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Scientific American Supplement Volumes 421, 430, 433, 441, 443, 446, 447, 455, 458, 460 and 470



Supplement Volumes for Scientific American 421-470

TitleScientific American Supplement Volumes 421, 430, 433, 441, 443, 446, 447, 455, 458, 460 and 470
AuthorVarious Authors
PublisherMunn & Co.
Year1884-1885
Copyright1885, Munn & Co.
AmazonScientific American Reference Book
-Electrical Apparatus For Measuring And For Demonstration At The Munich Exhibition
Apparatus for use in laboratories and cabinets of physics were quite numerous at the Munich Exhibition of Electricity, and very naturally a large number was to be seen there that presented little diff...
-Electrical Apparatus For Measuring And Demonstration At The Munich Exhibition. Continued
Prof. Zenger's differential photometer that we shall finally cite is an improvement upon Bunsen's. In the latter the position of the observer's eye not being fixed, the aspect of the spot changes acco...
-Copper Voltameter
Dr. Hammerl, of the Vienna Academy of Sciences, has made some experiments upon the disturbing influences on the correct indications of a copper voltameter. He investigated the effects of the intensity...
-A New Oxide Of Copper Battery
By MM. F. DE LALANDE and G. CHAPERON. We have succeeded in forming a new battery with a single liquid and with a solid depolarizing element by associating oxide of copper, caustic potash, and zinc. ...
-Farcot's Six Horse Power Steam Engine
This horizontal steam engine, recently constructed by Mr. E. D. Farcot for actuating a Cance dynamo-electric machine, consists of a cast iron bed frame, A, upon which are mounted all the parts. The tw...
-Foot Lathes
We illustrate a foot lathe constructed by the Britannia Manufacturing Company, of Colchester, and specially designed for use on board ships. These lathes, says Engineering, are treble geared, in order...
-Endless Trough Conveyer
The endless trough conveyer is one of the latest applications of link-belting, consisting primarily of a heavy chain belt carried over a pair of wheels, and in the intermediate space a truck on whi...
-Railroad Grades Of Trunk Lines
On the West Shore and Buffalo road its limit of grade is 30 feet to the mile going west and north, and 20 feet to the mile going east and south. Next for easy grades comes the New York Central and Hud...
-English Express Trains
The Journal of the Statistical Society for September contains an elaborate paper by Mr. E. Foxwell on English Express Trains; their Average Speed, etc. with Notes on Gradients, Long Runs, etc. The a...
-Improved Oil Mill
The old and cumbersome methods of crushing oil seeds by mechanical means have during the last few years undergone a complete revolution. By the old process, the seed, having been flattened between a p...
-Apparatus For Separating Substances Contained In The Waste Waters Of Paper Mills, Etc
For extracting such useful materials as are contained in the waste waters of paper mills, cloth manufactories, etc., and, at the same time, for purifying such waters, Mr. Schuricht, of Siebenlehn, emp...
-Large Blue Prints
By W.B. PARSONS, JR., C.E. I send you a description of a device that I got up for the N.Y., L.E., and W.R.R. division office at Port Jervis, by which I overcame the difficulties incident to large gla...
-House Drainage And Refuse
A course of lectures on sanitary engineering has been delivered during the past few weeks before the officers of the Royal Engineers stationed at Chatham, by Captain Douglas Galton, C.B., D.C.L., F.R....
-The Removal Of Excreta From Houses
The chief object of a perfect system of house drainage is the immediate and complete removal from the house of all foul and effete matter directly it is produced. The first object - viz., removal of f...
-The Removal Of Excreta From Houses. Part 2
Wages of two men and a boy per week, 1 12s.; keep of horses, stables, etc., 18s.; fuel for drying earth, 1s. 6d. per ton dried daily, 1 10s.; cost of earth and repairs, etc., 14s.; weekl...
-The Removal Of Excreta From Houses. Part 3
When you have water closet and drainage, the great object to be attained in house drainage is to prevent the sewer gas from passing from the main sewer into the house drain. It was the custom to place...
-Pasteur's New Method Of Attenuation
The view that vaccinia is attenuated variola is well known, and has been extensively adopted by English physicians. If the opinion means anything, it signifies that the two diseases are in essence one...
-Convenient Vaults
This is a subject which will bear line upon line and precept upon precept. Many persons have availed themselves of the cheap and easy means which we have formerly recommended in the shape of the daily...
-Poisonous Serpents And Their Venom
By Dr. G. ARCHIE STOCKWELL. Chemistry has made astounding strides since the days of the sixteenth century, when Italian malice and intrigue swayed all Europe, and poisons and poisoners stalked forth ...
-Poisonous Serpents And Their Venom. Part 2
With the infliction of the stroke and expression of its venom, the creature usually attempts to reverse its fangs in the wound, thereby dragging through and lacerating the flesh; an ingenious bit of d...
-Poisonous Serpents And Their Venom. Part 3
Shakespeare would appear to have had intuitive perception of the nature of such subtle poison, when he caused the ghost to describe to Hamlet The leprous distillment whose effect Bears such an enmi...
-Poisonous Serpents And Their Venom. Part 4
It is an indisputable fact, however, that there are individuals whose natural or acquired idiosyncrasies permit them to be inoculated by the most venomous of reptiles without deleterious or unpleasant...
-Poisonous Serpents And Their Venom. Part 5
The relief its vapor affords in the collapse of chloroform anaesthesia, in which dissolution is imminent from paralyzed heart's action, is instantaneous, and its effect upon the spasmodic and suffocat...
-To Find The Time Of Twilight
To the Editor of the Scientific American: Given latitude N. 40 51', declination N. 20 25', sun 18 below the horizon. To find the time of twilight at that place. In the accompanying dia...
-Ethnological Notes
The distinguished anthropologist M. De Quatrefages has recently spoken before the Academy of Sciences in Paris, and we extract from his discourse on Fossil Man and Savages some notes reported in the...
-Grecian Antiquities
MONUMENT OF PHILOPAPPUS, ATHENS. Although so much has been written about Athens, there is one striking feature which has been little noticed. This is the beautiful colors of the Parthenon and Erect...
-Spanish Fisheries
The Spanish Court at the late Fisheries Exhibition was large and well furnished, there being several characteristic models of vessels. No certain figures can be obtained of the results of the whole fi...
-Spanish Fisheries. Continued
When, by the lively and continuous jerking of the line, the fisherman concludes that he has a good number of fish on the hooks, he will haul aboard and then prepare to shoot again. The second method ...
-Duck Shooting At Montauk
Montauk Point, Long Island, is the most isolated and desolate spot imaginable during this weather. The frigid monotony of winter has settled down upon that region, and now it is haunted only by sea fo...
-The Garden. The Hornbeams
The genus Carpinis is widely distributed throughout the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. There are nine species known to botanists, most of them being middle-sized trees. In addition to t...
-The Garden. The Hornbeams. Continued
The inner bark, according to Linnaeus, is used for dyeing yellow. The leaves, when dried in the sun, are used in France as fodder; and when wanted for use in water, the young branches are cut off in t...
-Fruit Of Camellia Japonica
The fruiting of the camellia in this country being rather uncommon, we have taken the opportunity of illustrating one of three sent to us a fortnight ago by Mr. J. Menzies, South Lytchett, who says: ...
-Science. A New Rule For Division In Arithmetic
The ordinary process of long division is rather difficult, owing to the necessity of guessing at the successive figures which form the divisor. In case the repeating decimal expressing the exact quoti...
-Science. Experiments In Binary Arithmetic
Those who can perform in that most necessary of all mathematical operations, simple addition, any great number of successive examples or any single extensive example without consciousness of a severe ...
-The Dodder
The genus Cuscuta contains quite a number of species which go under the common name of dodder, and which have the peculiarily of living as parasites upon other plants. Their habits are unfortunately t...
-Recent Botanical Investigations
It is commonly said that there is a great difference between the transpiration and evaporation of water in plants. The former takes place in an atmosphere saturated with moisture, it is influenced by ...
-Electric Launches
[Footnote: A recent lecture before the Society of ATM, London.] By A. RECKENZAUN. It is not my intention to treat this subject from a shipwright's point of view. The title of this paper is supposed ...
-Electric Launches. Part 2
From a recent number of the Annales de l'Electricite, we learn that Count de Moulins experimented on the lake in the Bois de Boulogne, in the year 1866, with an iron flat-bottomed boat, carrying twelv...
-Electric Launches. Part 3
We could employ half the number of cells by using them at the rate of 80 amperes, but then they will supply the power for less than half the time. The fact, however, that the cells will give so high a...
-Electric Launches. Part 4
Here we have an all-important factor which can be neglected, to a certain extent, in the dynamo as a generator, although from an economical point of view excessive weight in the dynamo must also be ca...
-Electric Launches. Part 5
The insulation resistances must be as high as possible; the insulation can never be too good. The motor should he made to run at that speed at which it gives the greatest power with a high efficiency,...
-Electric Launches. Part 6
It is evident that a finely pitched screw, running at a high velocity, will supply these conditions best. With that beautiful screw lying on this table, and made by Messrs. Yarrow, 95 per cent. of eff...
-Electric Launches. Part 7
The Chairman asked if he rightly understood Admiral Selwyn that he had recently seen an invention in which one-sixth of a pound of condensed fuel would give 1 horse power per hour. Admiral Selwyn sai...
-Electric Launches. Part 8
The Chairman in proposing a vote of thanks to Mr. Reckenzaun, said he rejoiced to find that that gentleman had proved, to one man at least, that his views had been mistaken. He found in these days of ...
-The First Experiments With The Electric Light
Electric lighting dates back, as well known; to the celebrated experiment of Sir Humphry Davy, which took place in 1809 or 1810, but the date of which is often given as 1813. There exist however, some...
-Electrical Grapnel For Submarine Cables And Torpedo Lines
By H. KINGSFORD. All those who are acquainted with the cable-lifting branch of submarine telegraphy are well aware how important a matter it is in grappling to be certain of the instant the cable is ...
-Hughes' New Magnetic Balance
A new magnetic balance has been described before the Royal Society by Prof. D. E. Hughes, F.R.S., which he has devised in the course of carrying out his researches on the differences between different...
-How To Harden Cast Iron
Cast iron may be hardened as follows: Heat the iron to a cherry red, then sprinkle on it cyanide of potassium and heat to a little above red, then dip. The end of a rod that had been treated in this w...
-Apparatus For Measuring Small Resistances
The accompanying engraving shows a form of Thomson's double bridge, as modified by Kirchhoff and Hausemann. The chief advantage claimed for this instrument consists in the fact that all resistances of...
-Terrestrial Magnetism
[Footnote: For a full account of experiments relating to magnetism on railways in New York city, see SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, January 19,1884.] To the Editor of the Scientific American: An item has appe...
-Synchronous Seismology
The year recently closed furnishes interesting corroborative testimony of an apparent law regarding the propagation of earthquake movements most readily along great circles of our globe, as well as ev...
-The Iron Industry In Brazil. (Province Of Minas Geraes.)
By Prof. P. FERRAND. Up to the present time, the methods employed in the province of Minas Geraes (Brazil) for obtaining iron permit of manufacturing it direct from the ore without the intervening pr...
-The Steamer Churchill
We give engravings of the Churchill, a vessel lately built to the order of Mr. Walter Peace, London agent to the Natal Harbor Board, by Messrs. Hall, Russell, and Co., Aberdeen. She was designed by Mr...
-Three-Way Tunnels
Mr. T.R. Cramton, who at the Southampton meeting of the British Association suggested a method of tunneling which, under certain conditions, seems of excellent promise, brought forward a suggestion at...
