The Armitage House
This house is now in course of erection under the superintendence of Messrs. Salomons and Ely, in the Claremont road, Pendleton, near Manchester. The walls are faced in the lower part with red bricks,...
-The Collotype Process In Practice
That theory and practice are two very different things holds good in photography especially, and perhaps in no other branch of our art have so many theoretical formulae been promulgated as in the coll...
-Printing From The Block
We have now a printing-block ready for the press. If it is to be printed by machinery--that is to say, upon a Schnell press--the surface is etched; if it has to be more carefully handled in a hand pre...
-Domestic Electricity
Among the most valuable, and, up to the present time, the least generally appreciated services that electricity can render for domestic purposes is that of its application in lighters. At the present ...
-Theiler's Telephone Receiver
This telephone receiver differs from its predecessors in dispensing with an armature, the lateral vibration of the electro-magnet itself being utilized. In previous systems in which an electro-magnet ...
-On An Electric Power Hammer
By MARCEL DEPREZ. [Footnote: La Lumire Electrique.] In a lecture delivered by me on the 15th of last June in the amphitheater of the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, on the application of ...
-Solignac's New Electric Lamp
When it becomes a question of practical lighting, it is very certain that the best electric lamp will be the one that is most simple and requires the fewest mechanical parts. It is to such simplicity ...
-Mondos's Electric Lamp
Since the month of May last, the concert at the Champs Elyses has been lighted by sixteen voltaic arc lamps on a new and very simple system, which gives excellent results in the installation u...
-Aluminum--Its Properties, Cost, And Uses
Aluminum is a shining, white, sonorous metal, having a shade between silver and platinum. It is a very light metal, being lighter than glass and only about one-fourth as heavy as silver of the same bu...
-Determination Of Potassa In Manures
By M.E. DREYFUS. The method generally adopted for the determination of potassa in manures, i. e., the direct incineration of the sample, may in certain cases occasion considerable errors in consequen...
-The Origin And Relations Of The Carbon Minerals
[Footnote: Read before the New York Academy of Sciences, February 6, 1882.] By J.S. NEWBERRY. What are called the carbon minerals--peat, lignite, coal, graphite, asphalt, petroleum, etc.--are, prope...
-Residual Products
Peat Dry plant-tissue consists of about 50 per cent, of carbon, 44 per cent, of oxygen, with a little nitrogen, and 6 per cent. of hydrogen. In a peat-bog, we find the upper part of the scale represe...
-Evolved Products
The gradual wasting of plant-tissue in the formation of peat, lignite, coal, etc., may be estimated as averaging for peat, 20 to 30 per cent.; lignite, 30 to 50 per cent.; coal, 50 to 70 per cent.; an...
-Evolved Products. Part 2
Petroleum is scarcely less constant in its connection with these carbonaceous rocks than carbureted hydrogen, and it only escapes notice from the little space it occupies. The two substances are so cl...
-Evolved Products. Part 3
From these facts we might fairly infer that asphalts formed in geological ages anterior to the present would exhibit characters resulting from still further distillation; that they would be harder and...
-Evolved Products. Part 4
The fossil resins--often erroneously called gums--amber, kauri, copal, etc., though interestingly related to the hydro-carbons enumerated on the preceding pages, form no essential part of the series, ...
-Evolved Products. Part 5
Among those who are agreed as to the organic origin of the hydrocarbons, there is yet some diversity of opinion in regard to the nature of the process by which they have been produced. Prof. J. P. Le...
-Estimation Of Sulphur In Iron And Steel
By GEORGE CRAIG. For wellnigh two years I have been estimating sulphur in iron and steel by a modification of the evolution process, which consists in passing the evolved gases through an ammoniacal ...
-The Air In Relation To Health
[Footnote: Abstract of a lecture before the Master Plumbers' Association, New York, Nov. 2. 1882.] By Prof. C. F. CHANDLER. It is only about one hundred years since the first important facts were di...
-The Plantain As A Styptic
The following abstract of a paper read by Dr. Quinlan at the recent British Pharmaceutical Congress, may prove of interest to medical readers in this country, where the plant mentioned is a common wee...
-Bacteria
Bacteria, whether significant of disease or decline of health, are found more or less numerous in everything we eat and drink. The germs or spores of many kinds, known as termo, lineola, tenue, spiril...
-The Soy Bean. (Soja Hispida.)
A good deal of attention has lately been directed to this plant in consequence of the enormous extent to which it is cultivated in China for the sake of the small seeds which it produces, and which ar...
-Erica Cavendishiana
The plant of which the illustration is given is one of those fine specimens which has made the collection of J. Lawless, Esq., The Cottage, Exeter, famous all over the south and west of England. It is...
-Philesia Buxifolia
We figure this plant, not as a novelty, but for the purpose of showing what a fine thing it is when grown under propitious circumstances. Generally, we see it more or less starved in the greenhouse, a...
-Mahogany
The mahogany tree, says the Lumber World, is a native of the West Indies, the Bahamas, and that portion of Central America that lies adjacent to the Bay of Honduras, and has also been found in Florida...
-Animals And The Arts
In many of the museums efforts are made to perfect economic collections of animals, so as to show how they can be applied to advantage in the arts and sciences. The collection and preparation of the c...
-The Conch-Shell
Somewhat similar in appearance to coral is the conch jewelry, sets of which have been sold for $300. The tint is exquisite, but liable to fade when exposed to the sun. It is made from the great conch,...
-Living Beetles, Etc
Insects have always been used more or less in decoration, especially in Brazil, where the richly-colored beetles of the country are affected as articles of personal adornment. Recently in a Union Squa...
-Pearls
The latter are perhaps the most valuable of all the offerings of animate nature, and are the results of the efforts of the bivalve to protect itself from injury. A parasite bores into the shell of the...
-Sepia And Silk
The sepia of the artist comes from a mollusk, and is the fossil or extant ink-bag of a cephalopod or squid, while the cuttle-fish bone is used for a variety of purposes. In the islands of the Pacific ...
-The Comet From The Pyramids, Cairo
Some centuries ago, the appearance of so large a comet as is now interesting the astronomical world, almost contemporaneously with our victory in Egypt, would have been looked upon as an omen of great...
-Nature: James Prescott Joule
James Prescott Joule was born at Salford, on Christmas Eve of the year 1818. His father and his grandfather before him were brewers, and the business, in due course, descended to Mr. Joule and his eld...
-Nature: James Prescott Joule. Part 2
He had already made and described very important improvements in the construction of galvanometers, and he graduated his tangent galvanometer to correspond with the system of electric measurement he h...
-Nature: James Prescott Joule. Part 3
His experiments subsequent to 1843 on the dynamical equivalent of heat must be mentioned briefly. In that year his father removed from Pendlebury to Oak Field, Whalley Range, on the south side of Manc...
-The New York Canals
The recent adoption of the constitutional amendment abolishing tolls on the canals of New York State has revived interest in these water ways. The overwhelming majority by which the measure was passed...
-Cottrau's Locomotive For Ascending Steep Grades
We borrow, from our contemporary La Nature, the annexed figure, illustrating an ingenious type of locomotive designed for equally efficient use on both level surfaces and heavy grades. COTTRAU'S ...
-Bachmann's Steam Drier
The apparatus shown in the annexed cuts is capable of effecting a certain amount of saving in the fuel of a generator, and of securing a normal operation in a steam engine. If occasion does not occur ...
-H.S. Parmelee's Patent Automatic Sprinkler
The inventor says: The automatic sprinkler is a device for automatically extinguishing fires through the release of water by means of the heat of the fire, the water escaping in a shower, which is th...
-Instrument For Drawing Converging Straight Lines
[Footnote: Paper by Prof. Fr. Smigaglia, read at the reunion of the Engineers and Architects of Rome.] 1. LET A and B be two fixed points and A C and C B two straight lines converging at C and moving...
-Feed-Water Heater And Purifier
[Footnote: A paper read before the Franklin Institute.] By GEORGE S. STRONG. In order to properly understand the requirements of an effective feed-water purifier, it will be necessary to understand ...
-Feed-Water Heater And Purifier. Part 2
Rogers estimates that a scale 1-16th of an inch thick will require the extra expenditure of 15 per cent. more fuel, and this ratio increases as the scale grows thicker. Thus, when it is one-quarter of...
-Feed-Water Heater And Purifier. Part 3
Having explained as briefly as possible the principles on which the system is founded, the writer will now describe the details of the heater itself. In Figs. 1 and 2 are shown an elevation and a ver...
-Monteverde's Statue Of Architecture
This precious statue forms the noble figure that adorns the monument erected to the memory of the architect Carles Sada, who died in 1873. This remarkable funereal monument is 20 feet high, the superi...
-Design For A Gardener's Cottage
The illustration shows a gardener's cottage recently erected at Downes, Devonshire, the seat of Colonel Buller, V.C., C.B, C.M.G., from the designs of Mr. Harbottle, A.R.I.B.A., of Exeter. It is built...
-Paper Making "Down East."
Writing from Gilbertville, a Lewiston journal correspondent says: Gilbertville, a manufacturing community in the town of Canton, twenty-five miles from Lewiston, up the Androscoggin, is now a village ...
-Paper Making "Down East.". Continued
Curious discoveries are frequently made in the rags. Old pockets, containing small sums of money, are occasionally found. A foreign coin valued at about $3 was found a few days ago. In the paper stock...
-Wheat-Meal Bread As A Means Of Diminishing Tubercular Disease
By M. YATES, Hon. Sec. Bread Reform League, London. It is well recognized that defective mineral nutrition is an important factor in the production of rickets and bad teeth, but as its influence in p...
-The New York Fish Commission Ponds At Caledonia
The capacity of the New York State fish farm at Caledonia is 6,000,000 fry a year. The recently issued report of the fish commissioners says that this year the ponds will be worked to their full capac...
-Miocene Man
Grant Allen, an English evolutionist, gives this imaginary picture of our supposed ancestor: We may not unjustifiably picture him to ourselves as a tall and hairy creature, more or less erect, but wi...
-Goulier's Tube-Gauge
As well known, the method by which glass barometer tubes are made gives them variable calibers. Not only do the different tubes vary in size, but even the same tube is apt to have different diameters ...
-Soldering Without An Iron
The following method for soldering without the use of a soldering iron is given in the Techniker: The parts to be joined are made to fit accurately, either by filing or on a lathe. The surfaces are m...
-Working Copper Ores At Spenceville
From a letter in the Grass Valley Tidings we make the following extracts: The Spenceville Copper Mining Company have 43 acres of copper-bearing ground and 100 acres of adjoining land, which was bough...
-Sir William Thomson's Pile
The Thomson pile, which is employed with success for putting in action the siphon recorder, and which is utilized in a certain number of cases in which an energetic and constant current is needed, is ...
