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Scientific American Supplement Volumes 561, 586, 595, 598, 601, 611, 613, 620, 623 and 633



Supplement Volumes for Scientific American 561-633

TitleScientific American Supplement Volumes 561, 586, 595, 598, 601, 611, 613, 620, 623 and 633
AuthorVarious Authors
PublisherMunn & Co.
Year1886-1888
Copyright1888, Munn & Co.
AmazonScientific American Reference Book
-Compound Hydraulic Presses
In a hydraulic packing press, the work done by the ram during one stroke may be roughly divided into two periods, in the first of which the resistance, although gradually increasing, may be called lig...
-Jet Propellers. - Hydraulic Propulsion Of Vessels
Certain mechanical devices appear to exercise a remarkable influence on some minds, and engineers are blamed for not adopting them, in no very measured terms in some cases. It is not in any way necess...
-The New Army Gun
The cut we give is from a photograph taken shortly after the recent firings. The carriage upon which it is mounted is the one designed by the Department and manufactured by the West Point Foundry, abo...
-Combustion, Fire-Boxes, And Steam Boilers
By JOHN A. COLEMAN. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen: I was rash enough some time ago to promise to prepare a paper for this occasion, the fulfillment of which prior engagements have absolutely prevented. ...
-Combustion, Fire-Boxes, And Steam Boilers. Part 2
At first there is only a blue flame, in which the hand may be held; but wait until the lining becomes white hot, and then throw on a little coal, and you will find a totally different result. It is al...
-Combustion, Fire-Boxes, And Steam Boilers. Part 3
The results in drawing heavy freight trains were equally good with each fuel, the engine having at all times an abundance of steam on heavy grades, no smoke nor cinders, and no collection of cinders i...
-Atlantic Steamers
By W. JOHN. Fig. 1 - CITY OF ROME. The author said that he hoped to bring before the meeting impartially certain facts which might be of interest, and which, when recorded in the pages of the Tra...
-Atlantic Steamers. Part 2
Then followed a period of rivalry, the Cunard Company building the Gallia and Servia, the Inman Company the City of Rome, and the Guion Line the Alaska, all of which were completed in 1881, and afterw...
-Atlantic Steamers. Part 3
In the next section, Fig. 2, the Servia, which is built of steel, on the other hand, the bottom is built on the longitudinal cellular system, the first application, he believed, of this system to an A...
-Atlantic Steamers. Part 4
Mr. Biles remarked that there were many advantages in the use of twin screws which had not been sufficiently taken into account. When a ship with twin screws was being handled in dock there was greate...
-Examination Questions In General Construction
The following is a copy of the last examination paper given to candidates who are desirous of employment in the constructive departments of the municipality of New York: N.B. - In case candidate does...
-Celebration Of The Five Hundredth Anniversary Of The University Of Heidelberg, August, 1886
The wave of pleasure and enjoyment which flooded everything has passed. Heidelberg, usually so quiet, assumed the role of a city of the world, and all was bustle and excitement in the streets, which w...
-Manufacture Of Leather In Russia
From this extensive paper it appears that the matters chiefly used in tanning are the bark of the oak, containing from 6.04 to 4.37 per cent. of tannin according to the season, that of willows, of the...
-Impurities In Photographic Chemicals, And Tests For Same
[Table referred to in a paper read before the Birmingham Photographic Society by G.M. JONES, M.P.S.] SUBSTANCE. IMPURITIESPOSSIBLY PRESENT. TESTS. Ammonia,NHMolec. Wt. 17 Carbonic acid Renders l...
-The Catastrophe At Chancelade
The Chancelade quarries near Perigneux, which caved in Oct. 22, 1885, under circumstances that are still fresh in the minds of all, have gained a celebrity that renders it unnecessary for us to revert...
-Somzee's New Gas-Burners
With the object of effecting a very intimate mixture of gas and air, and of causing this mixture to reach the point of ignition at as high a temperature as possible, M. Leon Somzee, of Brussels, has d...