-Mont St. Michel
Every one who has the slightest regard for historical monuments, who values mediaeval architecture, or cares in the least degree for the beautiful and the picturesque, must heartily sympathize with M....
-Adornments Of The New Post Office At Leipzig
The cuts given herewith, taken from the Illustrirte Zeitung, represent two statues for the new Post Office at Leipzig. The sculptor, Kaffsack, has represented the post and the telegraph as winged fema...
-Coal Gas As A Labor-Saving Agent In Mechanical Trades
By THOMAS FLETCHER, F.C.S. Gas, as a fuel, is an absolute necessity to the economical carrying out of many commercial processes. It is often used in the crudest and most costly way; a burner may be p...
-Coal Gas As A Labor-Saving Agent In Mechanical Trades. Part 2
The use of hot water pipes heated by gas may also be occasionally advisable, but, unless for some special reason, it is much more economical to use coal or coke, as the bulk of water makes an exceedin...
-Coal Gas As A Labor-Saving Agent In Mechanical Trades. Part 3
Wire gauze, made of wire the thickness of 22 iron wire gauge, 20 wires to the linear inch, and tinned after weaving, has an area in the holes of its surface. By calculation, the area of a ga...
-Coal Gas As A Labor-Saving Agent In Mechanical Trades. Part 4
For heating large plates of metal equally, for drying paper impressions for stereotypers, hot pressing hosiery, crumpet baking, working up plastic masses which can only be worked hot, and work of this...
-Coal Gas As A Labor-Saving Agent In Mechanical Trades. Part 5
The points only project over the flame, and the spindles are carried mechanically at such a speed that at the end of the five feet traverse they are red hot, and drop into water. More than one hundred...
-Coal Gas As A Labor-Saving Agent In Mechanical Trades. Part 6
This is an important point, as it renders the production of a continuous bright red heat a matter of the greatest ease, even in crucibles of a comparatively large size. Where the heat is steady, and c...
-Instantaneous Photography
A certain number of the readers of this journal are occupied with photography, and all assuredly are interested in this marvelous art, whose progress is so remarkable. So it has seemed to us that it w...
-Instantaneous Photography. Part 2
The luminous rays, in fact, form in the objective a double truncated cone whose upper base is equal to the diaphragm, and the lower one to the diameter of the lenses. If the aperture be equal to any d...
-Instantaneous Photography. Part 3
A band of smoked paper is fixed upon the shutter, then a tuning-fork provided with a small stylet resting against the paper is made to vibrate. Better yet, a chronograph which vibrates synchronously w...
-Falconetti's Continuously Primed Siphon
To carry a watercourse over a canal, river, road, or railway, several methods may be employed, as, for example, by aqueducts like those of Arcueil and Buc near Versailles, and by upright and inverted ...
-The Weibel-Piccard System Of Evaporating Liquids
In the industries, there are often considerable quantities of liquid to be evaporated in order to concentrate it. Such evaporation is very often performed by burning fuel in sufficient quantity to fur...
-Comparison Of Strength Of Large And Small Animals. W. N. Lockington
M. Delebeuf, in a paper read before the Academie Royale de Belgique, and published in the Revue Scientique, reviews the attempts of various naturalists to make comparisons between the strength of larg...
-Oil In California
J.W. McKinley, writing to the Pittsburg Dispatch, gives the following account of the California oil field at Newhall: On the edge of the town is located the refinery of the company, connected by pipe...
-Nutritive Value Of Condiments
By HELEN D. ABBOTT, Assistant in the Chemical Laboratory of the Philadelphia Polyclinic, and College for Graduates in Medicine. The prevailing opinion respecting the substances known as condiments is...
-The French Scientific Station At Cape Horn
In 1875 Lieutenant Weyprecht of the Austrian navy called the attention of scientific men to the desirability of having an organized and continual system of hourly meteorological and magnetic observati...
-The Electric Railway At Vienna
The total length of this railway, which extended from the Eiskeller in the Schwimmschul-Allee to the northern entrance of the Rotunda, was 1528.3 meters; the gauge was 1 meter, and 60 per cent. of the...
-Instruction In Mechanical Engineering
By Professor R. H. THURSTON. The writer has often been asked by correspondents interested in the matter of technical and trade education to outline a course of instruction in mechanical engineering, ...
-Instruction In Mechanical Engineering. Part 2
A course of trade instruction, as the writer would organize it, would consist, first, in the teaching of the apprentice the use of the tools of his trade, the nature of its materials, and the construc...
-Instruction In Mechanical Engineering. Part 3
This laboratory was organized in 1875, the funds needed being obtained by drawing upon loans offered by friends of the movement and by the Director. It was not until the year 1878, therefore, tha...
-Improved Double Boiler
The operation of boiling substances under pressure with more or less dilute sulphuric or sulphurous acid forms a necessary stage of several important manufactures, such as the production of paper from...
-The Gardner Machine Gun
FIG. 1.--SINGLE BARREL GARDNER MACHINE GUN. The mechanism by which the various functions of loading, firing, and extracting are performed is contained in a rectangular gun metal case, varying in d...
-Climbing Tricycles
The cycle trade is one which has been developed with great rapidity within the last ten years, and, like all new industries, has called forth a considerable amount of ingenuity and skill on the part o...
-Submarine Explorations. Voyage Of The Talisman
It was but a few years ago that the idea was prevalent that the seas at great depths were immense solitudes where life exhibited itself under no form, and where an eternal night reigned. To-day, thank...
-Cable Grapnel
Some improvements have recently been made by Mr. Alexander Glegg and the inventor in the well-known Jamieson grapnel used for raising submerged submarine cables. The chief feature of the grapnel is th...
-Wretched Boilermaking
To the Editor of the Scientific American: As long as I have been a reader of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN I have been pleased with the manner in which you investigate and explain the cause of any boiler e...
-A Threaded Set Collar
There are cases where a long screw must be rotated with a traversing nut or other threaded piece traveling on its thread a limited and variable distance. At one time the threaded nut or piece may be r...
-Pneumatic Malting
The lethargy in the malting trade, and in all matters relating to malting processes, induced by two centuries of restrictive legislation, is being gradually shaken off by the malting industry under th...
-Pneumatic Malting. Continued
Here or as employed in the malting illustrated, the air in its passage comes first into contact with the moistened cylinders, and if hot and dry it becomes moist and cool, for the constant evaporation...
-Non-Sparking Key
Profs. Ayrton and Perry lately described and exhibited before the Physical Society their new ammeters and voltmeters, also a non-sparking key. The well known ammeters and voltmeters of the authors use...
-New Instruments For Measuring Electric Currents And Electro-Motive Force
By Messrs. R. E. CROMPTON and GISBERT KAPP. [Footnote: Paper read before the Society of Telegraph Engineers, 14th February, 1884.] In consequence of the rapid development of that part of electrical ...
-New Instruments For Measuring Electric Currents And Electro-Motive Force. Part 2
The relation between exciting power and magnetic moment is very complicated, depending not only on the dimensions and shape of the core and the manner of winding, but also on the chemical constitut...
-New Instruments For Measuring Electric Currents And Electro-Motive Force. Part 3
A similar arrangement, though not precisely for the same purpose, has already been suggested and tried by Messrs. Deprez, Carpentier, Ayrton, and Perry, in galvanometers with permanent steel magnets. ...
-Secondary Batteries
The Consolidated Electric Light Company has now completed the secondary battery which has for some time engaged the attention of its officers, and their regular manufacture and use for electric lighti...
-Acetylene From Iodoform
P. CAZENEUVE publishes in the Comptes Rendus a new method for the preparation of acetylene, which consists in mixing iodoform intimately with moist and finely divided silver. An abundant evolution of ...
-When Does An Electrical Shock Become Fatal?
In this age of electricity and electric wires carrying currents of various intensity, the question of danger arising from contact with them has caused considerable discussion. An examination into the ...
-Robert Cauer's Statue Of Lorelei
The statue of Lorelei, the mythical siren of the Rhine, represented in the annexed cut, which is taken from the Illustrirte Zeitung, was modeled by Robert Cauer, of Kreuglach on the Rhine. He was born...
-Reducing And Enlarging Plaster Casts
Ordinary casts taken in plaster vary somewhat, owing to the shrinkage of the plaster; but it has hitherto not been possible to regulate this so as to produce any desired change and yet preserve the pr...
-Stripping The Film From Gelatine Negatives
We have frequent inquiries as to the best means of removing a gelatino-bromide negative from its glass support so that it can be used either as a direct or reversed negative, and it does not appear to...
-New Analogy Between Solids, Liquids, And Gases,
By W. SPRING. The author asks in the first place, What is the cause of the different specific gravities of one and the same metal according as it has been cast, rolled, drawn into wire, or hammered? ...
-Hydrogen Amalgam
Hydrogen, although a gas, is recognized by chemists as a metal, and when combined with any solid metal--as in the case known to electricians as the polarization of a negative element,--the compound ma...
-Treatment Of Ores By Electrolysis
By M. KILIANI. The author lays down general principles for electrolytic metallurgy. Ores must be distinguished as good and bad conductors; the former may serve directly as anodes, and are easily oxid...
-A People Without Consumption, And Some Account Of Their Country--The Cumberland Tableland
By E. M. WIGHT, M.D., Chattanooga, Tenn., Late Professor of Diseases of the Chest and State Medicine, Medical Department University of Tennessee; Late Member of the Tennessee State Board of Health, an...
-A People Without Consumption. The Cumberland Tableland. Part 2
There are some excellent places there for hot summer visits--Ashville, Warm Springs, Franklin, and others. The Cumberland Mountains, as a whole, are flat, in broad level spaces, broken only by the d...
-A People Without Consumption. The Cumberland Tableland. Part 3
The range of the thermometer is less on the Tablelands than in the adjacent valleys. I have had access to the carefully taken observations of the Lookout Mountain Educational Institute, such published...
-A People Without Consumption. The Cumberland Tableland. Part 4
I think the men who live on Walden's Ridge can safely challenge the world as walkers--aborigines and all; and unless the challenge should be accepted by their own women folks, I feel quite sure they w...
-The Treatment Of Habitual Constipation
Dr. F.P. Atkinson thus writes in the Practitioner, January, 1884: I suppose there is no derangement of the system we are more frequently called upon to treat than habitual constipation; and though all...
-The Pyramids Of Meroe
About fifty miles from the mouth of the Atbara, and, of course, on the eastern bank of the Nile, stand the pyramids of Meroe. They consist of three groups, and there are, in all, about eighty pyramids...
-The Prolificness Of The Oyster
In an article by Prof. Karl Mobius on The Oyster and Oyster Culture, reproduced in the recently issued report of the U. S. Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries, the author says: A mature egg-bearing ...
-Red Sky
The beautiful red sky which has been so frequent of late, morning as well as evening, has excited much comment. The comment, however, has consisted more of description, statement of fact, theory, and ...
-Red Sky. Continued
This meteoric dust they say combined with the atmosphere, followed it around the earth, and caused the beautiful redness of the sky at morning and evening. For one, I do not believe dust of any desc...
-A Theory Of Cometary Phenomena
To the, Editor of the Scientific American: The following subject, substantially, was written more than a year ago with a view to its publication. It was not, however, until January of the present yea...
-On Comets
When we see a comet approaching the sun with its tail following in the orbit of the nucleus, we have no great difficulty in believing the common theory that a comet consists of nucleus attracted towar...