-Siemens' Telemeter
The accompanying cut illustrates a telemeter which was exhibited at the Paris Exhibition of Electricity, and which is particularly interesting from the fact that it is the first apparatus of this kind...
-Experiment In Static Electricity
Take a pipe--a common clay one costing one cent--and balance it carefully on the edge of a goblet, so that it will oscillate freely at the least touch, like the beam of a scales. This being done, say ...
-The Cascade Battery
[Footnote: Lately read before the Society of Telegraph Engineers and Electricians.] By F. HIGGINS. The battery which I have brought here to-night to introduce to your notice is of the circulating ki...
-From The School Journal. Perfectly Lovely Philosophy
CHARACTERS: Laura and Isabel, dressed very stylishly, both with hats on. Enter hand in hand. Laura. My dear Isabel, I was so afraid you would not come. I waited at that horrid station a full half hou...
-The Proposed Dutch International Colonial And General Export Exhibition
The Amsterdam International Exhibition, the opening of which has been fixed for May 1, 1883, is now in way of realization. This exhibition will present a special interest to all nations, and particula...
-New Method Of Detecting Dyes On Yarns And Tissues
By JULES JOFFRE. The reagents employed are a solution of caustic potassa in ten parts of water; hydrochloric acid diluted with an equal bulk of water, or occasionally concentrated; nitric acid, ammon...
-Chevalet's Condenso-Purifier For Gas
The condenso-purifier shown in the accompanying cut operates as follows: Water is caused to flow over a metallic plate perforated with innumerable holes of from one to three millimeters in diameter, a...
-Artificial Ivory
It is said that artificial ivory of a pure white color and very durable has been manufactured by dissolving shellac in ammonia, mixing the solution with oxide of zinc, driving off ammonia by heating, ...
-Creosote Impurities
[Footnote: Read at the meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association held at Niagara Falls. 1882.] By Prof. P. W. BEDFORD. The object of this query can be but one, namely, to inquire whether th...
-Remedy For Sick Headache
Surgeon Major Roehring, of Amberg, reports, in No. 32 of the Allg. Med. Centr. Zeit., April 22, 1882, a case of headache of long standing, which he cured by salicylate of sodium, which confirms the ob...
-Sunlight And Skylight At High Altitudes
At the Southampton meeting of the British Association, Captain Abney read a paper in which he called attention to the fact that photographs taken at high altitudes show skies that are nearly black by ...
-Sunlight And Skylight At High Altitudes. Part 2
I would next ask your attention to the fact that in either spectrum, below pi = 12,000 are most extraordinary depressions and interruptions of the energy, to which, as will be seen, the visible spectr...
-Sunlight And Skylight At High Altitudes. Part 3
So far, it appears only that we have been measuring heat, but I have called the curve that of solar energy, because by a series of independent investigations, not here given, the selective absorptio...
-The Mineralogical Localities In And Around New York City, And The Minerals Occurring Therein. Part III
[Footnote: Continued from SUPPLEMENTS 244 and 246.] By NELSON H. DABTON. Hoboken The locality represented here is where the same serpentine that we met on Staten Island crops out, and is known as C...
-Magnesite
This mineral, of which we obtained some fine specimens on Staten Island, occurs extremely plentifully here, constituting five or six per cent. of a large proportion of the rock, and in every imaginabl...
-Dolomite
This mineral has been very common in this locality. It differs, perhaps, as I have before explained, from magnesite in containing lime besides magnesia, and from calc spar by the vice versa. Much of t...
-Aragonite
This mineral, identical in composition with calc spar, but whose crystalline form is entirely different, occurs in this locality in veins hardly recognizable from the magnesite or dolomite, and runnin...
-Brucite
This mineral occurs here in fair abundance, it being one of the principal localities for it in the United States, and where formerly extremely unique specimens were to be obtained. It has been pretty ...
-Chromic Iron
Crystals of this are included in the denser rock in great abundance; they are very small, seldom over a few lines in diameter, of an iron black color, of a regular octahedral form; sometimes large cry...
-Datholite
This mineral is very abundant as inferior specimens, and frequently very fine ones may be obtained. They occur all around Garret Rock at the juncture of the basalt and red sandstone, in pockets, and a...
-Copper Mines, Arlington, N. J
A short distance north of this station, on the New York and Greenwood Lake Railroad, and about nine miles from Jersey City, is one of the cuttings into the deposits of copper which permeate many porti...
-On The Mineralogical Localities In And Around New York City. Part IV
By NELSON H. DARTON. Montville, Morris County, New Jersey This locality is an old one, and well known to mineralogists. It is outside of the limits prescribed in introducing this series of paper, bu...
-On The Mineralogical Localities In And Around New York City. Part IV. Continued
Dolomite occurs to a limited extent as such; most of it, being in the form of gurhofite crystals, may be occasionally found with aragonite of a light pearly gray color and rhombohedral crystals. As be...
-The Buckeye Leaf Stem Borer
In our account of the proceedings of the entomological sub-section of the A.A.A.S., at the 1881 meeting (see American Naturalist, 1881, p. 1009), we gave a short abstract of Mr. E.W. Claypole's paper ...
-Defoliation Of Oak Trees By Dryocampa Senatoria In Perry County, Pa
During the present autumn the woods and road-sides in this neighborhood (New Bloomfield) present a singular appearance in consequence of the ravages of the black and yellow larva of the above species....
-Efficacy Of Chalcid Egg-Parasites
Egg-parasites are among the most efficient destroyers of insects injurious to vegetation, since they kill their victim before it has begun to do any damage; but few persons are aware of the vast numbe...
-On The Biology Of Gonatopus Pilosus Thoms
Professor Josef Mik, in the September number of the Wiener Entomologische Zeitung (pp. 215-221, pl. iii), gives a most interesting account of the life history of the curious Proctotrupid, Gonatopus pi...
-Species Of Otiorhynchidae Injurious To Cultivated Plants
Of our numerous species of this family, we know the development and earlier stages of only one species, viz, Fuller's rosebeetle (Aramigus Fulleri[1]). A few other species have attracted attention by ...
-Bombyliid Larvae Destroying Locust Eggs In Asia Minor
The eggs of locusts in Cyprus and the Dardanelles, as we learn from the Proceedings of the London Entomological Society, are much infested with the parasitic larvae of Bombyltidae, though these were p...
-Sparrows In The United States.--Effect Of Acclimation, Etc
The house sparrows were first brought to New York city in 1862. They might have been introduced in consideration of the scientific usefulness of the experiment; but the importation was made solely in ...
-Apparatus For Manufacturing Gaseous Or Aerated Beverages
The apparatus employed at present for making gaseous beverages are divided into two classes - intermittent apparatus based on chemical compression, and continuous ones based on mechanical compression....
-Detection And Estimation Of Fusel Oil
Until quite recently we have had no accurate method for the determination of fusel oil in alcohol or brandy. In 1837 Meurer suggested a solution of one part of silver nitrate in nine parts of water as...
-On Silicon
It is known that platinum heated in a forge fire, in contact with carbon, becomes fusible. Boussingault has shown that this is due to the formation of a silicide of platinum by means of the reduction ...
-Stannous Nitrates
At the Royal Powder Works at Spandau, Prussia, frequent ignition of the powder at a certain stage of the process led to an examination of the machinery, when it was found that where, at certain parts,...
-Metallic Thorium
By L. F. Nilson The density of thorium as obtained by reducing the anhydrous chloride by means of sodium was found by Chydenius, 7.657 to 7.795. The author has obtained metallic thorium by heating so...
-Louis Favre, Constructor Of The St. Gothard Tunnel
It is now already a year that the locomotive has been rolling over the St. Gothard road, crossing at a flash the distance separating Basle from Milan, and passing rapidly from the dark and damp defile...
-Louis Favre, Constructor Of The St. Gothard Tunnel. Continued
He, however, calmed their fears, and exposed his projects to them, and the seances always ended by a vote of confidence in the future of the undertaking. Favre certainly did not dissimulate the diffic...
-The New Harbor Of Vera Cruz
Besides the enormous engineering work of rendering navigable one of the mouths of the Mississippi Delta, and the continuous labor of developing the more original and still bolder project for an Isthmi...
-Cost Of Power To Make Flour
The following estimate of the cost of the power required to manufacture a barrel of flour is taken from the Miller. The calculation would hardly hold good in this country owing to difference in cost o...
-Driving Gear Mechanism For Lift Hammers
A very interesting system of driving gear for lift hammers was applied in an apparatus exhibited at Frankfort in 1881 by Mr. Meier of Herzen. The arrangement of the mechanism is shown in Figs. 1 and 2...
-De Junker & Ruh's Machine For Cutting Annular Wheels
The machine shown in Figs. 1, 2, and 3 has been devised by Messrs. Junker & Ruh, of Carlsruhe, for cutting internally-toothed gear-wheels. The progress of the work is such that the wheel is pushed tow...
-Recent Hydraulic Experiments
At a late meeting of the Institution of Civil Engineers, the paper read was on Recent Hydraulic Experiments, by Major Allan Cunningham, R.E. This paper was mainly a general account of some extensiv...
-The Germ
By Arthur Atkins There seems to have sprung up within a few mouths a tendency to revive the discussion on that hackneyed question, Shall the germ be retained in the flour? This question has been mo...
-Wheat Tests
There was considerable complaint last season, on the part of wheat raisers in sections tributary to Minneapolis, on account of the rigid standard of grading adopted by the millers of that city. It was...
-Apparatus For Printing By The Blue Process
By Channing Whitaker The blue process is well known to the members of the society, and I need not take time to describe it; but with the ordinary blue process printing frame the results are sometimes...
-Apparatus For Printing By The Blue Process. Part 2
PLAN. COTTON FLANNEL REMOVED. SECTION AT CO. The Construction Of The Air-Cushion The expense of such an air-cushion seemed at first likely to prevent its being used; but a method of construction s...
-Apparatus For Printing By The Blue Process. Part 3
A sectional view of the air-cushion is offered as a part of this communication. The Frame, which Contains the Plate Glass, is made of thick board or plank, with the broad side of the board at right a...
-Apparatus For Printing By The Blue Process. Part 4
They are easily and quickly adjusted, and are very secure. The whole apparatus can be located upon the roof of a building, or, if convenient, it can be mounted upon slides, and pushed through an open...
-Apparatus For Printing By The Blue Process. Part 5
The Best Chemicals for this Work are the recrystallized red prussiate of potash and the citrate of iron and ammonia, which is manufactured by Powers & Wightman, of Philadelphia. If the red prussiate h...
-Spectrum Gratings
At a recent meeting of the London Physical Society, Prof. Rowland, of Baltimore, exhibited a number of his new concave gratings for giving a diffraction spectrum. He explained the theory of their acti...