-Somzee's New Gas-Burners. Part 2
The luminous focus is placed within a glass globe, C, mounted on the bell, B, of the heater; and the external air enters this bell, mingling with the products of combustion of the heating burner, R. T...
-Somzee's New Gas-Burners. Part 3
The Argand burner with double chimney, shown in Fig. 7, is also an economical one for a small consumption of gas. The air admitted to both the inside and the outside is raised to a high temperature by...
-The Clamond Gas Burner
THE CLAMOND GAS BURNER. In this burner, which is a French invention, the light is produced by burning ordinary coal gas within a basket of magnesia, which is thereby brought to a high state of inca...
-A New Thermo-Regulator
In the thermo-regulators which have been constructed heretofore, the heat has been regulated by the variation in the inflow of gas to the heating flame. The apparatus described below, and shown in the...
-Pipette For Taking The Density Of Liquids
The accompanying engraving represents a simple apparatus, which any person accustomed to working glass can make for himself, and which permits of quickly, and with close approximation, estimating the ...
-Useful Bags, And How To Make Them
By JOHN T. HUMPHREY. Since the papers on Boot and Shoemaking, in vol. i. of Amateur Work, illustrated, I think nothing relating to the leather trades has appeared in it; and as there must be many a...
-Useful Bags, And How To Make Them. Continued
A piece of basil leather will be required for the bottom and welts of the bag. This may be purchased at a leather seller's with the tools. Cut out the bottom first; the welts may be cut from any narro...
-How Molasses are Made
The New England Grocer says that the manufacture of molasses is really the manufacture of sugar up to a certain stage, for molasses is the uncrystallized sirup produced in the making of sugar. The met...
-Primitive Iron Manufacture
We are indebted for the illustrations and the particulars to Dr. Percy's invaluable book on iron and steel (probably it is not saying too much to describe it as the best work on the subject ever writt...
-Wood Oil
Wood oil is now made on a large scale in Sweden from the refuse of timber cuttings and forest clearings, and from stumps and roots. Although it cannot well be burned in common lamps, on account of the...
-Soap
By HENRY LEFFMANN, M.D. Although the use of soap dates from a rather remote period, the chemist is still living, at an advanced age, to whom we are indebted for a knowledge of its composition and mod...
-Optical Errors And Human Mistakes
By ERNST GUNDLACH. I wish to call attention to a few mistakes that are quite commonly made by microscopists and writers in stating the result of their optical tests of microscope objectives. If the ...
-Probable Isolation Of Fluorine. Decomposition Of Hydrofluoric Acid By An Electric Current
By M.H. MOISSAN. In a former memoir1 we showed that it was possible to decompose anhydrous hydrofluoric acid by the action of an electric current. At the negative pole hydrogen collects; at the posit...
-Cohesion And Cohesion Figures
By WILLIAM ACKROYD, F.I.C. 1. A Law Of Solubility It is customary to regard cohesion as the force which binds together molecules of the same substance, and in virtue of which the particles of solids...
-The Determination Of Nitric Acid By The Absorption Of Nitric Oxide In A Standard Solution Of Permanganate Of Potassium
By H.N. MORSE and A.F. LINN. The method which we propose consists in the conversion of the nitric acid into nitric oxide; the absorption of the latter in a measured, but excessive, quantity of a stan...
-Determination Of Nitric Acid By The Absorption Of Nitric Oxide In A Standard Solution Of Permanganate Of Potassium. Continued
The flask, B, is now heated as long as may be necessary in order to produce, on cooling, the diminished pressure required for the introduction of the ferrous chloride and hydrochloric acid. Before rem...
-Water Of Crystallization
By W.W.J. NICOL, M.A., D.Sc. When a hydrated salt is dissolved, does it retain its water of crystallization, or does this latter cease to be distinguishable from the solvent water? Both views have fo...
-Alpine Flowers In The Pyrenees
Bagneres De Luchon, in the department of the Haute Garonne, is a gay town of some 5,000 inhabitants. A friend told me that he once suffered so much from the heat there in June, that he determined neve...
-A Century Plant In Bloom
A huge agave, or century plant, is now blooming at Auburn, N.Y. A few days ago the great plant became tinged with a delicate yellowish-white color, as its 4,000 buds began to develop into the full-blo...