-Forms Of Ivy
It is scarcely possible for us to bee too emphatic in our praises of the most distinct forms of ivy, since but few other hardy climbing plants ever give to us a tithe of their freshness and variety. A...
-Propagating Roses
In an article on this subject an English horticultural journal describes the method pursued by a London florist. After stating that out of a case containing 310 cuttings only five failed to root, the ...
-A Few Of The Best Inulas
Of the fifty-six species of Inula described in scientific works, probably not more than thirty are at present in cultivation in this country, and those are chiefly confined to botanic gardens, notwith...
-Fruit Growing
By P.H. FOSTER. In the first place, if you contemplate appropriating a portion of your land for the raising of fruits, you should have the orchard so situated that no large animals can run at large o...
-Coarse Food For Pigs
A recent subscriber wants advice how to feed pigs of 25 to 35 pounds weight, that are to be kept over winter and fitted for sale at about six months old--whether coarse food will not help them as much...
-Mete Kingi
Our engraving is a portrait of a familiar character in New Zealand, chief Mete Kingi, who recently died at the age of one hundred years. He was a fine specimen of the Maori race, the native New Zealan...
-Lake Tahoe
Some very interesting information by Prof. John Le Conte, is given in the Overland Monthly, being the result of some physical observations made by the author at Lake Tahoe, in 1873. Lake Tahoe, also c...
-Faure's Machine For Decorticating Sugar-Cane
The object of the apparatus shown in the accompanying engraving is to effect a separation of the tough epidermis of the sugar-cane from the internal spongy pith which is to be pressed. Its function co...
-Moving A Bridge
An interesting piece of engineering work has recently been accomplished at Bristol, England, which consisted in the moving of a foot-bridge 134 feet in length, bodily, down the river a considerable di...
-The Generation Of Steam, And The Thermodynamic Problems Involved
By Mr. WILLIAM ANDERSON, M.I.C.E. It will not be necessary to commence this lecture by explaining the origin of fuel; it will be sufficient if I remind you that it is to the action of the complex ray...
-The Generation Of Steam, And The Thermodynamic Problems Involved. Part 2
Another advantage gained was that the absorption of the products of combustion prevents any sensible alteration in the volumes during the process, so that corrections for the heat absorbed in the work...
-The Generation Of Steam, And The Thermodynamic Problems Involved. Part 3
If I am justified in taking this view, then I am justified in applying to my heat engine the general principles laid down in 1824 by Sadi Carnot, namely, that the proportion of work which can be obtai...
-The Generation Of Steam, And The Thermodynamic Problems Involved. Part 4
The fuel used was a smokeless Welsh coal, from the Llangennech colleries. It was analyzed by Mr. Snelus, of the Dowlais Ironworks, and in Table II. are exhibited the details of its composition, and th...
-Planetary Wheel-Trains. II
By Prof. C.W. MACCORD, Sc.D. PLANETARY WHEEL TRAINS. Fig. 14 It has already been shown that the rotations of all the wheels of a planetary train, relatively to the train-arm, are the same when the ...
-Planetary Wheel-Trains. II. Continued
We have here a compound train, consisting of two simple planetary trains, A - F and A' - F'; and its action is to be determined by considering them separately. First suppose T' to be removed and find ...
-The Pantanemone
The need of irrigating prairies, inundating vines, drying marshes, and accumulating electricity cheaply has, for some time past, led to a search for some means of utilizing the forces of nature better...
-Relvas's New Life-Boat
The Spanish and Portuguese papers have recently made known some interesting experiments that have been made by Mr. Carlos Relvas with a new life-boat which parts the waves with great facility and exhi...
-Experiments With Double-Barreled Guns And Rifles
The series of experiments we are about to describe has recently been made by Mr. Horatio Phillips, a practical gun maker of London. The results will no doubt prove of interest to those concerned in th...
-Ball Turning Machine
The distinguishing feature in the ball turning machine shown opposite is that the tool is stationary, while the work revolves in two directions simultaneously. In the case of an ordinary spherical obj...
-Cooling Apparatus For Injection Water
It often happens in towns and where manufactories are crowded together, that the supply of water for condensing purposes is very small, and consequently that it attains an inconveniently high temperat...
-Corrugated Disk Pulleys
This is a pulley recently introduced by Messrs. J. and E. Hall, of Dartford Eng. With the exception of the boss, which is cast, it is composed entirely of steel or sheet iron. In place of the usual ar...
-Kansas City Review. Early History Of The Telegraph
Although the electric telegraph is, comparatively speaking, a recent invention, yet methods of communication at a distance, by means of signals, have probably existed in all ages and in all nations. T...
-Mr. Latrobe's Recollections
MY DEAR MR. POE: Agreeably to my promise, this morning I put on paper my recollection of the introduction of the magnetic telegraph between Baltimore and Washington. I was counsel of the Baltimore & O...
-The Kravogl Electric Motor
At the origin of every science, of whatever nature it may be, there is always a fruitless period, of greater or less length, characterized by the warfare of a few superior minds against general apathy...
-The Kravogl Electric Motor. Continued
FIG. 1. In the presence of the historic interest that attaches to the question, we do not think it will be out of place to reproduce here the considerations that guided Prof. Pfaundler in the resear...
-Bornhardt's Electric Machine For Blasting In Mines
We shall not attempt to pass in review the several apparatus that have hitherto been devised for igniting blasts in mining operations, but shall simply describe in this place a machine recently invent...
-Improved Electric Fire Alarm
The object of this apparatus is to close an electric circuit when the temperature of a room rises above a certain point. Many devices have been invented for effecting this object, each of which have t...
-A Standard Thermopile
Dr. G. Gore, F.R.S., has invented an improved thermopile for measuring small electromotive forces. It consists of about 300 pairs of horizontal, slender, parallel wires of iron and German silver, the ...
-Telephonic Transmission Without Receivers
The annual meeting of the French Society of Physics, the success of which is continually increasing, took place this year in the salons of the Observatory, which were kindly placed at the Society's di...
-On The Arrangement Of Ground Conductors
In telegraphy, as well as in the question of lightning rods, attention has been but incidentally paid to the improvement of ground conductors, and this point has not been the object of that careful st...
-On The Arrangement Of Ground Conductors. Continued
After assuring himself, by experiments on a small scale, that calculation and observation gave concordant results for the flat ring, the author made an experiment on a larger scale with the annular ne...
-On Electrolysis
By H. SCHUCHT. Concerning the separations which take place at the positive pole, the composition of the peroxides, and the manner of their determination, relatively little has been done. If solution...
-On Electrolysis. Continued
Thallium behaves similarly to lead. From a nitric acid solution it is thrown down, according to the proportion of free acid, either as sesquioxide only or in small quantities as silvery, metallic leaf...
-A New Standard Light
Herr Hefner-Alteneck has suggested a new standard light for photometric purposes, which promises to be very simple and effective in operation. The light is produced by an open flame of amyl-acetate bu...
-Dr. Feussner's New Polarizing Prism
In a recent number of the Zeitschrift fur Instrumentenkunde (iv., 42-50, February, 1884), Dr. K. Feussner of Karlsruhe has given a detailed description of a polarizing prism lately devised by him, whi...
-Dr. Feussner's New Polarizing Prism. Continued
5. The Hartnack Prism (Ann. de Ch. et de Physique, ser. iv., vii., 181). - This form of prism was devised in 1866 by MM. Hartnack and Prazmowiski; the original memoir is a valuable one; a translation ...
-Zircon
By F. STOLBA. Finely ground zircon is quickly rendered soluble if fused with a mixture of potassium borofluoride and potassium carbonate. The author takes two parts of the former to three of the latt...
-A Process For Making Wrought Iron Direct From The Ore
The numerous direct processes which have been patented and brought before the iron masters of the world, differ materially from that now introduced by Mr. Wilson. After a careful examination of his pr...
-A Process For Making Wrought Iron Direct From The Ore. Continued
In the Siemens process pieces of ore of the size of beans or peas, mixed with lime or other fluxing material, form the charge, which is introduced into a rotating furnace; and when this charge has bec...
-Some Remarks On The Determination Of Hardness In Waters
By HERBERT JACKSON. Having had occasion some short time ago to examine a hard water which owed half its hardness to salts of magnesium, I noticed that the soap test, applied in the usual way, gave a ...
-The Density And Pressure Of Detonating Gas Mixtures
MM. Berthelot and Vielle have recently been studying the influence of the density of detonating gaseous mixtures upon the pressure developed. The measure of pressure developed by the same gaseous syst...
-Turkish Baths For Horses
The Turkish bath has become an established institution in this country; men of all classes now use it for sanitary as well as remedial purposes. Athletes of various descriptions find it invaluable in ...
-Miryachit, A Newly Described Disease Of The Nervous System, And Its Analogues
By WILLIAM A. HAMMOND, M.D., Surgeon-General, U.S. Army (Retired List); Professor of Diseases of the Mind and Nervous System in the New York Post-Graduate Medical School and Hospital. In a very inter...
-Miryachit, A Newly Described Disease Of The Nervous System, And Its Analogues. Continued
The noise of a steam whistle was especially obnoxious to them. One of these jumpers, when taking some bromide of sodium in a tumbler, was told to throw it, and he dashed the tumbler upon the floor. It...
-The Gum Disease In Trees
An essay by Dr. Beijerinck, on the contagion of the gum disease in plants, lately published by the Royal Academy of Sciences at Amsterdam, contains some useful facts. The gum disease (gummosis, gum-fl...
-Drinkstone Park
Drinkstone has long been distinguished on account of the successful cultivation of remarkable plants. It lies some eight miles southeast from Bury St. Edmund's, and is the seat of T.H. Powell, Esq. Th...
-On The Changes Which Take Place In The Conversion Of Hay Into Ensilage
By FREDK. JAS. LLOYD, F.C.S., Lecturer on Agriculture, King's College. The recently published number of the Royal Agricultural Society's Journal contains some information upon the subject of silage w...
-The Illuminating Power Of Ethylene
Dr. Percy Frankland has obtained results which may be thus briefly summarized: (1.) That pure ethylene, when burnt at the rate of 5 cubic feet per hour from a Referee's Argand burner, emits a light of...
-Diffraction Phenomena During Total Solar Eclipses
By G.D. Hiscox. The reality of the sun's corona having been cast in doubt by a leading observer of the last total eclipse, who, from the erratic display observed in the spectroscope, has declared it ...
-Puerta Del Sol, Madrid
Puerta del Sol, or Gate of the Sun, Madrid, is the most famous and favorite public square in the Spanish city of Madrid. It was the eastern portal of the old city. From this square radiate several of ...
-Concrete Buildings For Farms
Buildings made of concrete have never received the attention in this country that they deserve. They have the merit of being durable and fire-proof, and of not being liable to be blown down by violent...
-What Causes Paint To Blister And Peel? How To Prevent It
This subject has been treated by many, but out of the numerous ideas that have been brought to bear upon it, the writers have failed to elucidate the question fully, probably owing to the fact that in...
-Olive Oil
The following particulars with regard to the production of olive oil in Tuscany have been furnished to Mr. Consul Inglis by one of the principal exporters in Leghorn: The olive oil produced in Tuscan...
-Beeswax And Its Adulterations
Beeswax is a peculiar waxy substance secreted only by bees, and consisting of 80.2 per cent. carbon, 13.4 per cent. hydrogen, and 6.4 per cent. oxygen. It is a mixture of myricine, cerotic acid, and c...