-A New Pocket Opera Glass
POCKET OPERA GLASS. Inasmuch as high power combined with small size is usually required in an opera glass, manufacturers have always striven to unite these two features in their instruments, and ha...
-Ancient Greek Painting
A lecture on ancient Greek painting was lately delivered by Professor C.T. Newton, C.B., at University College, London. The lecturer began by reminding his audience of the course of lectures on Greek ...
-Atoms, Molecules, And Ether Waves
By John Tyndall, F.R.S I. Man is prone to idealization. He cannot accept as final the phenomena of the sensible world, but looks behind that world into another which rules the sensible one. From thi...
-Atoms, Molecules, And Ether Waves. Part 2
The waves of sound select the strings which respectively respond to them - the strings, that is to say, whose rates of vibration are the same as their own - and of the general series of strings these ...
-Atoms, Molecules, And Ether Waves. Part 3
I have stated, without proof, that where absorption occurs, the motion of the ether-waves is taken up by the constituent atoms of molecules. It is conceivable that the ether-waves, in passing through ...
-Atoms, Molecules, And Ether Waves. Part 4
I have reason to know that a distinguished authority has for some time entertained this hypothesis. We must, however, refresh ourselves by occasional contact with the solid ground of experiment, and ...
-Apparatus For Measuring Electricity At The Upper School Of Telegraphy
Electro Tuning Forks And Their Uses On a former occasion I described an instrument to which, in 1873, I gave the name Electro-Tuning Fork, and which is nothing else than a tuning fork whose motion is...
-Apparatus For Measuring Electricity At The Upper School Of Telegraphy. Continued
We have now seen how electro-tuning forks may be constructed of large dimensions, of large mass, and giving a small number of vibrations per second. Such instruments are well fitted to perform the ro...
-Our Origin As A Species
By Richard Owen, C.B., F.R.S There seems to be a manifest desire in some quarters to anticipate the looked for and, by some, hoped-for proofs of our descent, or rather ascent, from the ape. In the S...
-The Aba Or Odika
By W.H. Bacheler, M.D Among the many luxuriant and magnificent forest trees of equatorial West Africa, none can surpass, for general beauty and symmetry, that which is called by the natives the aba....
-California Cedars
The incense cedar (Libocedius decurrens) is one of the valued trees of the California coast and mountains. It is eminently noted for great rapidity of growth, wonderful lightness, stiffness, and extra...
-Locomotive For St. Gothard Railway
We give engravings of one of a type of eight-coupled locomotives constructed for service on the St. Gothard Railway by Herr T.A. Maffei, of Munich. As will be seen from our illustrations, the engine h...
-The Mersey Railway Tunnel
The work of connecting Liverpool with Birkenhead by means of a railway tunnel is now an almost certain success. It is probable that the entire cost of the tunnel works will amount to about half a mill...
-Dam Across The Ottawa River And New Canal At Carillon Que
By ANDREW BELL Resident Engineer The natural navigation of the Ottawa River from the head of the Island of Montreal to Ottawa City--a distance of nearly a hundred miles--is interrupted between the vi...
-Dam Across The Ottawa River And New Canal At Carillon Que. Part 2
The method of construction was as follows. Temporary structures of various kinds suited to position, time, etc., were first placed immediately above the site of the dam to break the current. This was ...
-Dam Across The Ottawa River And New Canal At Carillon Que. Part 3
+---------+---------+----------+---------+----------+ Temporary works | 134,500 | 92,000 | 11,400 | | $79,000 | | | | | | | Permanent dam | 265,000 | 439,600 | 24,000 | 6,500 | 151,000 | | | | | |...
-Dwelling Houses. Hints On Building. "Home, Sweet Home"
[Footnote: From a paper read before the Birmingham Architectural Association, Jan 30, 1883] By WILLIAM HENMAN, A.R.I.B.A. My intention is to bring to your notice some of the many causes which result...
-Dwelling Houses. Hints On Building. "Home, Sweet Home". Part 2
Gas tar and sand are sometimes used, but it deteriorates and cannot be depended upon for any length of time. The damp course should invariably be placed above the level of the ground around the buildi...
-Dwelling Houses. Hints On Building. "Home, Sweet Home". Part 3
Then, however impervious to wet the walls, etc., may be, signs of dampness will be noticed wherever there is a humid atmosphere, and similar evils will result as if wet had penetrated from the exterio...
-Dwelling Houses. Hints On Building. "Home, Sweet Home". Part 4
It is rare to find any special means for carrying off the injurious fumes, and without such I am sure gas cooking stoves cannot be healthy adjuncts to our homes. The next difficulty we have to deal w...
-Dwelling Houses. Hints On Building. "Home, Sweet Home". Part 5
It is known to be defective, and yet I see it is still made, sold, and fixed, in dwelling houses, notwithstanding the fact that other closet pans far more simple and effective can be obtained at less ...
-House At Heaton
This house, which belongs to Mr J. N. D'Andrea, is built on the Basque principle, under one roof, with covered balconies on the south side, the northside being kept low to give the sun an opportunity ...
-A Mansard Roof Dwelling
The principal floor of this design is elevated three feet above the surface of the ground, and is approached by the front steps leading to the platform. The height of the first floor is eleven feet, t...
-The History Of The Electric Telegraph
[Footnote: Aug. Guerout in La Lurmire Electrique.] An endeavor has often been made to carry the origin of the electric telegraph back to a very remote epoch by a reliance on those more or les...
-The History Of The Electric Telegraph. Part 2
This person at once stepped over to the partition corresponding to the receiver, where another auxiliary dial permitted him to properly direct at a distance the very movable needle of the receiver. Ev...
-The History Of The Electric Telegraph. Part 3
Let us suppose a bundle of wires, in number equal to that of the letters of the alphabet, stretched horizontally between two given places, parallel with each other and distant from each other one inc...
-The History Of The Electric Telegraph. Part 4
And, in fact, Lemond's telegraph was of the most interesting character, for it was a single wire one, and we already find here an alphabet based upon the combination of a few elementary signals. The ...
-The History Of The Electric Telegraph. Part 5
When one of the operators desired to send a dispatch to the other he connected the conductor with the machine, and, setting the latter in operation, discharged his correspondent's pistol as a signal. ...
-Electrical Transmission And Storage
[Footnote: From a recent lecture in London before the Institute of Civil Engineers.] By Dr. C. WILLIAM SIEMENS, F.R.S, Mem. Inst. C.E. Dr. Siemens, in opening the discourse, adverted to the object t...
-Electrical Transmission And Storage. Part 2
which law had been frequently construed, by Verdet (Theorie Mecanique de la Chaleur) and others, to mean that one-half was the maximum theoretical efficiency obtainable in electric transmission of pow...
-Electrical Transmission And Storage. Part 3
Among the numerous other applications of the electrical transmission of power, that to electrical railways, first exhibited by Dr. Werner Siemens, at the Berlin Exhibition of 1879, had created more th...
-On The Preparation Of Gelatine Plates
[Footnote: Being an abstract of the introductory lecture to a course on photography at the Polytechnic Institute, November 11.] By E. HOWARD FARMER, F.C.S. Since the first announcement of these lect...
-Pictures On Glass
The invention of M. E. Godard, of Paris, has for its object the reproduction of images and drawings, by means of vitrifiable colors on glass, wood, stone, on canvas or paper prepared for oil-painting ...
-Preparation Of Hydrogen Sulphide From Coal-Gas
By I. TAYLOR, B.A., Science Master at Christ College, Brecon. Hydrogen sulphide may be prepared very easily, and sufficiently pure for ordinary analytical purposes, by passing coal-gas through boilin...
-Malaria
By James H. Salisbury, A.M., M.D. Prize Essay Of The Albany Medical College Alumni Association, Feb., 1882. VII I have made careful microscopic examinations of the blood in several cases of Panama f...
-Report On The Cause Of Ague
By Dr. Ephraim Cutter, To The Writer At your request I give the evidence on which I base my opinion that your plan in relation to ague is true. From my very start into the medical profession, I had ...
-Report On The Cause Of Ague. Part 2
August 11, 1877 Excursion to College Point, Flushing, Long Island: Observation 1. 1:50 P.M. Sun excessively hot. Gathered some of the white incrustation on sand in a marsh west of Long Island Railro...
-Report On The Cause Of Ague. Part 3
At 6 A.M. collected and examined for specimens the drops of dew deposited. Results: In every one of the five instances collected the automobile spores, and the sporangia of the gemiasmas and the protu...
-Report On The Cause Of Ague. Part 4
56. Euglypha. 57. Eurycercus lamellatus. 58. Exuvia of some insect. 59. Feather barbs. 60. Floscularia. 61. Feathers of butterfly. 62. Fungu, red water. 63. Fragillaria. 64. Gemiasma verdans. ...
-Synopsis Of The Ague Families
1. Lemaneae Lemaneae. Frond filamentous, inarticulate, cartilaginous, leathery, hollow, furnished at irregular distances with whorls or warts, or necklace shaped. Fructification: tufted, simple or br...
-Synopsis Of The Ague Families. Part 2
13. Diatomaceae Diatomaceae. Microscopic cellular bodies, growing in fresh, brackish, and sea water: free or attached, single, or embedded in gelatinous tubes, the individual cells (frustules) with y...
-Synopsis Of The Ague Families. Part 3
Observation at West Falmouth, Mass., Sept 1, 1877. I made five observations in like manner about the marshes and bogs of this town, which is, as it were, situated on the tendo achillis of Cape Cod, Ma...
-Malaria Observations in Washington, D.C
Observations in Washington, D. C., September 5, 1879, 8:35 A.M., Boston time, near Congressional Cemetery. 1. Seized with sneezing on my way to cemetery. Examined nasal excretions and found no Palmel...
-Ague Plants In The Urine
I have found them in the urine of persons suffering or having suffered from intermittent fever. When I was at the Naval Hospital in Brooklyn one of the accomplished assistant surgeons, after I had sh...
-"Notes On Marsh Miasm (Limnophysalis Hyalina)
By Abr. Fredrik Eklund, M.D., Stockholm, Sweden, Physician Of The First Class In The Swedish Royal Navy [Footnote: Translated from the Archives de la Medecine Navale, vol. xxx., no. 7, July, 1878, by...
-"Notes On Marsh Miasm (Limnophysalis Hyalina). Part 2
In regard to other circumstances relative to the presence of this fungus, there are, above all, two remarkable facts, namely, its property of adhering to surfaces as perfectly polished as that of a mi...
-"Notes On Marsh Miasm (Limnophysalis Hyalina). Part 3
The following imperial ordinance was published on the 25th of March, 1877, by the chief of admiralty of the German marine. It has for its object the prevention and eradication of infectious diseases: ...