-Creosote A Specific For Erysipelas
Time was when the advocate of a specific was laughed at by the scientific world, but since it is known that so many forms of disease are the direct result of some kind of germ life, it is no longer a ...
-A New Apparatus For The Study Of Cardiac Drugs
By WILLIAM GILMAN THOMPSON, M.D., New York. The apparatus was devised by Mr. R.D. Gray (the inventor of the ingenious vest camera and other photographic improvements) and by myself. I described wha...
-The Retiro Viaduct
We give engravings of the viaduct over the river Retiro, Brazil, our illustrations being reproduced by permission from the Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers. In a selected paper cont...
-Sea-Going Torpedo Boats
All investigations of the sea-going qualities of torpedo boats show that while the basin experiments are highly satisfactory, those made at sea prove with equal force the unreliability of these craft ...
-Sea-Going Torpedo Boats. Continued
May not the apparent deficiencies of the defense have been due to the fact that soldiers instead of sailors are given the control of the harbor and coast defense? Is this right? Ought they not to be o...
-Firing Trial Of The 110.5 Ton B.L. Elswick Gun
The firing trial of the first new 110 ton breech loading gun approved for H.M.'s ships Benbow, Renown, and Sanspareil was commenced recently at the Woolwich proof butts, under the direction of...
-Gas Engine For Use On Railroads
The industrial world has reason to feel considerable interest in any economical method of traction on railways, owing to the influence which cost of transportation has upon the price of produce. We gi...
-Western North Carolina Location Over The Blue Ridge
Location Over The Blue Ridge WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA RAILROAD. The interesting piece of railroad location illustrated in this issue is on the mountain section of the Western North Carolina Railroa...
-New Gasholder At Erdberg
The new gasholder which has been erected by Messrs. C. and W. Walker for the Imperial Continental Gas Company at Erdberg, near Vienna, has been graphically described by Herr E.R. Leonhardt in a paper ...
-George W. Whistler, C.E
By Prof. G.L. VOSE. Few persons, even among those best acquainted with our modern railroad system, are aware of the early struggles of the men to whose foresight, energy, and skill the new mode of tr...
-George W. Whistler, C.E. Part 2
A good story is told of the young cadet which shows his ability, even at this time, to make the best of circumstances apparently untoward, and to turn to his advantage his surroundings, whatever they ...
-George W. Whistler, C.E. Part 3
In the course of the following year the organization of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, a part of which had already been constructed under the immediate personal supervision of Lieutenant Whistler, a...
-George W. Whistler, C.E. Part 4
Mr. Whistler had many investigations to make concerning the plans and policy of railroad companies at a time when almost everything connected with them was comparatively new and untried. When he comme...
-George W. Whistler, C.E. Part 5
It was very early understood that the railroad problem in Russia was much more analogous to that in the United States than to that in England. The Emperor, therefore, in 1839, sent the Chevalier De Ge...
-George W. Whistler, C.E. Part 6
In this report the history of the ordinary gauge is given, with the origin of the standard of 4 feet 8 inches; the questions of strength, stability, and capacity of cars, of the dimensions, pr...
-George W. Whistler, C.E. Part 7
Funeral services were held in the Anglican (Episcopal) Church in St. Petersburg. His body was soon afterward carried to Boston and deposited beneath St. Paul's Church; but the final interment took pla...
-George W. Whistler, C.E. Part 8
His second wife, who outlived him, returned to America, and remained here during the education of her children, after which she moved to England. She died Jan. 31, 1881, at the age of 76 years, and wa...
-Printing Lantern Pictures By Artificial Light On Bromide Plates From Various Sizes
By A. PUMPHREY. There can be no question that there is no plan that is so simple for producing transparencies as contact printing, but in this, as in other photographic matters, one method of work wi...
-Experiments In Toning Gelatino-Chloride Paper
From the Photographic News we take the following: The use of paper coated with a gelatino-citro-chloride emulsion in place of albumenized paper appears to be becoming daily more common. Successful ton...