-Phenol In The Stem, Leaves, And Cones Of Pinus Sylvestris. A Discovery Bearing On The Flora Of The Carboniferous Epoch And The Formation Of Petroleum
By A.B. GRIFFITHS, Ph.D., F.C.S. Membre de la Societe Chimique de Paris, Medallist in Chemistry and Botany, etc. Having found, in small quantities, alcohols of the CH series, last summer, in the stem...
-The School Of Physics And Chemistry Of Paris
Recently we paid a visit to the New Municipal School of Physics and Chemistry that the city of Paris founded in 1882, and that is now in operation in the large building of the old Rollin College. This...
-Dust-Free Spaces
Within the last few years a singular interest has arisen in the subject of dust, smoke, and fog, and several scientific researches into the nature and properties of these phenomena have been recently ...
-Dust-Free Spaces. Part 2
Without it there could be no rain, and existence would be insupportable, perhaps impossible; but it is not manufactured in towns; the sea makes it; trees and wind make it; but the kind of dust made in...
-Dust-Free Spaces. Part 3
We thus see that when the air in a room is warmer than the solids in it - as will be the case when stoves, gas-burners, etc., are used - things will get very dusty; whereas when walls and objects are ...
-Telephony And Telegraphy On The Same Wires Simultaneously
For the last eighteen months a system has been in active operation in Belgium whereby the ordinary telegraph wires are used to convey telephonic communications at the same time that they are being emp...
-The Electric Marigraph
For registering the height of the tide at every instant, hydrographic services generally adopt quite a simple marigraph. The apparatus consists in principle of a counterpoised float whose rising and f...
-Delune & Co.'s System Of Laying Underground Cables
In recent times considerable attention has been paid to the subject of laying telegraph cables underground, and various methods have been devised. In some cases the cables have been covered with an ar...
-Electricity Applied To Horse-Shoeing
There is nothing new but what has been forgotten, said Marie Antoinette to her milliner, Mdlle. Bertin, and what is true of fashion is also somewhat so of science. Shoeing restive horses by the aid ...
-Esteve's Automatic Pile
Mr. Esteve has recently devised a generator of electricity which he claims to be energetic, constant, and always ready to operate. The apparatus is designed for the production of light and for actuati...
-Woodward's Diffusion Motor
The energy produced by the phenomena of diffusion is exhibited in lecture courses by placing a bell glass filled with hydrogen over a porous vessel at whose base is fixed a glass tube that dips into w...
-Some Relations Of Heat To Voltaic And Thermo-Electric Action Of Metals In Electrolytes
By G. GORE, F.R.S., LL.D. The experiments described in this paper throw considerable light upon the real cause of the voltaic current. The results of them are contained in twenty tables; and by compa...
-Relations Of Heat To Voltaic And Thermo-Electric Action Of Metals In Electrolytes. Continued
Out of fifty-eight cases of rise of temperature the rate of ordinary corrosion was increased in every instance except one, and that was only a feeble exception - the increase of corrosion from 60...
-Air Refrigerating Machine
IMPROVED AIR REFRIGERATING MACHINE. Messrs. J. & E. Hall, Dartford, exhibit at the International Health Exhibition, London, in connection with a cold storage room, two sizes of Ellis' patent air re...
-A Gas Radiator And Heater
A GAS RADIATOR AND HEATER. There is now being introduced into Germany a gas radiator and heater, the invention of Herr Wobbe. It consists, as will be seen in engraving above, of a series of vertical...
-Concrete Water Pipes
Concrete water pipes of small diameter, according to a foreign contemporary, are used in parts of France, notably for water mains for the towns of Coulommiers and Aix-en-Provence. The pipes were forme...
-The Sellers Standard System Of Screw Threads, Nuts, And Bolt Heads
SCREW THREADS. NUTS. BOLT HEADS. Diam.ofScrew. Threadsperinch. Diameterat rootof Thread. AreaofBoltatrootofThread. WidthofFlat. ShortDiam.Rough ShortDiam.Finish. LongDiam.Rough. ...
-An English Railway Ferry Boat
AN ENGLISH RAILWAY FERRY BOAT. The illustrations above represent a double screw steam ferry boat for transporting railway carriages, vehicles, and passengers, etc., designed and constructed by Messr...
-The Problem Of Flight, And The Flying Machine
As a result of reading the various communications to the Scientific American and Supplement, and Van Nostrand's Engineering Magazine, including descriptions of proposed and tested machines, and the re...
-The Longhaired Pointer Mylord
Pointers are trained to search for game, and to indicate that they have found the same by standing motionless in front of it, and, when it has been shot, to carry the game to the huntsman. Several kin...
-Lunar Heat
By Professor C.A. YOUNG. One of the most interesting inquiries relating to the moon is that which deals with the heat she sends us, and the probable temperature of her surface. The problem seems to h...
-Apple Tree Borers
The apple tree borers have destroyed thousands of trees in New England, and are likely to destroy thousands more. There are three kinds of borers which assail the apple tree. The round headed or two s...
-Keffel's Germinating Apparatus
The apparatus represented in the annexed cut is designed to show the quality of various commercial seeds, and make known any fraudulent adulterations that they may have undergone. It is based upon a d...
-Millet
The season is now at hand when farmers who have light lands, and who may possibly find themselves short of fodder for next winter feeding, should prepare for a crop of millet. This is a plant that riv...
-Improved Filter Presses
Hitherto it has been found that of all the appliances and methods for separating the liquid from the solid matters, whether it is in the case of effluents from tanneries and other manufactories, or th...
-A New Form Of Gas Washer
By A. BANDSEPT, of Brussels. The washer is an appliance intended to condense and clean gas, which, on leaving the hydraulic main, holds in suspension a great many properties that are injurious to its...
-The Wind Mill
[Footnote: A paper read before the Engineers' Club of St. Louis, 1884.] By JAMES W. HILL. In the history of the world the utilization of the wind as a motive power antedates the use of both water an...
-The Wind Mill. Part 2
In November last a wind mill 18 feet in diameter was erected over a coal mine at Richmond, in this State. The conditions were as follows: The mine produces 11,000 gallons of water every twenty-four h...
-The Wind Mill. Part 3
During the nineteen months we have been running the wind mill, it has cost us nothing for repairs. We run it with a two-hole corn sheller, a set of 16-inch burr stones, and an elevator. We grind all ...
-The Pneumatic Dynamite Gun
It is here shown as mounted on a torpedo launch and ready for action. The shell or projectile is fired by compressed air, admitted from an air reservoir underneath by a simple pressure of the gunner's...
-Rope Pulley Friction Brake
A novel device in connection with rope pulley blocks is illustrated in the annexed engravings, the object of the appliance being to render it possible to leave a weight suspended from a block without ...
-Wire Rope Towage
We have from time to time given accounts in this journal of the system of towage by hauling on a submerged wire rope, first experimented upon by Baron O. De Mesnil and Mr. Max Eyth. On the river Rhine...
-Improved Hay-Rope Machine
Hay-ropes are used for many purposes, their principal use being in the foundry for core-making; but they also find a large application for packing ironmongery and furniture. The inventor is James Poll...
-The Anglesea Bridge, Cork
The river Lee flows through the city of Cork in two branches, which diverge just above the city, and are reunited at the Custom House, the central portion of the city being situated upon an island bet...
-Portable Railways
[Footnote: Paper read before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers.] By M. DECAUVILLE, Ane, of Petit-Bourg (Seine and Oise), France. Narrow gauge railways have been known for a very long ti...
-Portable Railways. Part 2
With this description of railway it does not matter whether the curves are to the right or to the left. The pair of rails are curved to a suitable radius, and can only need turning end for end to form...
-Portable Railways. Part 3
The campaign of the Russians against the Turcomans presented two great difficulties; these were the questions of crossing districts in which water was extremely scarce or failed entirely, and of victu...
-Portable Railways. Part 4
On plantations where it is desirable to have passenger carriages, or where it is to be foreseen that the narrow-gauge line maybe required for the regular transport of passengers and goods, the 20 in. ...
-Gerard's Alternating Current Machine
The machine represented in the annexed engravings consists of a movable inductor, whose alternate poles pass in front of an armature composed of a double number of oblong and flat bobbins, that are af...
-Automatic Fast Speed Telegraphy
By THEO. F. TAYLOR. Since 1838 much has been done toward increasing the carrying capacity of a single wire. In response to your invitation I will relate my experience upon the Postal's large coppered...
-Automatic Fast Speed Telegraphy. Continued
At the receiving station, B, is placed a recording apparatus, M, of any suitable or well known construction. A strip of chemically prepared paper, N, is caused to pass rapidly and uniformly between th...
-Theory Of The Action Of The Carbon Microphone. What Is It?
A careful examination of the opinions of scientific men given in the telephone cases--before Lord McLaren in Edinburgh and before Mr. Justice Fry in London--leads me to the conclusion that scientific ...
-The Dembinski Microphonic Telephone Transmitter
This apparatus, which is shown by Figs. 1, 2, and 3, consists of a wooden case, A, of oblong shape, closed by a lid fixed by hinges to the top or one side of the case. The lid is actually a frame for ...
-New Gas Lighters
We are going to make known to our readers two new styles of electric lighters whose operation is sure and quick, and the use of which is just as economical as that of those quasi-incombustible little ...
-Distribution Of Heat Which Is Developed By Forging
On the 8th of June. 1874, Tresca presented to the French Academy some considerations respecting the distribution of heat in forging a bar of platinum, and stated the principal reasons which rendered t...
-Tin In Canned Foods
[Footnote: Read at an evening meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society, March 5, 1884.] By PROFESSOR ATTFIELD, F.R.S., ETC. From time to time, during the past twelve years, paragraphs have appeared in ...
-Villa At Dorking
The house shown in the illustration was lately erected from the designs of Mr. Charles Bell, F.R.I.B.A. Although sufficiently commodious, the cost has been only about 1,050l.--The Architect. Sugge...
-Technical Education In America
If there is one point more than another in which the exuberant youth and vitality of the American nation is visible it is in that of education, the provision for which is on a most generous scale, car...
-Technical Education In America. Part 2
This department of the University consists, in point of fact, of three separate schools, destined to qualify the student for every kind of engineering--mining, railway, mechanical, and architectural. ...
-Technical Education In America. Part 3
The Kansas State Agricultural College has a course of carpentry, though designed rather more to meet the everyday necessities of a farmer's life. In fact, all the students are obliged to attend these ...
-Ivory Getting Scarce
The stock of ivory in London is estimated at about forty tons in dealers' private warehouses, whereas formerly they usually held about one hundred tons. One fourth of all imported into England goes to...
-The Anaesthetics Of Jugglers
Fakirs are religious mendicants who, for the purpose of exciting the charity of the public, assume positions in which it would seem impossible that they could remain, submit themselves to fearful tort...
-Immovable Fakirs
The number of these is large. They remain immovable in the spot they have selected, and that too for an exceedingly long period of time. An example of one of these is cited who remained standing for t...
-Anchylotic Fakirs
The number of fakirs who continue to hold one or both arms outstretched is very large in India. The following description of one of them is given by a traveler: He was a goussain--a religious mendica...
-Tortured Fakirs
Fakirs that submit themselves to tortures are very numerous. Some of them perform exercises analogous to those of the Aissaoua. Mr. Rousselet, in his voyage to the Indies, had an opportunity of seeing...
-The Deposition Of Ores
By J.S. NEWBERRY. Mineral Veins In the Quarterly for March, 1880, a paper was published on The Origin and Classification of Ore Deposits, which treated, among other things, of mineral veins. These...
-Leaching Of Igneous Rocks
The arguments against the theory that mineral veins have been produced by the leaching of superficial igneous rocks are in part the same as those already cited against the general theory of lateral se...