-Analysis Of The Malaria Plant (Gemiasma Rubra)
By Prof Paulus F. Reinsch. Author Algae of France, 1866; Latest Observations on Algology, 1867; Chemical Investigation of the Connections of the Lias and Jura Formations, 1859; Chemical Investigation...
-Ichthyol
DR. P.G. UNNA, of Hamburg, has lately been experimenting on the dermato therapeutic uses of a substance called ichthyol, obtained by Herr Rudolph Schroter by the distillation of bituminous substances ...
-Autopsy Table
The illustration represents an autopsy table placed in the Coroner's Department of the New York Hospital, designed by George B. Post and Frederick C. Merry. An amphitheater, fitted up for the conveni...
-The Exciting Properties Of Oats
Experiments have been recently made by Mr. Sanson with a view to settling the question whether oats have or have not the excitant property that has been attributed to them. The nervous and muscular ex...
-Filaria Disease
The rapid strides which our knowledge has made during the past few years in the subject of the filaria parasite have been mainly owing to the diligent researches of Dr. Patrick Manson, who continues t...
-The Spectral Masdevallia. (M. Chimaera.)
Of all orchids no genus we can just now call to mind is more distinct or is composed of species more widely divergent in size, form, structure, and color than is this one of Masdevallia. It was founde...
-Survey Of The Black Canyon
It is rumored again that a survey is soon to be made through the heaviest portion of the Black Canon of the Gunnison. For a long distance the walls of syenite rise to the stupendous height of 3,000 fe...
-The Ancient Mississippi And Its Tributaries
[Footnote: This lecture was delivered in the Chapel of the State University, at Columbia, as an inaugural address on January 10, 1883, and illustrated by projections. The author has purposely avoided ...
-The Ancient Mississippi And Its Tributaries. Part 2
The Lower Mississippi, from the Gulf to the mouth of the Ohio River, was of enormous size flowing through a valley with an average width of about fifty miles, though varying from about twenty-five to ...
-The Ancient Mississippi And Its Tributaries. Part 3
General Warren considered that the valley of Lake Winnipeg only belonged to the Mississippi since the Ice Age, and explained the changes of drainage of the great north by the theory of the local ele...
-The Raphael Celebration At Rome
The most famous of Italian painters, Raffaele Sanzio, whom the world commonly calls Raphael, was born at Urbino, in Umbria, part of the Papal States, four hundred years ago. The anniversary was celebr...
-The Pantheon At Rome
The edifice known as the Pantheon, in Rome, is one of the best preserved specimens of Roman architecture. It was erected in the year 26 B.C., and is therefore now about one thousand nine hundred years...
-The Great International Fisheries Exhibition
Her Majesty the Queen has appointed the 12th of May for the opening of the International Fisheries Exhibition, which an influential and energetic committee, under the active presidency of the Prince o...
-Puppet Shows Among The Greeks
The ancients, especially the Greeks, were very fond of theatrical representations; but, as Mr. Magnin has remarked in his Origines du Thtre Moderne, public representations were very exp...
-Puppet Shows Among The Greeks. Continued
The successive lighting of the two altars, the flow of milk and wine, and the noise of drums and cymbals were likewise obtained by the aid of cords moved by counterpoises, and the lengths of which wer...
-Torpedo Boats
There are several kinds of torpedoes. The one which is most used in the French navy is called the carried torpedo (torpille porte), thus named because the torpedo boat literally carries it r...
-Pictet's High Speed Boat
It is now nearly a year ago since we announced to our readers the researches that had been undertaken by the learned physicist, Raoul Pictet, in order to demonstrate theoretically and practically the ...
-Initial Stability Indicator For Ships
For a vessel with a given displacement, the metacenter and center of gravity being known, it is easy to lay off in the form of a diagram its stability or power of righting for any given angle of heel....
-Scrivanow's Chloride Of Silver Pile
Considerable attention has been attracted lately at Paris among those who are interested in electrical novelties to a chloride of silver pile invented by Mr. Scrivanow. The experiments to which it has...
-On The Luminosity Of Flame
The light emitted from burning gases which burn with bright flame is known to be a secondary phenomenon. It is the solid, or even liquid, constituents separated out by the high temperature of combusti...
-A Quick Way To Ascertain The Focus Of A Lens
It is well known that if the size of an object be ascertained, the distance of a lens from that object, and the size of the image depicted in a camera by that lens, a very simple calculation will give...
-The History Of The Pianoforte
[Footnote: A paper recently read before the Society of Arts, London.] By A. J. HIPKINS. As this paper is composed from a technical point of view, some elucidation of facts, forming the basis of it, ...
-The History Of The Pianoforte. Part 2
I will close this introductory explanation with two remarks, made by the distinguished musician, mechanician, and inventor, Theobald Boehm, of Munich, whose inventions were not limited to the flute wh...
-The History Of The Pianoforte. Part 3
I have given the first place in description to Cristofori's actions, instead of to the cembalo or instrument to which they were applied, because piano and forte, from touch, became possible through ...
-The History Of The Pianoforte. Part 4
To return to the grand pianoforte. The origin of the Viennese grand is rightly accredited to Stein, the organ builder, of Augsburg. I will call it the German grand, for I find it was as early made in ...
-The History Of The Pianoforte. Part 5
The increased weight of stringing was met by steel arches placed at intervals between the wrest-plank and the belly-rail, but the belly-rail was still free from the thrust of the wooden bracing, the d...
-The History Of The Pianoforte. Part 6
The good qualities of Erard's action, completed in 1821, the germ of which will be found in the later Cristofori, are not, however, due to repetition capability, but to other causes, chiefly, I will s...
-The History Of The Pianoforte. Part 7
There were reasons which induced Mr. Broadwood to somewhat modify and improve this framing, but with the retention of its leading feature, the diagonal bar, which was found to be of supreme importance...
-The History Of The Pianoforte. Part 8
FIG. 4.--BROADWOOD. I have not had time to refer other than incidentally to the square pianoforte, which has become obsolete. I must, however, give a separate historical sketch of the upright pia...
-The Poisonous Properties Of Nitrate Of Silver, And A Recent Case Of Poisoning With The Same
[Footnote: Read before the Medico Legal Society, April 5, 1883.] By HENRY A. MOTT, JR., Ph.D., etc. Of the various salts of silver, the nitrate, both crystallized and in sticks (lunar caustic, Lapis...
-Tubercle Bacilli In Sputa
Prof. Baumgarten has just published in the Ctbl. f. d. Med. Wiss., 25, 1882, the following easy method to detect in the expectorated matter of phthisical persons the pathogenic tubercle bacilli: Phth...
-Carbon
M. Berthelot, in the Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie for March, states that from peculiar physical relations he is led to suspect that the true element carbon is unknown, and that diamond and graphi...
-Canned Meats
By P. CARLES. When tinned iron serves for containing alimentary matters, it is essential that the tin employed should be free from lead. The latter metal is rapidly oxidized on the surface and is dis...
-New Bleaching Process, With Regeneration Of The Baths Used
By MR. BONNEVILLE. To a cold solution containing 1 per cent. of bromine, 1 per cent. of caustic soda at 36 B. is added, then the material, to be bleached is first wet and then immersed in this b...
-Detection Of Magenta, Archil, And Cudbear In Wine
These colors are not suitable for converting white wine into red, but they can be used for giving wines a faint red tint, for darkening pale red wines, and in making up a factitious bouquet essence, w...
-Panax Victoriae
Panax Victoriae is a compact and charming plant, which sends up numbers of stems from the bottom in place of continually growing upward and thus becoming ungainly; it bears a profusion of elegantly cu...
-A Note On Sap
[Footnote: Read at an evening meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society, London, April 4, 1883.] By Professor ATTFIELD, F.R.S. Beneath a white birch tree growing in my garden I noticed, yesterday evenin...
-The Crow
[Footnote: Abstract of a recent discussion before the Connecticut State Board of Agriculture.] Prof. W. A. Stearns, in a lecture upon the utility of birds in agriculture, stated that the few facts we...
-The Praying Mantis And Its Allies
On examining the strange forms shown in the accompanying engraving, many persons would suppose they were looking at exotic insects. Although this is true for many species of this group, which are indi...
-May-Flies
There are usually found in the month of June, especially near water, certain insects that are called Ephemera, and which long ago acquired true celebrity, and furnished material for comparison to poet...
-The Color Of Water
It is well known that the water of different lakes and rivers differs in color. The Mediterranean Sea is indigo blue, the ocean sky blue, Lake Geneva is azure, while the Lake of the Four Forest Canton...
-Farcot's Improved Woolf Compound Engine
In a preceding article, we have described a ventilator which is in use at the Decazeville coal mines, and which is capable of furnishing, per second, 20 cubic meters of air whose pressure must be able...
-Iron And Steel
At the recent meeting of the Iron and Steel Institute, London, the president-elect (Mr. Bernard Samuelson, M.P.), delivered the following inaugural address: The World's Production Of Pig Iron He sho...
-Wonderful Uses And Demand For Iron And Steel
But the world's annual production of 20,000,000 tons of pig iron is itself sufficiently startling, and without attempting to present to you the statistics of all its various uses - for which, in fact,...
-Progress Of Bessemer Steel
To speak of the enormous increase in the production of steel by the introduction of the Bessemer process has become a commonplace on occasions like the present, and yet I doubt whether its real dimens...
-Latest Improvements In Iron Making
This great reduction is the cumulative result of a number of concurrent improvements, partly in the conversion of the iron, and partly in the subsequent treatment of the ingot steel. In most of the gr...
-Basic Steel
The enormous production of steel has required the importation of large quantities of iron ore of pure quality from Spain, Algeria, and elsewhere, into this country, France, Belgium, Germany, and the U...
-Honors And Rewards To Inventors
The presentation to Mr. Thomas is deferred. His arduous labors having affected his health, he is at present in Australia, after having, I am happy to say, received great advantage from the voyage; and...
-Growth Of The Siemens-Martin Process
The growth of the open hearth or what is known as the Siemens-Martin process of making steel, during the interval from 1869 to the present time, has been no less remarkable than that of the Bessemer p...
-Present Production Of Wrought Iron
Meanwhile, the world's production of wrought iron has not been stationary. I cannot give very accurate figures, as the statistics of some countries are incomplete, while in others the output of puddle...
-Gross Of Iron And Steel Ship Building
It may be useful to add that the gross tonnage of iron vessels classed during 1882 by the three societies of Lloyd's, the Liverpool Registry, and the Bureau Veritas was 1,142,000, and of steel 143,000...
-The Future Of Iron And Steel
Some of the eminent men who have preceded me in this chair have made their inaugural address the occasion for a forecast of the improvements in practice and the developments in area of the great indus...