-The "Sensim" Preparing Box
Fig. 1 shows a perspective view of the machine, Fig. 2 a sectional elevation, and Fig. 3 a plan. In the ordinary screw gill box, the screws which traverse the gills are uniform in their pitch, so that...
-Notes On Garment Dyeing
Black wool dresses for renewing and checked goods, with the check not covered by the first operation, are operated upon as follows: Preparation or mordant for eight black dresses for renewing the col...
-Fuel And Smoke. Lecture II
By Prof. OLIVER LODGE. The points to which I specially called your attention in the first lecture, and which it is necessary to recapitulate to-day, are these: (1) That coal is distilled, or burned p...
-Gas Producers
Suppose the conditions of combustion are purposely violated; we at once have a gas producer. That is all gas producers are, extra bad stoves or furnaces, not always much worse than things which preten...
-Use Of Small Coal
Meanwhile, we may just consider how we ought to deal with solid fuel, whether for the purpose of making gas from it or for burning it in situ. The question arises, In what form ought solid fuel to be ...
-The Anti-Friction Conveyer
The accompanying engraving illustrates a remarkable invention. For ages, screw conveyers for corn and meal have been employed, and in spite of the power consumed and the rubbing of the material convey...
-Studies In Pyrotechny. II. Methods Of Illumination
Torches consist of a bundle of loosely twisted threads which has been immersed in a mixture formed of two parts, by weight, of beeswax, eight of resin, and one of tallow. In warm, dry weather, these t...
-Improvement In Laying Out Frames Of Vessels - The Frame Tracer
By GUSTAVE SONNENBURG. To avoid the long and time-consuming laying out of a boat by ordinates and abscissas, I have constructed a handy apparatus, by which it is possible without much trouble to obta...
-Tar For Firing Retorts
The attention of gas engineers has been forcibly directed to the use of tar as a fuel for the firing of retorts, now that this once high-priced material is suffering, like everything else (but, perhap...
-A New Mercury Pump
The mercury pumps now in use, whether those of Geissler, Alvergniat, Toepler, or Sprengel, although possessed of considerable advantages, have also serious defects. For instance, Geissler's pump requi...
-The Electro-Magnetic Telephone Transmitter
An interesting contribution was made by M. Mercadier in a recent number of the Comptes Rendus de l'Academie Francaise. On the ground of some novel and some already accepted experimental evidence, M. M...
-On Electro-Dissolution, And Its Use As Regards Analysis
By H.N. WARREN, Research Analyst. On the same principle that electro-dissolution is used for the estimation of combined carbon in steel, etc., I have lately varied the experiment by introducing, inst...
-A Newly Discovered Substance In Urine
Dr. Leo's researches on sugar in urine are interesting, and tend to correct the commonly accepted views on the subject. Professor Scheibler, a chemist well known for his researches on sugar, has obser...
-Furnace For Decomposing Chloride Of Magnesium
The problem of decomposing chloride of magnesium is one which has attracted the attention of technical chemists for many years. The solution of this problem would be of great importance to the alka...
-The Filtration And The Secretion Theory
At a recent meeting of the Physiological Society, Dr. J. Munk reported on experiments instituted by him in the course of the last two years with a view of arriving at an experimental decision between ...
-Varying Cylindrical Lens
By TEMPEST ANDERSON, M.D., B. Sc. The author has had constructed a cylindrical lens in which the axis remains constant in direction and amount of refraction, while the refraction in the meridian at r...
-The Laws Of The Absorption Of Light In Crystals
By H. BECQUEREL. 1. The absorption spectrum observed through a crystal varies with the direction of the rectilinear luminous vibration which propagates itself in this crystal. 2. The bands or rays ob...
-History Of The World's Postal Service
It is commonly believed in Europe that the mail is chiefly forwarded by the railroads; but this is only partially the case, as the largest portion of the mails is intrusted now, as formerly, to foot m...
-On Nickel Plating
By THOMAS T.P. BRUCE WARREN. The compound used principally for the electro-deposition of nickel is a double sulphate of nickel and ammonia. The silvery appearance of the deposit depends mainly on the...