-Leaching Of Igneous Rocks. Part 2
Strong arguments against the theory that the leaching of superficial igneous rocks has supplied the materials filling mineral veins, are furnished by the facts observed in the districts where igneous ...
-Leaching Of Igneous Rocks. Part 3
It is, in fact, a region conspicuous for the number of its hot springs, and it is evident that these are the last of the series of thermal phenomena connected with the great volcanic upheavals and eru...
-Leaching Of Igneous Rocks. Part 4
It is difficult to understand why the upper portions of the porphyry sheet should be so different in character, so solid and homogeneous, with no local concentrations or pockets of ore, if they have b...
-Habits Of Burrowing Crayfishes In The United States
On May 13, 1883, I chanced to enter a meadow a few miles above Washington, on the Virginia side of the Potomac, at the head of a small stream emptying into the river. It was between two hills, at an e...
-Our Servants, The Microbes
Who of us has not, in a partially darkened room, seen the rays of the sun, as they entered through apertures or chinks in the shutters, exhibit their track by lighting up the infinitely small corpuscl...
-Our Servants, The Microbes. Continued
The Bacteriaceae are very numerous. Among them we must distinguish those that live in inert organic matters, alimentary substances, or debris of living beings, and which cause chemical decompositions ...
-Epitaphium Chymicum
The following epitaph was written by a Dr. Godfrey, who died in Dublin in 1755: Here lieth, to digest macerate, and amalgamate into clay, In Batneo Arenae, Stratum super Stratum The Residuum, Terra ...
-A New Stove Climber. (Ipomaea Thomsoniana.)
The first time we saw flowers of this beautiful new climbing plant (about a year ago) we thought that it was a white-flowered variety of the favorite old Ipomaea Horsfalliae, as it so nearly resembles...
-History Of Wheat
Isis was supposed to have introduced wheat into Egypt, Demeter into Greece, and the Emperor Chin-Wong into China, about 3000 B.C. In Europe it was cultivated before the period of history, as samples h...
-Determination Of Starch
According to Bunzener and Fries (Zeitschrift fur das gesammte Brauwesen), a thick, sirupy starch paste prepared with a boiling one per cent solution of salicylic acid is only very slowly saccharified,...
-Improvements In The Harbor Of Antwerp
The harbor of Antwerp, which, excepting those of London and Liverpool, is the largest in Europe, has been improved wonderfully during the last decade. Before 1870 it was inferior to the harbor at Havr...
-Bicycles And Tricycles
[Footnote: A recent lecture before the Society of Arts, London.] By C.V. BOYS. The subject of this paper is one of such wide interest, and of such great importance, that it is quite unnecessary for ...
-Bicycles And Tricycles. Part 2
I now come to the usual complaint about the bicycle. There is a fashion just now to call it dangerous and the tricycle safe. But the difference in safety has been much exaggerated. The bicyclist is mo...
-Bicycles And Tricycles. Part 3
Not only does free rolling depend on the suitable direction of the planes of the wheels, each wheel must be able to run at a speed proportional to its distance from the point of intersection of the th...
-Bicycles And Tricycles. Part 4
The Humber build, which departs less from the ordinary bicycle than any othar, is far superior to all others for speed; it is, however, somewhat difficult to manage, for the steering is not only delic...
-Bicycles And Tricycles. Part 5
Having spoken of the Oarsman tricycle, I must express regret that I have not been able to find an opportunity to ride on or with the machine, so that I cannot from observation form an opinion of its g...
-Bicycles And Tricycles. Part 6
Take a string made up of pieces alternately black and white, each exactly as long as the wheel is high, and stretch it between the mark and the top of the wheel. If there are n pieces of string includ...
-Bicycles And Tricycles. Part 7
There remains one machine which must be considered separately, for it cannot be classed with any other. This is the Otto bicycle. My opinion of this machine is so pronounced that I do not care to stat...
-Bicycles And Tricycles. Part 8
At high speeds, the steering of the Otto has this advantage, that whereas, with a given action on a tricyle, the same deviation will be effected in the same space at high as at low speeds, the same ac...
-The Canal Iron Works, London
Some interest is awakened in engineering circles in London, just now, by the approaching close of the old engineering works so well known as the Canal Ironworks, at the entrance to the Isle of Dogs,...
-Marinoni's Rotary Printing Press
The greatest progress that has been made in recent years in the art of printing is in the invention of the high speed press provided with continuous paper. Three French constructors, Messrs. Marinoni...
-Chenot's Economic Filter Press
Mr. E. Chenot, who is occupied in the manufacture of wine from dry grapes, has been led to devise a new style of filter, which by reason of its mode of action and its construction, he calls the Econo...
-Steel Chains Without Welding
We take the following description, together with the illustrations, of a method and machine for making steel chain without welding, from our valued contemporary, Le Genie Civil, of Paris: When we reg...
-The Bitter Substance Of Hops
[Footnote: The Brewers' Guardian, from the Zeit. f. d. gesammte Brauwesen.] By DR. H. BUNGENER. Little that is definite is known of the substance or substances to which the hop owes its bitterness. ...
-St. Paul's Vicarage, Forest Hill, Kent
This vicarage, for the Rev. Frank Jones, has recently been completed from the designs of Mr. E.W. Mountford, A.R.I.B.A.; of 22 Buckingham Street, Strand, W. C., and Mr. H. D. Appleton, A.R.I.B.A., of ...
-Some Economical Processes Connected With The Clothworking Industry
[Footnote: Read before the Society of Arts, London, May, 1884.] By Dr. WILLIAM RAMSAY, Professor of Chemistry at University College, Bristol. In this present age of scientific and technical activity...
-Some Economical Processes Connected With The Clothworking Industry. Part 2
The fatty acids are now ready for conversion into soap. It may here be remarked that, on distillation, they yield a nearly white fatty mass, which, when treated with soda-lye, is capable of yielding a...
-Some Economical Processes Connected With The Clothworking Industry. Part 3
The colors obtained by means of this indigo are light in shade, and the goods must be dipped several times if dark shades are required. But it is found better in practice not to attempt to dye dark sh...
-Some Economical Processes Connected With The Clothworking Industry. Part 4
This operation takes about twenty minutes, and at one operation about 1 cwt. of raw wool may be treated. The wool is then washed in suitable washing machines of the ordinary type, but with col...
-Coal And Its Uses
[Footnote: From a paper lately read before the Association of Foremen Engineers.] By JAMES PYKE. The records from which geologists draw their information can scarcely be compared to written or print...
-Coal And Its Uses. Part 2
The information that limestone gives us is this: When we find, as is often the case, a mass of limestone hundreds of feet thick, and composed of little else but carbonate of lime, we know that the sp...
-Coal And Its Uses. Part 3
You will have noticed that there is one step more wanted to make good this theory of the growth of coal on the spot where we now find it. The coal is found, as already described, interbedded with shal...
-Coal And Its Uses. Part 4
The chemist or physicist will tell you the wondrous story that the black substance which you burn is simply so much light and heat and motion borrowed from the sun and invested in the tissues of plant...
-Gaston Plante
This eminent scientist was born in Orthez (Department of Basses-Pyrnes) on the 22d of April, 1834; at present in his fiftieth year. He began his scientific career as assistant to Edmun...
-Warren Colburn
Warren Colburn, the eminent American mathematician, was born in Dedham, Mass., March 1, 1793. He was the eldest son of a large family of children. His parents were poor, and Warren was, during his ...
-Thury's Dynamo-Electric Machine
Thury's dynamo-electric machine, which presents some peculiarities, has never to our knowledge been employed outside of Sweden and a few neighboring regions; but this is doubtless due to some personal...
-Breguet's Telephone
Prof. G. Forbes gives the following description: The instrument which I call Bregut's telephone is founded upon the instrument which was described by Lipmann, called the capillary electrometer...
-Munro's Telephonic Experiments
Mr. J. Munro, whose name is well known not only as a very clear writer upon electrical subjects, but as an original investigator, has recently, with the assistance of Mr. Benjamin Warwick, been conduc...
-Munro's Telephonic Experiments. Continued
FIG. 4. Fig. 4 illustrates an apparatus devised by Mr. Munro, and to which the name thermo-microphone might be given, as it is a microphone in which thermo-electric currents are employed in the pl...
-Apparatus For Maneuvring Bichromate Of Potassa Piles From A Distance
Bichromate of potassa piles, especially those single liquid ones that are applied to domestic lighting, all present the grave defect of consuming almost as much zinc in open as in closed circuit, and ...
-Magnetic Rotations
By E. L. VOICE. The remarkable researches and experiments of Professor Hughes clearly show that magnetism is totally independent of iron, and that its molecules, particles, or polarities are capable ...
-Lighton's Immersion Illuminator
The following extremely simple plan for an immersion illuminator was first brought to the notice of microscopists a few years ago, and, in the absence of the inventor, was kindly described by Prof. Al...
-Foucault's Pendulum Experiments
By RICHARD A. PROCTOR. Science owes to M. Foucault the suggestion that the motions of a pendulum so suspended as to be free to swing in any vertical plane might be made to give ocular demonstration o...
-A New Lunarian
By Prof. C. W. MACCORD, Sc.D. The construction of apparatus for illustrating the motions of the heavenly bodies has often occupied the attention of both mathematicians and mechanicians, who have prod...
-The Upright Attitude Of Mankind
Every one must have heard or have read of the supposed perfect adaptation of the human frame to bipedal locomotion and to an upright attitude, as well as the advantages which we gain by this erect pos...
-The Upright Attitude Of Mankind. Continued
Now, if man has always been erect from his creation--or, if that term be disliked, from his origin--we have evidently nothing to hope from the future in the way of an amendment of this and other defec...
-Our Enemies, The Microbes
We have seen the microbes, as our servants[1], often performing, unbeknown to us, the work of purifying and regenerating the soil and atmosphere. Let us now examine our enemies, for they are numerous....
-The Wine Fly
At the last meeting of the New York Microscopical Society, a paper was read by Dr. Samuel Lockwood, secretary of the New Jersey State Microscopical Society. His subject was the Wine Fly, Drosophila am...
-The "Potetometer," An Instrument For Measuring The Transpiration Of Water By Plants
In view of the interest now attaching to recent advances in vegetable physiology, it seems not unlikely that a description of the instrument bearing the above name, lately published by Moll (Archives ...
-Bolivian Cinchona Forests
The great progress made in the acclimation of cinchona trees in India, Ceylon, and elsewhere has awakened the governments of countries where the plants are indigenous to the necessity of conserving fr...
-Ferns
N. Davallioides Furcans.--Among the many crested ferns in cultivation, this, of which the annexed is an illustration, is one of the most distinct; so different indeed it is from the type, that it is q...
-Formation Of Sugar
A paper on The Formation of Sugar in the Sugar-cane was recently read by M. Aim Girard before the Paris Academy of Sciences. By comparative investigations of the amount of cane sugar and gra...
-The Giraffe
The spirited view herewith presented, representing the Fall of the Giraffe before the rifle of a sportsman, we take from the Illustrated London News. Hunting the giraffe has long been a favorite spo...
-The Temperature Of The Earth As Shown By Deep Mines
At a recent meeting of the American Society of Civil Engineers, observations on the temperature of the earth, as shown by deep mines, were presented by Messrs. Hamilton Smith, Jr., and Edward B Dorsey...
-Gallisin, An Unfermentable Substance In Starch Sugar
C. Schmitt and A. Coblenzl have made a careful investigation of the unfermentable substances found in commercial starch sugars, and have succeeded in isolating a definite compound, to which they give ...