-Railway Demand For Iron And Steel
But it is in the further development of the world's railways that we must mainly look in the future, as in the past, for the support of our trade. In India the railway between Calcutta and Bombay was ...
-The "Swallow," A New Vehicle
The graceful vehicle shown in the accompanying cut is much used in Poland and Russia, and we believe that it has already made its appearance at Paris. The builder is Mr. Henri Barycki, of Warsaw, who ...
-Boring An Oil Well. How The Hole Was Made And The Oil Brought Up
A letter from Bradford, Pa., says: The machinery used in boring one of these deep oil wells, while simple enough in itself, requires nice adjustment and skill in operating. First comes the derrick, si...
-A Cement Reservoir
The annexed figures represent, on a scale of 1 to 50, a plan and vertical section of a reservoir of beton, 11 cubic meters in capacity, designed for the storage of drinking water and for collecting th...
-Machine For Grinding Lithographic Inks And Colors
The grinding of the inks and colors that are employed in lithographing is a long and delicate operation, which it has scarcely been possible up to the present time to perform satisfactorily otherwise ...
-A New Evaporating Apparatus
At a recent meeting of the Socit Industrielle of Elbeuf, Mr. L. Quidet described an apparatus that he had, with the aid of Mr. Perr, invented for evaporating juices. In this n...
-Flying
To the Editor of the Scientific American: Your correspondent on this subject in the issue of April 14 cites an array of facts from which it would seem the proper conclusions should be inferred. I thi...
-The Portrush Electric Railway, Ireland
By DR. EDWARD HOPKINSON. In the summer of 1881, Mr. W.A. Traill, late of H.M. Geological Survey, suggested to Dr. Siemens that the line between Portrush and Bushmills, for which Parliamentary powers ...
-The Portrush Electric Railway, Ireland. Continued
The cars are first and third class, some open and some covered, and are constructed to hold twenty people, exclusive of the driver. At present, only one is fitted with a dynamo, but four more machines...
-The Thomson-Houston Electric Lighting System
The generator is known as the Thomson spherical, on account of the nearly spherical form of its armature, and differs radically from all others in all essential portions, viz., its field magnets, ar...
-The Automatic Current Regulator
This consists of a peculiar magnet attached to the frame of the generator, and the movable armature of which has connections to the supports of the commutator brushes for controlling their position. T...
-The Thomson Arc Lamp
This lamp is essentially a series lamp; that is, any number of them can be put on one circuit wire, but a single lamp, used alone, burns equally well. It consists of a metal frame supporting at the bo...
-A Modification Of The Vibrating Bell
One of the causes which gives rise to induction in the telephone lines running along the Belgian railroads is that there are so many electric bells in the stations. Mr. Lippens proposes as a remedy f...
-Photo Plates - Wet And Dry
Dr. Eder has recently published, in the Correspondenz, the first of a series of articles embodying the results of his more recent work on gelatino bromide; and we now reproduce the substance of the ar...
-Intensifier For Wet Plates
By Major Waterhouse The collodion process is still preferred for reproducing black and white designs, drawings, engravings, etc., where very dense negatives are desirable. The fixed and washed plate ...
-Gelatino Bromide Emulsion With Bromide Of Zinc
By this time of the year I have no doubt many, both amateur and professional photographers, are either contemplating or are actually at work making their stock of plates for the coming season, and it ...
-Design For A Villa
The villa of which we give a perspective drawing is intended as a country residence, being designed in a quiet and picturesque style of domestic Gothic, frequently met with in old country houses. It i...
-William Spottiswoode
William Spottiswoode, President of the Royal Society, was born in London, Jan. 11, 1825. He belongs to an ancient Scottish family, many members of which have risen to distinction in Scotland and also ...
-Acetate Of Lime
I have made a series of experiments with regard to finding a reliable method of estimating the acetic acid in commercial acetate of lime, and find the following gives the best results: The sample is f...
-The Removal Of Ammonia From Crude Gas
In connection with the many plans now brought forward to utilize the ammonia in the gases escaping from coke ovens and blast furnaces, it may be of interest to refer to a process brought out some year...
-Reconversion Of Nitro-Glycerin Into Glycerin
By C.L. BLOXAM. The following experiments on this subject appear to possess some interest at the present moment: 1. Nitro-glycerin was shaken with methylated alcohol, which dissolves it readily, and...
-Carbonic Acid And Bisulphide Of Carbon
By JOHN TYNDALL, F.R.S. Chemists are ever on the alert to notice analogies and resemblances in the atomic structure of different bodies. They long ago indicated points of resemblance between bisulphi...
-The Hair, Its Use And Its Care
By JOHN V. SHOEMAKER, A.M., M.D., Physician to the Philadelphia Hospital for Skin Diseases. The object of this paper is to briefly describe the hair and its important functions, and to suggest the pr...
-The Hair, Its Use And Its Care. Part 2
False hair has likewise sometimes been the means of introducing parasites, which give rise to obstinate affections of the scalp. Cleanliness of the entire surface of the skin should next demand atten...
-The Hair, Its Use And Its Care. Part 3
On the contrary, cutting and shaving will cause the hair to grow longer for the time being, but in the end will inevitably shorten its term of life by exhausting the nutritive action of the hair-formi...
-The Influence Of Effective Breathing In Delaying The Physical Changes Incident To The Decline Of Life, And In The Prevention Of Pneumonia, Consumption, And Diseases Of Women
By DAVID WARK, M.D., 9 East 12th Street, New York. Pneumonia During the past winter inflammation of the lungs has destroyed the lives of many persons who, although they were in most cases past the m...
-The True First Stage Of Consumption
The progress of tubercular consumption has been divided by pathologists into three stages. The first stage being that in which a deposit of tubercular matter occurs in the lung tissue, the second is e...
-The Development Of Tubercular Matter In The Blood
During the digestive processes the starchy, saccharine, and albuminoid elements of food are dissolved, and the fatty matters are emulsified. A uniform milky solution is thus formed, which is rapidly a...
-The Value Of Cod-Liver Oil In The Prevention Of Consumption
There is a broad but not commonly recognized distinction between what constitutes a medicine and a food. All the materials that normally enter into the composition of the living body, and are necessar...
-The Influence Of Normal Breathing On The Female Generative Organs
FIG. 1. The body is divided into three separate stories by two partitions. The diaphragm, A, separates the cavity of the chest from that of the abdomen. The partition, D, forms a floor for the dige...
-Showing How The Breathing Powers May Be Developed
When the circumference of the chest bears a due proportion to the size of the body generally; when its walls and the lungs possess a suitable degree of elasticity; when the strength of the respiratory...
-The Effects Of Adequate Respiration In Special Cases
When the nutrition of the body is promoted by effective respiration, and waste matters are promptly removed, the chances that tubercle will be developed in persons who are predisposed thereto are redu...
-Vital Discoveries In Obstructed Air And Ventilation
I suppose that we all consider ourselves to be sufficiently impressed with the importance of ventilation. If I should stop here to declaim against foul exhalations, or to dwell upon the virtues of fre...
-Vital Discoveries In Obstructed Air And Ventilation. Part 2
It seems at first thought very strange that we are not so well protected by natural instinct or sensibility from the subtle poisons of the atmosphere as from those that can affect us only by the volun...
-Vital Discoveries In Obstructed Air And Ventilation. Part 3
It happens to be the most necessary preliminary in approaching this problem, to show how not to do it, for that, respectfully be it spoken, is what we have hitherto practiced, as results abundantly pr...
-Vital Discoveries In Obstructed Air And Ventilation. Part 4
The process, as it actually is, may be clearly exhibited by a very simple means. Let anyone take a tube, say an inch in diameter - a roll of paper will do as well as anything - and, applying it closel...
-The Recent Eruption Of Etna
On the morning of the 20th of March, a long series of earthquakes spread alarm throughout all the cities and numerous villages that are scattered over the sides of Mt. Etna. The shocks followed each o...
-Physics Without Apparatus
Take an ordinary wine bottle and place it in front of and within a few inches of a lighted candle. Blow against the bottle with your mouth at about four or six inches distant from it and in a line wit...
-The Travels Of The Sun
Some recent discussions of the constitution of the sun have turned in part upon what is known as the sun's proper motion in space. This is one of the most surprising and interesting things that scienc...
-Propagation Of Maple Trees
I do not presume that all people over three score years of age are so entirely ignorant as I am, but probably there are some. I have lived more than sixty years almost in the woods, and I never observ...
-Dioscorea Retusa
FLOWERING SPRAY OF DIOSCOREA RETUSA. One of the most elegant plants one can have in a greenhouse is this twiner, a native of South Africa. It has slender stems clothed with distinctly veined leaves...
-Ravages Of A Rare Scolytid Beetle In The Sugar Maples Of Northeastern New York
About the first of last August (1882) I noticed that a large percentage of the undergrowth of the sugar maple (Acer saccharinum) in Lewis County, Northeastern New York, seemed to be dying The leaves d...
-The Red Spider. (Tetranyehus Telarius.)
The red spider is not correctly speaking an insect, though it is commonly spoken of as such, neither is it a spider, as its name would imply, but an acarus or mite. Whether its name is correct or not,...
-The Heloderma Horridum
The discussion of the curious lizard found in our Western Territories and in Mexico, and variously known as the Montana alligator, the Gila monster, and the Mexican heloderma, is becoming decide...
-The Kangaroo
To the Editor of the Scientific American: In page 69 of your issue of 3d of February, 1883, I notice among the Challenger Notes of Professor Mosely the statement that Among stockmen, and even some...
-Japanese Peppermint
In more than one periodical the botanical name of this plant has been given as Mentha arvensis, var. purpurascens. It will be well, therefore, to point out that this is an error before the statement i...
-Gladiolus
The gladiolus is easily raised from seeds, which should be sown in early spring in pots of rich soil placed in heat, the pots being kept near the glass after they begin to grow, and the plants being g...
-Improved Dynamo Machine
The continuous current and the alternating current generators invented by Dr. J. Hopkinson and Dr. Alexander Muirhead are peculiarly interesting as being probably the first in which the bobbins of the...
-An Improved Manganese Battery
By GEORGE LEUCHS. The Leclanche battery is distinguished for its simplicity, its small internal resistance (0.7 to 1.0 Siemens unit), and that all chemical action ceases when the current is broken, t...
-The Cause Of Evident Magnetism In Iron, Steel, And Other Magnetic Metals
[Footnote: Paper lately read before the Society of Telegraph Engineers and Electricians.] By Professor D. E. HUGHES, F.R.S., Vice-President. Neutrality The apparatus needed for researches upon evid...
-The Cause Of Evident Magnetism In Iron, Steel, And Other Magnetic Metals. Continued
We can, however, produce a closed circle of mutual attraction in iron and steel, producing complete neutrality as long as the structure is not destroyed by some stronger external directing influence. ...