-Chilled Cast Iron
At a recent meeting of the engineering section of the Bristol Naturalists' Society a paper on Chilled Iron was read by Mr. Morgans, of which we give an abstract. Among the descriptions of chilled ca...
-Snow Hall
The recent dedication of Snow Hall, at Lawrence, Kansas, is an event in the history of the State, both historic and prophetic. Since the incorporation of the University of Kansas, and before that even...
-Elimination Of Poisons
A study of the means by which nature rids the economy of what is harmful has been made by Sanquirico, of Siena, and his experiments and conclusions are as follows: He finds that the vessels of the bo...
-Copeman & Pinhey's Life Rafts
The experiments with life saving appliances which Mr. Copeman brought before the delegates of the Colonial Conference, on the 13th April, at the Westminster Aquarium, had a particular interest, due to...
-Another Remarkable Torpedo Boat - Over Twenty-Eight Miles An Hour
In a recent impression we gave some particulars of the trial trip of a boat built for the Italian government by Messrs. Yarrow & Co., which attained the highest speed known, namely, as nearly as possi...
-Reservoir Dams
By DAVID GRAVELL. The construction of dams, in some form or other, may probably rank among the very earliest of engineering works. Works of this character are not infrequently referred to in the acco...
-Reservoir Dams. Part 2
In Great Britain and many European countries rain gauges have been established at a greater or less number of stations for many years past, and data thereby afforded for estimating approximately the r...
-Reservoir Dams. Part 3
The depth to which puddle trenches have been carried, for the purpose of penetrating water-bearing strata, and reaching impenetrable ground, in some cases, has been as much as 160 ft. below the natura...
-Reservoir Dams. Part 4
Let the soil be brought on by say one-horse carts, spread in six inch layers, and well watered. The traffic of the carts will consolidate it, and in places where carts cannot traverse it should be pun...
-Reservoir Dams. Part 5
The Leeming compensation reservoir of the same water supply, with a dam of 50 ft. in height, and culvert outlet, had to be treated somewhat in the same manner, as, although the reservoir had never bee...
-Reservoir Dams. Part 6
That represented is about 25 ft. high. The author has now concluded the consideration of earthwork dams, and proposes making a few remarks upon those of masonry or concrete, with reference to some of...
-Reservoir Dams. Part 7
Allusion has been made to provision for scouring out sand and deposit, especially in the dams of Algeria and of Spain. The amount of sand, etc., brought down by the floods is something enormous, and t...
-Reservoir Dams. Part 8
The Paramatta dam, in New South Wales, built of masonry in hydraulic mortar, is another instance of a dam built on the curve, and which has resisted a flood of water 4 ft. in depth over the crest; and...
-New Dredging Machinery
We illustrate the new dredger Ajax, recently built for Mr. Geo. F. Smith, of Stockton, Cal. The dredger has now been working for two weeks at Wakefield, and, we are informed, is giving entire satisfa...
-The Flexible Girder Tramway
This is an ingenious proposition for utilizing a modification of the wire tramway system for overcoming obstacles (while retaining the ordinary wire tramway or any light railway on other parts of the ...
-Bozerian's Refrigerant Punkas
Punkas (also called pankasor tankas) are apparatus that serve for fanning rooms throughout the entire extent of English India. These devices consist of a light wooden frame covered with canvas, from t...
-Punkas
By J. WALLACE, C.E. The function of a punka is to cause a current of air to pass the human body so that the animal heat may escape more rapidly. This has nothing to do with ventilation; for if the pu...
-How To Make A Kite Without A Tail
The following is the method of making a kite without a tail: All the calculations necessary in order to obtain the different proportions are based upon the length of the stick, A'A, employed. Such len...
-Apparatus For Drying Flour
The accompanying drawing represents a simple but effective apparatus for drying flour and ascertaining the quantity of water contained therein. It consists of four pieces, the whole being made of bloc...
-Apparatus For Manufacturing Bouquets
For some years past, the sale of flowers has been gradually increasing. Into the larger cities, such as Paris for example, they are introduced by the car load, and along about the first of January the...