-The Combining Weights, Volumes, And Specific Gravities Of Elements And Compounds
Under the title of Figures Worth Studying, Mr. William Farmer, of New York, read a paper before a recent meeting of the Society of Gas Lighting, from which the American Gas Light Journal gives the f...
-Emerald-Green: Its Properties And Manufacture
By ROBERT GALLOWAY, M.R.I.A. The poisonous effects of wall-paper stained with emerald-green (aceto-arsenite of copper) appears to be a very favorite topic in many journals; it is continually reappear...
-Emerald-Green: Its Properties And Manufacture. Continued
There is immediately formed a dirty greenish-colored precipitate which is converted into Schweinfurt green by the addition of some 15 liters of concentrated wood-vinegar. This having been done, the pr...
-Analysis Of Zinc Ash And Calcined Pyrites By Means Of Ammonium Carbonate
In a recent issue of the Chemiker Zeitung Dr. Kosmann has reported an analytical method for the examination of zinciferous products; according to this report, the ash and flue dust produced by the ext...
-Petroleum As Fuel In Locomotive Engines
By Mr. THOMAS URQUHART. Comparing naphtha refuse and anthracite, the former has a theoretical evaporative power of 16.2 lb. of water per lb. of fuel, and the latter of 12.2 lb., at a pressure of 8 at...
-Petroleum As Fuel In Locomotive Engines. Part 2
Driving Locomotives In lighting up, certain precise rules have to be followed, in order to prevent explosion of any gas that may have accumulated in the fire box. Such explosions do often take place ...
-Petroleum As Fuel In Locomotive Engines. Part 3
All the pipes used are of malleable iron, lap-welded, and of 5 in. internal diameter, having screwed coupling muffs for making the connections. At each engine shed, in addition to the main storage res...
-Charcoal Kilns
KILN FOR BURNING CHARCOAL. In answer to the inquiry of a correspondent about charcoal making, we offer two illustrations that show a method of manufacture differing from that usually adopted, whic...
-Entrance, Tiddington House, Oxon
Our illustration is a view of the entrance facade to Tiddington House, Oxfordshire, the residence of the Rev. Joshua Bennett. The house is an old building of the Georgian period, and though originally...
-New Arrangement Of The Bichromate Of Potash Pile
Since Poggendorff in 1842 thought of substituting in the Bunsen battery a solution of bichromate of potash and sulphuric acid for nitric acid, and of thus making a single liquid pile of it, in suppres...
-The Distribution Of Electricity By Induction
There has been much said in recent times about the distribution of electricity by means of induction coils, and the use of this process has given rise to several systems that differ but little from on...
-Electricity Applied To The Study Of Seismic Movements
Italy, with her volcanic nature, has very naturally made a specialty of movements of the ground, or seismic perturbations. So the larger part of the apparatus designed for such study are due to Italia...
-New Accumulators
FIG. 1. - ARNOULD & TAMINE'S ACCUMULATOR. In Messrs. Arnould and Tamine's accumulators, shown in Fig. 1, the formation is effected directly by the current, as in the Plant pile, but the pl...
-The History Of A Lightning Flash
By W. SLINGO. Lately we have all felt, I doubt not, a considerable amount of interest in the various phenomena attending this summer's unusually heavy thunderstorms, accompanied, as they have been, b...
-The History Of A Lightning Flash. Continued
Returning to the discussion of the state of affairs existing when the particles have reached their highest position in the atmosphere, we may imagine that they set themselves off on journeys toward ei...
-Researches On Magnetism
By M. DUTER. If we place a thin plate of steel in a uniform magnetic field, so that the lines of force of the field may be normal to the surface of the plate, we have a very flat magnet, the two face...
-Improved Gas Light Buoy
GAS LIGHT BUOY. The accompanying engravings represent a light buoy made by the Pintsch's Patent Lighting Company for the river Humber. The chief dimensions of the buoy are given in the engraving, ...
-Project For A Roadstead At Havre
The present port of Havre is absolutely insufficient to answer the ever increasing requirements of commerce. Its entrance, which is too narrow and not deep enough, does not permit steamers to go in, c...
-Project For A Roadstead At Havre. Continued
In Bouniceau's Marine Constructions we find a curious figure, a sort of open framework of clumsy form anchored in a singular manner, and surmounted by rooms for watchmen, semaphores, posts for the s...
-Improved Catch Basin
In 1882, M. Bacle published in Le Gnie Civil a study of the sewer systems in some of the large foreign cities. There may be found there a description of the Liernur system at Amsterdam, Leyden...
-Methods Of Conducting Water And Transmitting Power
Concluded From Supplement No. 454, Page 7249. Water-Power With High Pressures And Wrought-Iron Water-Pipe By HAMILTON SMITH, JR., M. Am. Soc. C.E. A description of the mode of using water-power for ...
-Methods Of Conducting Water And Transmitting Power. Continued
From the end of the main, the water is led to the several wheels by branches of smaller diameter. The water is delivered at the hoisting-wheel with a total head of 542.6 feet. For power and for mill ...
-Texas Creek Pipe And Aqueduct
A description of this work will be of interest in showing the general practice followed in California for carrying water across deep mountain gorges. In order to augment its water supply, the North Bl...
-Parachute Hydraulic Motor
The very singular and simple hydraulic motor which we illustrate herewith is the invention of a Russian engineer, Mr. Jagn. It is scarcely as yet known in Western Europe, where, however, something wil...
-Improved Shafting Lathe
Our engraving represents a new departure in shaft turning lathes, and is the result of thirty years' experience in the manufacture of shafting, with many years' study, to perfect a machine of the grea...
-Power Straightening Machine
The machine is provided with a pair of rolls at each end of the bed, which are adjustable for different lengths of shaft, and are made to revolve by power applied through suitable gearing and a spline...
-Hydraulic Mining In California
By GEORGE O'BRIEN. Our knowledge of the primitive operations of the aboriginal inhabitants of the globe in pursuit of gold is barely traditional, as we are only aware that from very early times the p...
-Hydraulic Mining In California. Part 2
The deep and extensive depositions which I now attempt to describe attracted the early attention of the mining adventurers, and were called hill diggings, but not being properly understood were ther...
-Hydraulic Mining In California. Part 3
The rainfall during three years in the mountains averaged 49 inches annually, while the medium in the same period did not exceed 20 inches in the plains beneath. The height of the reservoir above the ...
-The Treatment Of Cholera
From the host of remedies and suggestions that are now deluging the European medical press, we select the following from Dr. Henry A. Rawlins, in the London Med. Times, July 12. 1884: The man sufferi...
-Temperature, Moisture, And Pressure In Their Relations To Health
At the recent meteorological conference held at the Health Exhibition, Dr. J.W. Tripe read a paper of much interest on some relations of meteorological phenomena to health. In ages long past these re...
-Temperature, Moisture, And Pressure In Their Relations To Health. Part 2
This fact shows that hot climates, probably by interfering with the due performance of the various processes concerned in the formation and destruction of the bodily tissues, eventually sap the founda...
-Temperature, Moisture, And Pressure In Their Relations To Health. Part 3
Thus, in January, 1882, the mean weekly temperature fell from 43.9 F. in the second week to 36.2 in the third, with fog and mist. The number of deaths registered in London during the third w...
-Consumption Spread By Chickens
In a village, C., near Weimar, where for many years no case of tubercular phthisis had taken place, two years ago several families suddenly discovered one of their members to be suffering from the dis...
-New Method Of Reducing Fever
For many years eminent medical savants have sought earnestly through the vegetable and mineral worlds for some substance by means of which the high temperature often prevailing in typhoid, malarial, a...
-The Crown Diamonds Of France
Fig 1 THE CROWN DIAMONDS OF FRANCE AT THE EXHIBITION OF INDUSTRIAL ARTS. According to a recent law of Parliament, a large part of the crown jewels of France is destined to be sold. The exhibit th...
-A New Mode Of Testing The Economy Of The Expenses Of Management In Life Insurance
How to determine the general ratios of the expenses of management of life insurance companies has hitherto been an unsettled question, and I think no serious attempt has been made before my own to stu...
-A New Mode Of Testing The Economy Of The Expenses Of Life Insurance Management. Continued
The figures given in this table are drawn from the last annual report of the Insurance Commissioner of Massachusetts, excepting the premium reserve on death claims, which, as well as the division of t...
-The Frankfort And Offenbach Electric Railway
The electric railway recently set in operation between Frankfort and Offenbach furnishes an occasion for studying the question of such roads anew and from a practical standpoint. For elevated railways...
-Possibilities Of The Telephone
The meeting of the American Association was one of unusual interest and importance to the members of Section B. This is to be attributed not only to the unusually large attendance of American physicis...
-Pyrometers
The accurate measurement of very high temperatures is a matter of great importance, especially with regard to metallurgical operations; but it is also one of great difficulty. Until recent years the o...
-The Temperature Of The Solar Surface
I have, during the summer solstice of 1884, carried out an experimental investigation for the purpose of demonstrating the temperature of the solar surface corresponding with the temperature transmitt...
-Atmospheric Absorption
The principal object of conducting the investigation during the summer solstice has been the facilities afforded for determining atmospheric absorption, the sun's zenith distance at noon being only 17...
-Chemical Nature Of Starch Grains
Dr. Brukner has contributed to the Proceedings of the Vienna Academy of Sciences a paper on the Chemical Nature of the Different Varieties of Starch, especially in reference to the question whether ...
-The Amalgamation Of Silver Ores
Description Of The Francke Tina Or Vat Process For The Amalgamation Of Silver Ores. By Mr. EDGAR P. RATHBONE, of London. In the year 1882, while on a visit to some of the great silver mines in Bol...
-The Amalgamation Of Silver Ores. Continued
This, however, is only a partial preventive; and the men find the best method of overcoming the evil effect is to return to their homes at intervals of a few weeks, their places being taken by others ...
-Interesting Facts About Platinum
After an excellent day of weakfishing on Barnegat Bay and an exceptionable supper of the good, old fashioned, country tavern kind, a social party of anglers sat about on Uncle Jo Parker's broad porch ...
-Bayle's Lamp Chimney
The different types of lamps used in domestic lighting present several imperfections, and daily experience shows too often how difficult it is, even with the most careful and best studied models, to h...
-Modern Locomotive Practice
By H. MICHELL WHITLEY, Assoc. M.I.C.E., F.G.S. A little more than half a century ago, but yet at a period not so far distant as to be beyond the remembrance of many still living, a clear-headed North...
-Modern Locomotive Practice. Part 2
These engines are extremely simple, but well proportioned, and are a very handsome type, and their average consumption of coal, working trains averaging ten coaches, is about 24.87 lb. per mile. The s...
-Modern Locomotive Practice. Part 3
It also allows larger cylinders to be got in between the frames of inside cylinder engines, as, the slide valves may be placed on the top or bottom of the cylinders. This latter advantage is a great o...
-Modern Locomotive Practice. Part 4
Their consumption of coal with trains averaging sixteen ten ton carriages is 27 lb. per mile, or 8 lb. per mile less than the standard coupled engine of the North-Western with similar loads. Mr. Stirl...
-Modern Locomotive Practice. Part 5
The author has been led to describe this engine fully on account of the numerous ingenious appliances which have been adopted in its design. In a trial trip on October 3, 1883, from Brighton to London...
-Modern Locomotive Practice. Part 6
It has been seen that the Cheshire lines express between Liverpool and Manchester is one of the fastest in England, and the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Railway Company, who works the train...