-Superposed Magnetism
Knowing that by torsion we can rotate or diminish magnetism, I was anxious to obtain by its means a complete rotation from north polarity to neutrality, and from neutrality to south polarity, or to co...
-Elastic Nature Of The Ether Surrounding The Magnetic Molecules
During these researches I have remarked a peculiar property of magnetism, viz., that not only can the molecules be rotated through any degree of arc to its maximum, or saturation, but that, while it r...
-The Westinghouse Brake
Below we illustrate the main parts of the Westinghouse brake as applied to a vehicle. The supplementary reservoir brake cylinder and triple valve are shown in position, and as fitted upon the engine, ...
-Hydraulic Elevators And Motors
[Footnote: Read at Buffalo meeting of the American Water-Works Association May 15,1883.] By B. F. JONES, Kansas City. What I have to say in relation to elevators and motors will be mostly in regard ...
-Hydraulic Elevators And Motors. Part 2
Whether this plan is practicable or not must be left to elevator manufacturers, but it seems to me that with the Hale-Otis elevator for instance (which is conceded to be one of the best) it could easi...
-Hydraulic Elevators And Motors. Part 3
One of the greatest causes of waste from elevators is the wearing out of the piston packing, this being particularly troublesome in most of the Western cities, where the water supplied is to a large e...
-Water Motors
My remarks on this subject I trust will be more to the have been point than they upon the questions already discussed. Certainly my ideas are more decided, so far at least as supplying water motors is...
-Water Supply Of Small Towns
We now describe the new waterworks lately erected for supplying the town of Cougleton, Cheshire. The population is about 12,000, and the place is a seat of the silk manufacture. After various expensiv...
-Process For Softening Hard Water
The available water of many villages and small towns is that of the chalk beds, but it is invariably very hard, and should be softened. We have received so many inquiries respecting a simple means of ...
-The Softening Of Water By Lime
The economy which carbonate of soda exhibits in comparison with soap as a softening material is far surpassed by the use of lime. Lime costs about 8d. per cwt., and this weight of lime will soften the...
-The Softening Of Water By Lime. Continued
Where the water can be supplied by gravitation, and the tanks can be placed at a sufficient elevation to command the service cistern, no pumps are required, the softening process, in fact, in no way n...
-Improved Water Meter
We annex illustrations of a meter designed by Mr. A. Schmid, of Zrich, and which, according to Engineering, is now considerably used on the Continent, not only for measuring water, but the sirup...
-Washing Machine For Wool
The washing machines in use for wool on the rake principle have during the last few years experienced many improvements in the details of their arrangement, which we have illustrated at different time...
-Increasing The Illuminating Power Of Gases, Etc
By V. POPP, of Paris. This invention relates to lighting by mixing air or other gaseous supporter of combustion with illuminating or other hydrocarbon gas or vapor, and burning the mixture (at a suit...
-Preventing Iron From Rusting
In the present state of civilization the use of iron has reached a very wide extension, and in a great number of cases iron is used where wood or stone was formerly used. It is certainly an important ...
-An Elastic Mass For Confectioners' Use
It should be made in a well glazed earthen crock; metallic vessels are not good, as the gelatine burns too easily on the sides, and dries out where it gets too hot. Nor is a water bath to be recommend...
-Caoutchouc
A. Levy contributes the following brief account of this subject to the Moniteur Scientifique: The crude gum cut in irregular strips is passed five or six times between two strong rolls sixteen inches...
-Photographic Action Studied Spectroscopically
At the last meeting of the Chemical Society Captain Abney gave a lecture on the above subject to a large audience. We may premise by saying that the demonstrations he gave were carried out principally...
-Salt And Lime
M.F.K. communicates the following interesting circumstance to Neueste Erfindung.: A few years ago it was decided to whitewash the walls and ceiling of a small cellar to make it lighter. For this purpo...
-Renewing Paint Without Burning
It is stated in the Gewerbeblatte fur Hessen that paint can be renewed and refreshed in the following manner: When cracks and checks appear in the paint on wooden articles, this usually indicates tha...
-Testing Olive Oil
By DR. O. BACH. There is no department in analytical chemistry in which so little success has been attained as in the testing of commercial fats and oils. All methods that have been proposed for dist...
-On The Theory Of The Formation Of Compound Ethers
In a note presented to the Industrial Society of Mulhouse, A. Pabst discusses the different stages in the formation of compound ethers, as Williamson has explained the production of ordinary ethers by...
-A Green Or Golden Color For All Kinds Of Brass
By E. PULCHER. The French brass castings and articles of sheet brass are made of cheap, light colored brass, and possess a fine golden color which is not produced by gold varnish, but by a coating of...
-Vinegar
Hermann Kratzer, of Leipsic, communicates the following practical information on the clarification and purification of vinegar to the Neueste Erfindungen und Erfahrungen: If vinegar has an unpleasant...
-The Alizarine Industry
At a recent meeting of the Manchester section of the Society of Chemical Industry, Mr. Ivan Levinstein described the history and progress of the manufacture of alizarine, from which are produced fast ...
-The Preservation Of Meat By Carbonic Acid
Since 1874, when Professor Kolbe, of Leipsic, first published his results on the antiseptic action of salicylic acid, he has made many efforts to apply this acid to the preservation of meat, but he ha...
-Reduction Of Oxidized Iron By Carbonic Oxide
IT is well known that when the heat is sufficient, carbonic oxide reduces the oxide of iron to metal with the production of carbon dioxide (carbonic acid). On the other hand, at lower temperatures car...
-On The Adulteration Of Soap
By Dr. H. BRACKEBUSCH. The importance of soap as an indispensable article in the household has not restrained the adulterators from making it a favorite object of their operations, and at the present...
-Bovine And Human Milk: The Difference In Its Action And Composition
By C. HUSSON. M. Meynet, in a remarkable report upon condensed milk, has raised a question which it is important to have solved in the interests of infants. This is my excuse for presenting to the Fr...
-Cereal Foods In Their Relation To Health And Disease
By F.R. CAMPBELL, A.B., M.D. The cereals are subject to many diseases which retard their development, rendering them unfit for food, and even poisonous. The relation of unwholesome foods to the disea...
-Moist Air In Living Rooms
The injurious effect of dry heat in inhabited rooms is quite generally known, and different methods have been suggested for moistening the air. To test the effectiveness of these methods, J. Melikow, ...
-The Developmental Significance Of Human Physiognomy
[Footnote: Abstract of a lecture delivered before the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia, Jan. 20.1881, in exposition of principles laid down in The Hypothesis of Evolution, New Haven, 1870, p. 31.] ...
-The Developmental Significance Of Human Physiognomy. Part 2
FIG. 7.--Face of another negro, showing flat nose, less prognathism and larger cerebral region. From Serpa Pinto. It is evident that the possession of any one of the above characteristics by a man ap...
-The Developmental Significance Of Human Physiognomy. Part 3
[Footnote 1: In the Bochimans, the flat nasal bones are co-ossified with the adjacent elements as in the apes (Thuli).] Mongolian Hair straight, long (accel.); jaws prognathous (quadrum. acc...
-The Production Of Fire
In 1867 the Abb Bourgeois found at Thenay, near Pont-levoy (Loir-et-Cher), in a marly bank belonging to the most ancient part of the middle Tertiary formation, fragments of silex which bore tr...
-The Production Of Fire. Continued
In these latter, says again Chamisso, upon the fixed piece of wood they place another piece of the same kind, about the length of the palm, and press it obliquely at an angle of about 30 degrees. The ...
-St. Blaise, The Winner Of The Derby
St. Blaise, the property of Sir Frederick Johnstone, was bred by Lord Alington, and is by Hermit from Fusee. This is an unexceptionable pedigree, for Hermit is now as successful and fashionable a sire...
-Scientific Progress In China And Japan
Various steps in the progress of China, and Japan in the adoption of Western science and educational methods have from time to time been noticed in these columns. To the popular mind the names of the ...
-The Diamond Fields Of South Africa
At a recent meeting of the Institution of Civil Engineers, the paper read was On the Diamond Fields and Mines of South Africa, by Mr. James N. Paxman, Asoc. M. Inst. C.E. The author commenced by st...
-Sponges At The Bahamas
Within the last few decades the sponge industry of the Bahama Islands has increased at such a rate that to-day it is the second in importance on the island. Although the product is not of such excelle...
-Testing Fish Ova For Impregnation
The development of the eyes of game fishes (salmonoids), as is well known, is relatively far advanced before the fish culturist is positively assured that embryos are developing normally in the egg. A...
-Monument To Christopher Columbus, At Barcelona, Spain
The cultivated and patriotic city of Barcelona is about to erect a magnificent monument in honor of Columbus, the personage most distinguished in the historic annals of all nations and all epochs. The...
-Scenery On The Utah Line Of The Denver And Rio Grande
Mr. R.W. Raymond gives the following interesting account of the remarkable scenery on this recently opened route from Denver to Salt Lake: Having just made the trip from Salt Lake City to this place ...
-Photography Applied To Terra-Cotta And Opal Glass
In the natural course of things it must necessarily have occurred to practical men to utilize photography in the case of terra-cotta, as it has already been employed in connection with so many other w...
-Terra-Cotta Photography In Practice
The first and indispensable operation, in the preparation of the surface to receive the transfer, is the sizing of the surface. It simply consists of a solution of gelatine chrome-alumed, as follows...
-Opal Production In Practice
This is still a secret with some in the profession. A limited number of workers have succeeded in bringing out good opals, and their modus operandi is kept from the many. Now this is a pity, when one ...
-Paper Negatives
The process of A.C.A. Thiebaut is as follows: the paper has the following advantages: First. The sensitive coating is regular, and its thickness is uniform throughout the entire surface of each sheet...
-Some Of The Uses Of Common Alum
A substance very much used by photographers of late years--in fact, so much used that no well-appointed laboratory could be considered complete without it--is the substance known is common alum, or po...
-Cloth Stretching Machine
As is well known, in the process of bleaching and dyeing, cotton cloths become considerably contracted in the width, in consequence of carrying on the operations when the cloth is in the form of a rop...
-Woolen Fabrics Purified By Hydrochloric Acid Gas
All known methods for chemically purifying woolen stuffs from vegetable fibers depend on the action of acids or substances of acid reaction. The excessive temperature, hitherto unavoidable in the oper...
-Application Of Electricity To The Bleaching Of Vegetable Textile Materials
It is a recognized fact that chemical bodies in a nascent state are characterized by peculiarly energetic affinities, and the results of numerous experiments permit us to affirm that animal and vegeta...