-Radii Of Curvature Geometrically Determined. No. VII. - Path Of A Point On A Connecting Rod
By Prof. C.W. MACCORD, Sc.D. The motion of the connecting rod of a reciprocating steam engine is very clearly understood from the simple statement that one end travels in a circle and the other in a ...
-Automatic Commutator For Incandescent Lamps
Incandescent electric lighting, already pushed to such a degree of perfection in the details of construction and installation, continually finds new exigencies that have to be satisfied. As it is more...
-Definitions And Designations In Electrotechnics
We may discourse for some time to come upon the uniformity of electric language, for universal agreement is far from being established. An important step toward the unity of this language was taken in...
-Improved Microscopical Settling Tube
By F. VANDERPOEL, of Newark, New Jersey. VANDERPOEL'S SETTLING TUBES. In the February number of this Journal the writer described a new settling tube for urinary deposits which possessed several ...
-Climate In Its Relation To Health. Diseases Caused By Floating Matter In The Air
By G.V. Poore, M.D.[1]. Lecture III The information which modern methods of research have given us with regard to the floating matter in the air is of an importance which cannot be overestimated. Th...
-Hay Fever
Among diseases which are undoubtedly caused by floating matter in the air must be reckoned the well-known malady hay fever, which is a veritable scourge during the summer months to a certain percent...
-Potato Disease
A study of the terrible disease which so often attacks the potato crop in this country will serve, I think, to bring forcibly before you certain untoward conditions which may be called climatic, and w...
-Influenza
Let us look at another disease by the light of recent knowledge, viz., the epidemic influenza, concerning which I remember hearing much talk, as a child, in 1847-48. There has been no epidemic of this...
-Small-Pox
Let us next inquire into the evidence regarding the conveyence of small-pox through the air. In the supplement to the Tenth Report of the Local Government Board for 1880-81 (c. 3,290) is a report by M...
-Sunlight Colors
By Capt. W. DE W. ABNEY. Sunlight is so intimately woven up with our physical enjoyment of life that it is perhaps not the most uninteresting subject that can be chosen for what is - perhaps somewhat...
-Sunlight Colors. Part 2
This method of securing a comparison light is very much better for sun work than any other, as any variation in the light whose spectrum is to be measured affects the comparison light in the same degr...
-Sunlight Colors. Part 3
Now a wave length in the red is about 1/40000 of an inch, and a little calculation will show that these particles are well within the necessary limits. Prof. Tyndall has delighted audiences here with ...
-Sunlight Colors. Part 4
Next notice in the diagram that the top of the curve gradually inclines to go to the red end of the spectrum as you get the light transmitted through more and more air, and I should like to show you t...
-The Wave Theory Of Sound Considered
By HENRY. A. MOTT, Ph.D., LL.D. Before presenting any of the numerous difficulties in the way of accepting the wave theory of sound as correct, it will be best to briefly represent its teachings, so ...
-The Wave Theory Of Sound Considered. Continued
Assuming one prong to weigh two ounces, we have a two-ounce mass moving 1/17000 of an inch with a velocity of 1/33 of an inch in one second. The prong, then, has a momentum or can exercise an amount o...
-The Relation Of Tabasheer To Mineral Substances
Mr. Thiselton Dyer has rendered a great service, not only to botanists, but also to physicists and mineralogists, by recalling attention to the very interesting substance known as tabasheer. As he t...
-The Relation Of Tabasheer To Mineral Substances. Part 2
In the year 1806, MM. Foureroy and Vauquelin gave an account of a specimen of tabasheer brought from South America in 1804 by Humboldt and Bonpland (Mem. de l'Inst., vol. vi., p. 382). It was procured...
-The Relation Of Tabasheer To Mineral Substances. Part 3
Silica. = 86.387 Iron oxide. = 0.424 Lime. = 0.244 Potash. = 4.806 Organic matter. = 0.507 Water. = 7.632 ------ Total. 100.000 Apart from the question of its singular mode of origin, howeve...