-Modern Locomotive Practice. Part 7
Having now passed in review the general types of engines adopted in modern English practice, the author would briefly draw attention to some points of design and some improvements effected in late yea...
-Modern Locomotive Practice. Part 8
With regard to the former, they appear to run with less friction, but are heavier to start, oil boxes in some experiments made on the South-Western Railway giving a resistance of 2.5 lb. per ton, whil...
-Screw Steam Collier Frostburg
NEW STEAM COLLIER. Our diagram shows the screw steam collier Frostburg, built by Henry H. Gorringe (the American Shipbuilding Co.), Philadelphia, Pa. Length, 210 ft. Beam, 33 ft. Depth, 17 ft, Reg...
-Destruction Of The Tardes Viaduct
The railroad from Montlucon to Eygurande, which is being constructed by the state engineers, crosses the valley of the Tardes in the environs of Evaux (Creuse). At the spot selected for the establish...
-Joy's Reversing And Expansion Valve Gear
Four years ago, in August, 1880, a paper was read on this subject before the Annual Summer Meeting of the Mechanical Engineers' Society of Great Britain, then held in Barrow-in-Furness, describing thi...
-Joy's Reversing And Expansion Valve Gear. Continued
Thus, so far as the distribution of the steam and its treatment in the cylinder is concerned, a marked advantage is shown in favor of this valve gear. But next in its favor, as before said, is that th...
-The Steam Bell
FIG. 1. FIG. 2. The secondary railways in rural districts in Austria having no gates or bars at the level crossings, or guards at such points, but being open like tramways, special precautions...
-Lieut. Greely Before The British Association
Lieuts. Greely and Ray were received with distinguished honors at the meeting of the British Association in Montreal. A complimentary luncheon was tendered him by the members of the British Associatio...
-Diamond Mining In Brazil
It was in 1729 that the Portuguese government learned of the discovery of the diamond that had been made in the rivers of the environs of Diamantina by some adventurers who had entered this region in ...
-Diamond Mining In Brazil. Continued
These deposits are still worked in our day as they were in the time of the Portuguese. In order to dry the bed a dam is constructed, and the river is either diverted into a plank flume supported by pi...
-What We Really Know About Asiatic Cholera
New York, September 1, 1884. To The Editor Of The New York Medical Journal: SIR: I have been exceedingly interested in Dr. Bartlett's suggestive article in your issue of August 30. But a sufficient n...
-Dr. Koch On The Cholera
An important and influential conference[1] upon cholera was opened in Berlin at the Imperial Board of Health on the evening of July 26. There were present Drs. v. Bergmann, Coler, Eulenbrg, B. Frä...
-Dr. Koch On The Cholera. Continued
Passing to speak of the microscopical character of the contents of the bowel, Dr. Koch said that owing to the sanguinolent and putrescent character of these in the cases first examined, no conclusion ...
-Malaria. - The Natural Production Of Malaria, And The Means Of Making Malarial Countries Healthier
By Conrad Tommasi Crudeli, M.D., Professor of Hygiene, University of Rome, Italy. Before entering upon my subject, I must crave the indulgence of those of my colleagues whose language I have borrowed...
-Natural Production Of Malaria. Making Malarial Countries Healthier. Part 2
In many cases the physical conditions of the soil have undergone no appreciable change during centuries, so that it is impossible to attribute so enormous an augmentation of malaria to an increase in ...
-Natural Production Of Malaria. Making Malarial Countries Healthier. Part 3
Among the conditions favorable to the multiplication of the malarial ferment contained in the soil, and to its dispersion through the superjacent atmosphere, there are three which are absolutely essen...
-Natural Production Of Malaria. Making Malarial Countries Healthier. Part 4
They were not able to verify a single fact in support of Lancisi's theory, while they found many of the same nature as that of Cistema, and which have resulted in overturning the theory entirely. It ...
-Natural Production Of Malaria. Making Malarial Countries Healthier. Part 5
But the malaria is only held in abeyance, and is not definitely overcome; for if an extensive excavation is made in these hills, and the contact of the air with the malarious soil is thus re-establish...
-Arsenic For Malaria
Having several times had occasion to observe, in malarious regions, that when recourse was had to arsenic in order to subdue fevers over which quinine had exerted almost no effect, relapses occurred b...
-The Lemon For Malaria
A happy chance has led Dr. Magliori to the discovery of an agent of this sort which was traditionally in use by certain Italian families. It is an exceedingly simple thing - merely a decoction of lemo...
-Halesia Hispida
HALESIA HISPIDA: HARDY SHRUB: FLOWERS WHITE. This fine hardy shrub is perhaps best known under the name of Pterostyrax, but we think gardeners will, quite independently of botanical grounds, be in...
-Windflowers
FLOWERS OF ANEMONE DECAPETALA (Natural Size). The genus Anemone has a great future. Even at present its popularity is only a little less than that of roses and daffodils, but when we trust to seed...
-Story Of Lieut. Greely's Recovery
The story of Lieut. Greely's recovery after his rescue from Cape Sabine is given by Passed Assistant Surgeon Edward H. Green, U.S.N, of the relief ship Thetis, in a communication to the Medical Record...
-The Cay Monument At Uxmal. Discovered By Dr. Le Plongeon On June 1, 1881
In 1881, we went for the second time to the ancient ruined city of Uxmal, Yucatan, and lived there four months, making moulds of every ornament and inscription, from which moulds perfect facsimiles of...
-Links In The History Of The Locomotive
It is, perhaps, more difficult to write accurate history than anything else, and this is true not only of nations, kings, politicians, or wars, but of events and things witnessed or called into existe...
-The Flow Of Water Through Turbines And Screw Propellers
By Mr. ARTHUR RIGG, C.E. Literature relating to turbines probably stands unrivaled among all that concerns questions of hydraulic engineering, not so much in its voluminous character as in the extent...
-The Flow Of Water Through Turbines And Screw Propellers. Part 2
All movements are relative to something else, and what we have to do with a stream of water in a turbine is to reduce its velocity relatively to the earth, quite a different thing to its velocity in r...
-The Flow Of Water Through Turbines And Screw Propellers. Part 3
\ | Theory / | \ | 54.00 | 45.00 | | | | --------------+--------------------+----------+----------+---------- In each case the unit of pressure is oz. In the first trial there was a dist...
-The Flow Of Water Through Turbines And Screw Propellers. Part 4
Again, taking a screw tug boat on the river Thames, with blades of a totally different form to those used by Mr. Griffiths, we still find them set at the same angle, namely, 48 deg. to the keel or 42 ...
-Improved Textile Machinery
THE TEXTILE EXHIBITION, ISLINGTON. In the recent textile exhibition at Islington, one of the most extensive exhibits was that, of Messrs. James Farmer and Sons, of Salford. The exhibit consists of...
-Endless Rope Haulage
In the North of England Report, the endless rope systems are classified as No. 1 and No 2 systems. No. 1, which has the rope under the tubs, is said to be in operation in the Midland counties. To give...
-A Reliable Water Filter
Opinions are so firmly fixed at present that water is capable of carrying the germs of disease that, in cases of epidemics, the recommendation is made to drink natural mineral waters, or to boil ordin...
-Simple Devices For Distilling Water
The alchemists dreamed and talked of that universal solvent which they so long and vainly endeavored to discover; still, for all this, not only the alchemist of old, but his more immediate successor, ...
-Improved Fire-Damp Detecter
According to the London Mining Journal, Mr. W.E. Garforth, of Normanton, has introduced an ingenious invention, the object of which is to detect fire-damp in collieries with the least possible degree ...
-Improved Fire-Damp Detecter. Continued
The detecter, as will be perceived from the one exhibited, and the accompanying sectional drawing, consists simply of an oval-shaped India rubber ball, fitted with a mouthpiece. The diameter is about ...
-Camera Attachment For Paper Photo Negatives
In computing the weight of the various items for a photographic tour, the glass almost invariably comes out at the head of the list, and the farther or longer the journey, so much more does the weight...
-Instantaneous Photo Shutter
M. Audra, in the name of M. Braun, of Angoulme, has presented to the Photo Society of France a new instantaneous shutter. The shutter is formed by a revolving metallic disk out of which a segme...
-Sulphurous Acid. - Easy Method Of Preparation For Photographic Purposes
Within a short period sulphurous acid has become an important element in the preparation of an excellent pyro developer for gelatine plates; and as it is more or less unstable in its keeping qualities...
-The National Monument At Rome
About three years ago the Italian Government invited the architects and artists of the world to furnish competitive designs for a national monument to be erected to the memory of King Victor Emanuel I...
-On The Evolution Of Forms Of Ornament
The statement that modern culture can be understood only through a study of all its stages of development is equally true of its several branches. Let us assume that decorative art is one of these. I...
-On The Evolution Of Forms Of Ornament. Part 2
In the case that is now to occupy us, we have not to go back so very far in the history of the world. FIG. 4. The ornamental representations of plants are of two kinds. Where we have to deal with...
-On The Evolution Of Forms Of Ornament. Part 3
The Pompeian paintings and mosaics, and the Roman paintings, of which unfortunately very few specimens have come down to us, show that the further developments of this form were most manifold, and ind...
-On The Evolution Of Forms Of Ornament. Part 4
The attempt to determine the course of the first group of forms has been to a certain extent successful, but we meet greater difficulties in the study of the second. FIG. 13. It is difficult to o...
-On The Evolution Of Forms Of Ornament. Part 5
We now come to the third group of forms - the so-called Cashmere pattern, or Indian palmetta. The developed forms, which, when they have attained their highest development, often show us outlines that...
-Steps Toward A Kinetic Theory Of Matter
By Sir WILLIAM THOMSON. The now well known kinetic theory of gases is a step so important in the way of explaining seemingly static properties of matter by motion, that it is scarcely possible to hel...
-Steps Toward A Kinetic Theory Of Matter. Part 2
Think of the thing thus. Imagine a great multitude of particles inclosed by a boundary which may be pushed inward in any part all round at pleasure. Now station an engineer corps of Maxwell's army of ...
-Steps Toward A Kinetic Theory Of Matter. Part 3
To explain the elasticity of a gas was the primary object of the kinetic theory of gases. This object is only attainable by the assumption of an elasticity more complex in character, and more difficul...
-Steps Toward A Kinetic Theory Of Matter. Part 4
In one case the ideal nearly rigid connection between the particles is produced by massless, exceedingly stiff springs; in the other case it is produced by the exceedingly rapid rotation of the fly wh...
-Steps Toward A Kinetic Theory Of Matter. Part 5
It is interesting and important to remark in passing that the whole kinetic energy of the liquid is the sum of the kinetic energies which it would have in the two cases separately. Now, imagine the wh...
-Steps Toward A Kinetic Theory Of Matter. Part 6
As a step toward kinetic theory of matter, it is certainly most interesting to remark that in the quasi-elasticity, elasticity looking like that of an India-rubber band, which we see in a vibrating sm...
-Application Of Electricity To Tramways
By M. HOLROYD SMITH. Last year, when I had the pleasure of reading a paper before you on my new system of electric tramways, I ventured to express the hope that before twelve months had passed, to b...
-Fires In London And New York
When the chief of the London Fire Brigade visited the United States in 1882, he was, as is the general rule on the other side of the Atlantic, interviewed - a custom, it may be remarked, which appea...
-The Latest Knowledge About Gapes
The gape worm may be termed the bete noir of the poultry-keeper - his greatest enemy - whether he be farmer or fancier. It is true there are some who declare that it is unknown in their poultry-yards ...