-Improved Spring Traction Engine
Messrs. J. & H. McLaren, of the Midland Engine Works, Hunslet, Leeds, England, for several years past have devoted considerable attention to the question of mounting traction engines on springs. The o...
-Iron Frame Gang Mills
The gang mill is regarded as possessing material advantages in the rapid and economical manufacture of lumber. Among the recent improvements tending to perfect such mills, those which are shown in the...
-The Heat Regenerative System Of Firing Gas Retorts
The system of heat regeneration in the firing of gas retorts, in accordance with the principle which Dr. C.W. Siemens has worked out in such a variety of ways in the industrial arts, has lately been a...
-The Heat Regenerative System Of Firing Gas Retorts. Part 2
The reconstruction of the present year will extend to the ovens of seven retorts each, giving in this case eighty gas fired retorts; and to twenty ovens of five retorts each, which will become sixteen...
-The Heat Regenerative System Of Firing Gas Retorts. Part 3
Per cent. Hydrogen 8.7 Carbonic oxide 28.1 Carbonic acid 3.5 Oxygen 0.4 Nitrogen 59.3 ----- 100.0 By again referring to Fig. 2, it will be observed that an opening is provided for the passag...
-A New Gas-Heated Baker's Oven
During the past few weeks, a highly interesting experiment--and one, moreover, destined to materially influence the development of the uses of gas in a fresh field--has been in progress, under the gui...
-Captain Matthew Webb
Who was drowned on July 24 in attempting to swim through the whirlpool and rapids at the foot of the Falls of Niagara, was born at Irongate, near Dawley, in Shropshire, January 18, 1848. He was 5 feet...
-Semi-Detached Villas, Bromfield Crescent, Headingley
These houses are situated in a pleasant part of Headingley, which is the favorite residential suburb in the locality of Leeds. As regards accommodation, the ground-floor of each house comprises good-s...
-The Dwellings Of The Poor In Paris
In view of the possible approach of cholera, and the sanitary precautions that even the most neglectful of authorities are constrained to take, it is of some interest to us, says the Building News, to...
-Recent Experiments Affecting The Received Theory Of Music
To prove the incorrectness of Helmholtz's statement that beats do not colesce into musical sounds, but that the ear will distinguish them as a rumbling noise, even when their number rises as high as 1...
-The Motions Of Camphor Upon The Surface Of Water
[Footnote: Continued from SUPPLEMENT No. 391, page 6240.] To have these movements occur in a constant and invariable manner upon the surface of water, and especially upon mercury, it is necessary to ...
-Carbonic Acid In Beer
We present a diagram, on exposition at the last Brewers' Convention in Detroit, of the racking device, devised by J. E. Siebel in 1872, and used at that time in the brewery of Messrs. Bartholomae & Ro...
-On The Different Modifications Of Silver Bromide And Silver Chloride
Hermann W. Vogel has made a comparative study of the properties of silver bromide, obtained by precipitation in an aqueous solution of gelatin, and those of the same compound prepared by precipitation...
-Analysis Of A Sample Of New Zealand Coal
[Footnote: Read before the Society of Public Analysts on the 28th June, 1883.] By OTTO HEHNER Some discussion having recently taken place as to the value of New Zealand coal as a fuel, the following...
-Determining Manganese In Steel, Cast Iron, Ferro-Manganese, Etc
By E. RAYMOND. The method in question is recommended as easy, expeditious, and accurate. It consists in precipitating all the manganese in the state of peroxide, dissolving it in a ferrous solution s...
-Manganese And Its Uses
Manganese is one of the heavy metals of which iron may he taken as the representative. It is of a grayish white color, presents a metallic brilliancy, and is capable of a high degree of polish, is so ...
-Ozokerite, Or Earth-Wax
By WILLIAM L. LAY. On The Deposits Of Earth Wax (Ozokerite) In Europe And America [Footnote: Abstract from a paper read before the New York Academy of Sciences.] There exists a large mining and man...
-Ozokerite, Or Earth-Wax. Continued
I have been occupied in the petroleum region of Pennsylvania since 1860, have seen all the wonderful development of the oil wells, and was very much interested in contrasting the Austrian ozokerite an...
-Mineral Wax Products And Their Applications
The products of mineral wax, are: (a.) Ceresine, also called ozocerotine or refined ozokerite, a product which possesses a striking resemblance to ordinarily refined beeswax. It replaces this in al...
-The Solar Eclipse Of May 6, 1883
Professor C. S. Hastings, of the Johns Hopkins University, also includes many interesting details in his account of the trip: The voyage from New York to Panama was pleasant with the exception of a f...
-The Solar Eclipse Of May 6, 1883. Continued
According to Dr. Hastings' view, it must be light from the sun which has undergone refraction, i.e., which has been bent from its regular course by the interposition of an opaque body like the moon. ...
-A Buried City Of The Exodus
The excavations at Tell-el-Maskhutah, of which illustrations are given, have resulted in some of the most interesting and important discoveries that have ever rewarded the labors of archaeologists. Th...
-The Moabite Manuscripts
The surprises of archaeology are magnificent and apparently inexhaustible. It is continually bringing forth things new and old, and often it happens that the newest are the oldest of all. Whether this...
-Shipping Ostriches From Cape Town To Australia
Since the failure last August of the Cape Commercial Bank there has been much depression in South Africa. Ostrich farming, in common with other enterprises, has suffered. Before the crisis a pair of b...
-A New Weathercock
An ordinary weathercock provided with datum points may, in the majority of cases, suffice for the observation of the wind during the day; but recourse has to be had to different means to obtain an aut...
-Charred Clover
A correspondent of the Ohio Farmer reports an experiment in curing clover, showing how he just missed breeding fire in his barn, and illustrating the importance of ventilating hay mows: In 1861 I use...
-The Queen Victoria Century Plant. (Agave Victoriae-Reginae.)
This beautiful Agave is now in blossom in the garden here, and I am happy to be able to send you photographs of it. This is the first time it has ever blossomed in cultivation, and it has never been s...
-On The Constitution Of The Natural Fats
By J. ALFRED WANKLYN and WILLIAM FOX. In the course of an investigation in which we are at present engaged we have arrived at some results which appear to us to be very interesting. We find that the ...
-The German National Monument. War And Peace
In our SUPPLEMENT No. 412 we gave several engravings and a full description of the colossal German National monument Germania, lately unveiled on the Niederwald slope of the Rhine. We now present, a...
-The Art Aspects Of Modern Dress
At a recent conversazione of the London Literary and Artistic Society, Mr. Sellon read a paper upon this subject. Having expressed his belief that mere considerations of health would never dethrone fa...
-Artisans' Dwellings, Hornsey
The erection of artisans' dwellings is certainly a prominent feature in the progress of building in the metropolis, and speculative builders who work on a smaller scale would do well not to ignore the...
-Enlarging On Argentic Paper And Opals
By A. GOODALL. [Footnote: Read before the Dundee and East of Scotland Photographic Association.] The process of making gelatino bromide of silver prints or enlargements on paper or opal has been bef...
-The Manufacture And Characteristics Of Photographic Lenses
At a recent meeting of the London and Provincial Photographic Association Mr. J. Traill Taylor, formerly of New York, commenced his lecture by referring to the functions of lenses, and by describing t...
-Improved Developers For Gelatine Plates
By Dr. Eder. We are indebted to Chas. Ehrmann, Esq., for the improved formulas given below as translated by him for the Photographic Times. Dr. Eder has for a considerable time directed especial att...
-The Preparation Of Lard For Use In Pharmacy
[Footnote: Read at an evening meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, November 7, 1883.] By Professor REDWOOD. I have read with much, interest the paper on Ointment Bases, communic...
-Anti-Corrosion Paint
The Neueste Erfinderung describes an anti-corrosion paint for iron. It states that if 10 per cent. of burnt magnesia, or even baryta, or strontia, is mixed (cold) with ordinary linseed-oil paint, and ...
-Carbon In Steel
At a recent meeting of the Chemical Society, London, a paper was read entitled Notes on the Condition in which Carbon exists in Steel, by Sir F.A. Abel, C.B., and W.H. Deering. Two series of experi...
-Apparatus For Extracting Starch From Potatoes
In the apparatus of Mr. Angele, of Berlin, shown in the annexed cuts (Figs. 1 and 2), the potatoes, after being cleaned in the washer, C, slide through the chute, v, into a rasp, D, which reduces them...
-A Simple Apparatus For Describing Ellipses
By Prof. E.J. HALLOCK. A very simple apparatus for describing an oval or ellipse may be constructed by any apprentice or school boy as follows: Procure a straight piece of wood about inch wi...
-The Manufacture Of Charcoal In Kilns
The manufacture of charcoal in kilns was declared many years ago, after a series of experiments made in poorly constructed furnaces, to be unprofitable, and the subject is dismissed by most writers wi...
-Heat Developed In Forging
M. Tresca has lately presented to the Academy of Sciences some very interesting experiments on the development and distribution of heat produced by a blow of the steam hammer in the process of forging...
-A Novel Propeller Engine
By Prof. C.W. MacCord. The accompanying engravings illustrate the arrangement of a propeller engine of 20 inch bore and 22 inch stroke, whose cylinder and valve gear were recently designed by the wri...
-A Novel Propeller Engine. Continued
In determining the position of this eccentric, we proceed upon the assumption that the best results will be effected by such an arrangement that when cutting off at the earliest point required, the cu...
-The New Russian Torpedo Boat, The Poti
The Russian government has just had built at the shipyards of Mr. Normand, the celebrated Havre engineer, a torpedo boat called the Poti, which we herewith illustrate. This vessel perceptibly differs ...
-A New Steamer Propelled By Hydraulic Reaction
The oar, the helix, and the paddle-wheel constitute at present the means of propulsion that are exclusively employed when one has recourse to a motive power for effecting the propulsion of a boat. The...
-A New Form Of Flexible Band Dynamometer
[Footnote: Read before Section G of British Association.] By Professor W.C. UNWIN. Fig. 1. In the ordinary strap dynamometer a flexible band, sometimes carrying segments of wood blocks, is hung...
-See's Gas Stove
This stove consists of two or more superposed pipes provided with radiators. A gas burner is placed at the entrance of either the upper or lower pipe, according to circumstances. The products of combu...
-Rectification Of Alcohol By Electricity
Some time ago, Mr. Laurent Naudin, it will be remembered,[1] devised a method of converting the aldehydes that give a bad taste and odor to impure spirits, into alcohol, through electrolytic hydrogen,...
-Plastic Carbon For Batteries
Max Nitsche-Niesky recommends the following in Neueste Erfindung.: Good coke is ground and mixed with coal-tar to a stiff dough and pressed into moulds made of iron and brass. After drying for a few d...
-Recent Studies On The Constitution Of The Alkaloids
By SAMUEL P. SADTLER, Ph.D. [Footnote: Introductory lecture, Course of 1883-84, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy.] The sciences of to-day present, as might be expected, a very different aspect from ...
-Recent Studies On The Constitution Of The Alkaloids. Part 2
It is well known that in coal-tar is found a series of ammonia-like bases, aniline or amido-benzol, toluidine or amido-toluol, and xylidine or amido-xylol, which are utilized practically in the manufa...
-Recent Studies On The Constitution Of The Alkaloids. Part 3
Quinidine yields with chromic acid the same decomposition products as quinine. Cinchonine, CHNO, the second most important alkaloid of these barks, when oxidized with potassium permanganate, yields c...
-On The Treatment Of Congestive Headache
By J. LEONARD CORNING, M.D., New York. If we examine the literature of our theme, we are astounded by the apparently hopeless confusion in which the whole is involved. Everywhere attempts at ill-foun...
-The Use Of The Mullein Plant In The Treatment Of Pulmonary Consumption
[Footnote: From a paper published in the British Medical Journal.] By F.J.B. QUINLAN, M.D., M.R.I.A., F.K.Q.C P., Physician to St. Vincent's Hospital, Dublin. From time immemorial, the Verbascum tha...
-Action Of Mineral Waters And Of Hot Water Upon The Bile
Lewaschew and Klikowitch, from experiments upon dogs, conclude that the use of ordinary alkaline mineral waters was to increase the quantity of bile and to make it more fluid and watery. This increase...
-Vivisection
Although Magendie is rightly considered the true initiator of experimentation upon living beings, the practice of vivisection is as old as science itself. Galien, the physician of Marcus Aurelius (in...
-Insanity From Alcohol
[Footnote: Read at the late meeting of the National Association for the Protection of the Insane and translated for the American Psychological Journal by Carl Sieler, M.D., of Philadelphia.] By A. BA...
-Insanity From Alcohol. Continued
Intemperance is an inexhaustible source of the development and increase of insanity. It demands our undivided attention, not only on account of its existing relation, but particularly because intemper...
-Plantain As A Styptic
[Footnote: Read at the meeting of the Amer. Pharm. Assoc.] By J.W. COLCORD. Several articles during the past few months, copied from English pharmaceutical journals, calling attention to the styptic...
-Danger From Flies
Dr. Grassi is said (British Medical Journal) to have made an important, and by no means pleasant, discovery in regard to flies. It was always recognized that these insects might carry the germs of inf...
-The Zoological Society's Gardens
The erection of the new house for the accommodation of the serpents, alligators, and other reptiles, which is shown in our illustration, must be commended as a valuable improvement of the Zoological S...
-The Babiroussa
We present, on the same page, a few sketches of the babiroussas, a male and two females, with a young one, recently presented to the society by Dr. F.H. Bauer. These animals, which are from Celebes, i...
-Discovery Of Ancient Church In Jerusalem
An account of the newly discovered church, north of the Damascus Gate, Jerusalem, appears in the Quarterly Statement of the Palestine Exploration Fund. The author is Dr. Selah Merrill. The ruin has pr...
-Dammara Australis
One of the noblest evergreen trees in that noblest of collections of such plants contained in the Temperate House at Kew, is the subject of the present note. Some months since cones were observed to b...
-How To Successfully Transplant Trees
Many think it cheaper and better to take up large trees from the woods, and transplant them to their grounds or to the road-side, than to buy nursery trees. As a rule, such trees die; they fail becaus...
-Volta-Electric Induction
[Footnote: A paper read at the Society of Telegraph Engineers and Electricians on the 8th November, 1883] By WILLOUGHBY SMITH. In my presidential address, which I had the pleasure of reading before ...
-Volta-Electric Induction. Part 2
It is to be regretted that so sound a reasoner and so careful an experimenter had not the great advantage of the assistance of such suitable instruments for this class of research as the mirror-galvan...
-Volta-Electric Induction. Part 3
The current induced in the receiving spiral by the inducing one is practically instantaneous; but on the interposition of a metal plate the induced current which, as before described, is set up by the...
-Volta-Electric Induction. Part 4
Now, by placing the spiral in front of spiral C, the telephone reproduces the sound given out by the tuning-fork so loudly that I have no doubt all of you can hear it. Here is another spiral similar i...
-Volta-Electric Induction. Part 5
The whole arrangement will be left in working order at the close of the meeting for any gentlemen present to verify my statements or to make what experiments they please. In conclusion, I would ask, ...
-On Telpherage
[Footnote: Introductory address delivered to the Class of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, October 30, 1883.] By Professor FLEEMING JENKIN, LL.D., F.R.S. The transmission of vehicles by electr...
-Machine For Making Electric Light Carbons
One of the hinderances to the production of a regular and steady light in electric illumination is the absence of perfect uniformity in the carbons. This defect has more than once been pointed out by ...
-New Electric Battery Lights
There has lately been held, at No. 31 Lombard Street, London, a private exhibition of the Holmes and Burke primary galvanic battery. The chief object of the display was to demonstrate its suitability ...
-New Electric Railway
The original electric railway laid down by Messrs. Siemens and Halske at Berlin seems likely to be the parent of many others. One of the most recent is the underground electric line laid down by the f...
-The Earliest Gas-Engine
Lebon, in the certificate dated 1801, in addition to his first patent, described and illustrated a three-cylinder gas-engine in which an explosive mixture of gas and air was to have been ignited by an...
-The Moving Of Large Masses
[Footnote: For previous article see SUPPLEMENT 367.] The moving of a belfry was effected in 1776 by a mason who knew neither how to read nor write. This structure was, and still is, at Crescentino, u...
-Science And Engineering
In the address delivered by Mr. Westmacott, President of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers to the English and Belgian engineers assembled at Liege last August, there occurred the following passa...
-Science And Engineering. Part 2
This process itself, with all the momentous consequences, mechanical, commercial, and economical, which it has entailed, might be brought forward as a witness on our side; for it was almost completely...
-Science And Engineering. Part 3
It is certain, however, that but for the invention of nitroglycerine, a purely chemical compound, and its development in various forms, more or less safe and convenient, these long tunnels would never...
-Science And Engineering. Part 4
It is the former of these conditions which is now taken advantage of. For if we have a number of particles all revolving with the same velocity, but of different specific gravities, and if we allow th...
-Science And Engineering. Part 5
The same principle has been applied by the genius of Sir William Armstrong and others to the working of cranes and other machines for the lifting of weights, etc.; and under the form of the accumulato...
-Hydraulic Plate Press
One of the most remarkable and interesting mechanical arrangements at the Imperial Navy Yard at Kiel, Germany, is the iron clad plate bending machine, by means of which the heavy iron clad plates are ...
-Fast Printing Press For Engravings
Uber Land und Meer, which is one of the finest illustrated newspapers published in Germany, gives the following: We recently gave our readers an insight into the establishment of Uber Land und Meer, a...
-French Cannon
Five new cannons, the largest yet manufactured in France, have been successfully cast in the foundry of Ruelle near Angouleme. They are made of steel, and are breech loading. The weight of each is 97 ...
-Woodlands, Stoke Pogis, Bucks
The illustration represents a house recently reconstructed. The dining-room wing was alone left in the demolition of the old premises, and this part has been decorated with tile facings, and otherwise...
-China Grass
The following article appeared in a recent number of the London Times: The subject of the cultivation and commercial utilization of the China grass plant, or rhea, has for many years occupied attenti...
-China Grass. Continued
In order, however, to insure as a result a perfectly uniform and marketable article, the Professor uses various chemicals at the several stages of the process. These, however, are not administered hap...
-Apparatus For Heating By Gas
This new heating apparatus consists of a cast iron box, E, provided with an inclined cover, F, into which are fixed 100 copper tubes that are arranged in several lines, and form a semi-cylindrical hea...
-Improved Gas Burner For Singeing Machines
Since the introduction of the process of gas-singeing in finishing textiles, many improvements have been made in the construction of the machines for this purpose as well as in that of the burners, fo...
-Silas' Chronophore
In many industries there are operations that have to be repeated at regular intervals, and, for this reason, the construction of an apparatus for giving a signal, not only at the hour fixed, but also ...
-The Zelkowas
Two of the three species which form the subject of this article are not only highly ornamental, but also valuable timber trees. Until recently they were considered to belong to the genus Planera, whic...
-Zelkowa Crenata
Zelkcova crenata--The Caucasian Zelkowa is a native of the country lying between the Black and the Caspian Sea between latitudes 35 and 47 of the north of Persia and Georgia. According to Lo...
-Var Pendula (The Weeping Zelkowa)
This is a form of which I do not know the origin or history. It is simply a weeping variety of the common Zelkowa. I first saw it in the Isleworth Nurseries of Messrs. C. Lee & Son, and a specimen pre...
-Zelkowa Acuminata
Z. acuminata is one of the most useful and valuable of Japanese timber trees. It was found near Yeddo by the late Mr. John Gould Veitch, and was sent out by the firm of Messrs. J. Veitch & Sons. Maxim...
-Zelkowa Cretica
Z. cretica is a pretty, small foliaged tree, from 15 to 20 feet in height. The ovate crenate leaves, which measure from an inch or even less, to one inch and a half in length by about half the length ...
-A New Enemy Of The Bee
Prof. A.J. Cook, the eminent apiarist, calls attention to a new pest which has made its appearance in many apiaries. After referring to the fact that poultry and all other domestic animals of ten suff...
-Crystallization Of Honey
To the Editor of the Scientific American: Seeing in your issue of October 13, 1883, an article on Crystallization in Extracted Honey, I beg leave to differ a little with the gentleman. I have handl...
-An Extensive Sheep Range
The little schooner Santa Rosa arrived in port from Santa Barbara a few days ago. She comes up to this city twice a year to secure provisions, clothing, lumber, etc., for use on Santa Rosa Island, bei...
-The Disinfection Of The Atmosphere
At the Parkes Museum of Hygiene, London, Dr. Robert J. Lee recently delivered a lecture on the above subject, illustrated by experiments. The author remarked that he could not better open up his them...
-The Disinfection Of The Atmosphere. Continued
I can show why a fire from which there is much smoke is better than one which burns with a clear flame, by a simple experiment. Here is a piece of gum benzoin, the substance from which Friar's balsam ...
-A New Method Of Staining Bacillus Tuberculosis
By T.J. BURRILL, M.D., Champaign, Ill. Having had considerable experience in the use of the alcoholic solutions of aniline dyes for staining bacteria, and having for some months used solutions in gly...
-Cure For Hemorrhoids
The carbolic acid treatment of hemorrhoids is now receiving considerable attention. Hence the reprint from the Pittsburgh Medical Journal, November, 1883, of an article on the subject by Dr. George B...









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