-Wolpert's Method Of Estimating The Amount Of Carbonic Acid In The Air
There is a large number of processes and apparatus for estimating the amount of carbonic acid in the air. Some of them, such as those of Regnault, Reiset, the Montsouris observers (Fig. 1), and Brand,...
-The Voyage Of The Vettor Pisani
Knowing how much Nature is read by all the naturalists of the world, I send these few lines, which I hope will be of some interest. The Italian R.N. corvette Vettor Pisani left Italy in April, 1882, ...
-The Greely Arctic Expedition
The Greely Arctic Expedition. The Farthest Point North. Some account has been given of the American Meteorological Expedition, commanded by Lieutenant, now Major, Greely, of the United States Army...
-The Nile Expedition
WHALER GIG FOR THE NILE. As soon as the authorities had finally made up their minds to send a flotilla of boats to Cairo for the relief of Khartoum, not a moment was lost in issuing orders to the ...
-The Proper Time For Cutting Timber
To The Editor Of The Oregonian: Believing that any ideas relating to this matter will be of some interest to your readers in this heavily-timbered region, I therefore propose giving you my opinion an...
-Raising Ferns From Spores
1, PAN; 2, BELL GLASS; 3, SMALL POTS AND LABELS. This plan, of which I give a sketch, has been in use by myself for many years, and most successfully. I have at various times given it to growers, ...
-The Life History Of Vaucheria
By A.H. BRECKENFELD. Nearly a century ago, Vaucher, the celebrated Genevan botanist, described a fresh water filamentous alga which he named Ectosperma geminata, with a correctness that appears truly...
-The Life History Of Vaucheria. Continued
The motile force is imparted to the gonidium by dense rows of waving cilia with which it is completely surrounded. Owing to their rapid vibration, it is almost impossible to distinguish them while the...
-Japanese Camphor - Its Preparation, Experiments, And Analysis Of The Camphor Oil
By H. OISHI. (Communicated by Kakamatsa.) LAURUS CAMPHORA, or kusunoki, as it is called in Japan, grows mainly in those provinces in the islands Shikobu and Kinshin, which have the southern sea coa...
-The Sunshine Recorder
McLeod's sunshine recorder consists of a camera fixed with its axis parallel to that of the earth, and with the lens northward. Opposite to the lens there is placed a round-bottomed flask, silvered in...
-Breaking Of A Water Main
In Boston, Mass., recently, at a point where two iron bridges, with stone abutments, are being built over the Boston and Albany Railroad tracks at Brookline Avenue, the main water pipe, which partiall...
-Flow Of Water Through Hose Pipes
At a recent meeting in this city of the American Society of Civil Engineers, a paper by Edmund B. Weston was read, giving the description and result of experiments on the flow of water through a 2&fra...
-Iron Pile Planks In The Construction Of Foundations Under Water
The annexed engravings illustrate a method of constructing subaqueous foundations by the use of iron pile planks. These latter, by reason of their peculiar form, present a great resistance, not only t...
-An Atmospheric Battery
Great ingenuity is being shown in the arrangement of new forms of primary batteries. The latest is that devised by M. Jablochkoff, which acts by the effect of atmospheric moisture upon the metal sodiu...
-Analysis Of Perfumed Scouring Pastes
The analysis of No. 1 resulted in water and traces of myrbane oil, 3.66 per cent.; fatty acid, melting at 104 F., 54.18 per cent.; iron peroxide, 10.11 per cent.; silicic acid, 14.48 per cent.; a...
-Sound Signals
In Appleton's Annual Cyclopaedia for 1883, Mr. Arnold B. Johnson, Chief Clerk of the Lighthouse Board, contributes a mass of very interesting information, under the above title. His descriptions of ...
-Guns
The use of guns is not so great as it once was. Instances are on record in which they were quite serviceable. Admiral Sir A. Milne said he had often gone into Halifax harbor, in a dense fog like a wal...
-Rockets
As a signal in rock lighthouses, where it would be impossible to mount large pieces of apparatus, the use of a gun-cotton rocket has been suggested by Sir Richard Collinson, deputy-master of the Trini...
-Bells
Bells are in use at every United States lightstation, and at many they are run by machinery actuated by clock-work, made by Mr. Stevens, of Boston, who, at the suggestion of the Lighthouse Board, has ...
-Whistling Buoys
The whistling buoy now in use was patented by Mr. J.M. Courtenay, of New York. It consists of an iron pear-shaped bulb, 12 feet across at its widest part, and floating 12 feet out of water. Inside the...
-Bell-Buoys
The bell-boat, which is at most a clumsy contrivance, liable to be upset in heavy weather, costly to build, hard to handle, and difficult to keep in repair, has been superseded by the Brown bell-buoy,...
-Locomotive-Whistles
It appears from the evidence given in 1845, before the select committee raised by the English House of Commons, that the use of the locomotive-whistle as a fog-signal was first suggested by Mr. A. Gor...
-Trumpets
The Daboll trumpet was invented by Mr. C.L. Daboll, of Connecticut, who was experimenting to meet the announced wants of the United States Lighthouse Board. The largest consists of a huge trumpet seve...
-The Siren
The siren was adapted from the instrument invented by Cagniard de la Tour, by A. and F. Brown, of the New York City Progress Works, under the guidance of Prof. Henry, at the instance and for the use o...
-Use Of Natural Orifices
There are, in various parts of the world, several sound-signals made by utilizing natural orifices in cliffs through which the waves drive the air with such force and velocity as to produce the sound ...
-Trevithick's Engine At Crewe
The old high-pressure engine of Richard Trevithick, which, thanks to Mr. Webb, has been rescued from a scrap heap in South Wales, and re-erected at the Crewe Works. We give engravings of this engine, ...
-Planetary Wheel Trains. IV
By Prof. C.W. MacCORD, Sc. D. Continued From Scientific American Supplement, No. 451, Page 7192 The arrangement of planetary wheels which has been applied in practice to the greatest extent and to t...
-Planetary Wheel Trains. IV. Part 2
V'= v'(1 - f/F). A modification of this train better suited for practical use is shown in Fig. 37, in which the sun-wheel, instead of the planet, is annular, and the latter is carried by the two ecce...
-Planetary Wheel Trains. IV. Part 3
In either instrument, the semi-major axis C X is equal to S R, and the semi-minor axis to S P. The ellipse, then, is described by these arrangements because it is a special form of the epitrochoid; a...
-The Fallacy Of The Present Theory Of Sound
Dr. H.A. Mott recently delivered a lecture before the New York Academy of Sciences, in Columbia College, on the Fallacy of the Present Theory of Sound. He commenced his lecture by stating that the o...
-The Attock Bridge
We give illustrations from Engineering of a bridge recently constructed across the Indus River at Attock, for the Punjaub Northern State Railway. This bridge, which was opened on May 24, 1883, was ere...
-The Elasticity Of Metals
M. Tresca has contributed to the Comptes Rendus some observations on the effect of hammering, and the variation of the limit of elasticity of metals and materials used in the arts. He says that hithe...
-The Harrington Rotary Engine
The chief characteristic or principle of this engine is the maintenance of an accurate steam and mechanical balance and the avoidance of cross pressure. The power is applied directly to the work, the ...
-Testing Car Varnishes
By D.D. ROBERTSON. At the Master Car-Painters' Convention, D.D. Robertson, of the Michigan Central, read the following paper on the best method of testing varnishes to secure the most satisfactory re...
-The Fixation Of Magnetic Phantoms
When we place a thin sheet of cardboard or glass upon a magnet and scatter iron filings over it, we observe the iron to take certain positions and trace certain lines which Faraday has styled lines of...
-A Chippendale Sideboard
A CHIPPENDALE SIDEBOARD. Our illustration this week is of a unique and handsome piece of Chippendale work. The outline is elegant, and the scrollings delicate. The pedestals are peculiar in their ...
-Liquefaction Of The Elementary Gases
By JULES JAMIN, of the Institute of France. The earlier experiments of MM. Cailletet and Raoul Pictet in the liquefaction of gases, and the apparatus by means of which they performed the process, wer...
-Examination Of Fats
The methods employed up to the present in examination of fats, animal and vegetable, are mere reactions lacking general application; scattered throughout the literature, and doubtful with regard to re...
-Notes On Nitrification
By R. WARINGTON. In the following brief notes I propose to consider in the first place the present position of the theory of nitrification, and next to give a short account of the results of some rec...
-Notes On Nitrification. Continued
Leaving now the theory of nitrification, I will proceed to say a few words, first, as to the distribution of the nitrifying organism in the soil; secondly, as to the substances which are susceptible o...
-Aniline Dyes In Dress Materials
By Professor CHARLES O'NEILL. Twenty-eight years ago Mr. Perkin discovered the first of the aniline dyes. It was the shade of purple called mauve, and the chief agent in its production was bichromate...
-Case Of Resuscitation And Recovery After Apparent Death By Hanging
By ERNEST W. WHITE, M.B. Lond., M.R.C.P., Senior Assistant Medical Officer To The Kent Lunatic Asylum; Associate, Late Scholar, Of King's College, London The following case, from its hopelessness at...
-The Inventors' Institute
The twenty-second session of the Inventors' Institute was opened on October 27, the chair being taken by Vice-Admiral J.H. Selwyn, one of the vice-presidents, at the rooms of the institute, Lonsdale C...
-The Inventors' Institute. Continued
The business of the institute in the future was not to rest satisfied with the proposition of Mr. Chamberlain, but to lead him or his successors forward by logical and legitimate means toward the nece...
-The New Central School At Paris
We present herewith, from L'Illustration, views of the amphitheater, and first and second year laboratories of the new Central School at Paris. THE NEW CENTRAL SCHOOL AT PARIS. The amphitheater d...
-Nature. Researches On The Origin And Life-Histories Of The Least And Lowest Living Things
By Rev. W.H. DALLINGER, LL. D. To all who have familiarized themselves, even cursorily, with modern scientific knowledge, it is well known that the mind encounters the infinite in the contemplation o...
-The Origin And Life-Histories Of The Least And Lowest Living Things. Part 2
Nor have we to determine whether or not, in the indefinite past, the not-vital elements on the earth, at some point of their highest activity, were endowed with, or became possessed of, the properties...
-The Origin And Life-Histories Of The Least And Lowest Living Things. Part 3
Now it must be observed concerning this method of inquiry that it could never be final; it is incompetent by deficiency. Its results could never be exhaustive until the life-histories of the organisms...
-The Origin And Life-Histories Of The Least And Lowest Living Things. Part 4
It is shaped beautifully because its shape is needed. In short, it is Nature's method; the identification of beauty and use. But to resume. We may at this point continue our illustrations of the analy...
-The Origin And Life-Histories Of The Least And Lowest Living Things. Part 5
But the point of difficulty was B. termo. The demonstration of its flagella was a task of difficulty which only patient purpose could conquer. But by the use of our new lenses, and special illuminatio...
-The Origin And Life-Histories Of The Least And Lowest Living Things. Part 6
I will now give you the facts in relation to two which shall be typical. We obtained them in enormous abundance in a maceration of fish. I will not take them in the order of our researches, but shall ...
-The Origin And Life-Histories Of The Least And Lowest Living Things. Part 7
In this way, with what difficulties I need not weary you, a complete life-cycle was made out. And now I will invite your attention to the developmental history of the most minute of the six forms we ...
-The Origin And Life-Histories Of The Least And Lowest Living Things. Part 8
To follow these without the loss of an instant's vision was pleasure of the highest kind. In an hour and ten minutes from their first discovery they had grown to oval points. In one hour more the spec...









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