-The Edible Earth Of Java
In 1883 Mr. Hekmeyer, pharmaceutist in chief of the Dutch Indies, exhibited at Amsterdam some specimens of Javanese edible earth, both in a natural state and in the form of various natural objects. A ...
-The Havre Maritime Exhibition
The Havre Maritime Exhibition opened on the 7th of May. Will this exhibition awaken general interest, or will it prove a local affair simply? This is a secret of the weeks that are to follow. Should...
-Our Coast Defenses
General H.L. Abbott delivered a lecture before the Academy of Sciences in New York, on the evening of March 21, a summary of which is given by the Herald as follows: According to General Abbott, the ...
-The Steamship Great Eastern
The history of the Great Eastern is full of surprises. It is always that which is most unlikely to happen to her which occurs. Not long since we recorded her sale by auction in Liverpool for 26...
-The New German Corvette Greif
Our cut represents the corvette Greif - the latest addition to the German fleet - on its trial trip, March 10. As other naval powers, especially England and France, have lately built corvettes and cru...
-Twin Screw Torpedo Boat
We give several illustrations of a sea going twin screw torpedo boat lately built for the Italian government by Messrs. Yarrow & Co., of Poplar. The vessel in question is 140 ft. long by 14 ft. wide, ...
-Some Recent High-Speed Twin Screws
By E.A. LINNINGTON. One of the most interesting and valuable features in the development of naval construction in recent years is the great advance which has been made in the speeds of our war ships....
-Some Recent High-Speed Twin Screws. Part 2
The shapes of the blades of these propellers are shown in Figs. 2, 3, and 4. It will be seen the shapes are not exactly the same for all the screws, but the differences do not call for much remark. ...
-Some Recent High-Speed Twin Screws. Part 3
HIGH SPEED TWIN SCREWS. --------------------------------------------------------------------- |Ship A.|Ship B.|Ship C.|Ship D.|Ship E.|Ship F. -----------------------------------------------------...
-Some Recent High-Speed Twin Screws. Part 4
For instance, a screw with a large positive slip in smooth water is frequently inefficient at sea against a head wind, which increases the resistance, and necessitates an increase of slip. I venture t...
-Recent Advances In Sewing Machinery
By JOHN W. URQUHART. The distinct improvements in sewing machinery to which I would invite your attention this evening have reference more particularly to the results of inventive effort within the p...
-Recent Advances In Sewing Machinery. Part 2
FIG. 1. It consists of a thick disk bobbin of thread, h, fitting loosely in a case constructed in the form of a bivalve, a and d. This case is furnished with a long beak, usually forming a continu...
-Recent Advances In Sewing Machinery. Part 3
FIG. 3. This improved class of hooks are provided with a much deeper cavity than those first introduced, an arrangement permitting of the employment of a more commodious bobbin, which is generally...
-Recent Advances In Sewing Machinery. Part 4
FIG. 4. Wilson, in the Wheeler-Wilson machine, had neither of those arrangements, but depended upon the succeeding revolution of the hook to draw up the slack of the preceding stitch. These device...
-Recent Advances In Sewing Machinery. Part 5
The feed wheel itself is free to revolve in a forward direction, but is prevented from rocking backward in Singer's machine by an ingenious little device, recently introduced. It consists of a small s...
-Recent Advances In Sewing Machinery. Part 6
But the specific improvements in plain sewing machines, to which I have had the honor of drawing your attention, do not exhaust the list, and, time permitting, it might be considerably augmented. Nor ...
-Recent Advances In Sewing Machinery. Part 7
FIG. 10. FIG. 11. FIG. 12. Mention may be made of Singer's special button hole machine for making the straight holes used in linen work, and in which a shuttle is employed. Of Wheeler & Wilso...
-Recent Advances In Sewing Machinery. Part 8
Wheeler & Wilson's No. 10 D machine has been run by them, I am informed, as high as 2,500 to the minute. Loop-stitch machines, when well made, can be actually run as high as 6,000, but 4,500 is, I bel...
-The New Krupp Guns
Nothing is being talked about at present in Germany but the guns of great caliber that are manufacturing at the celebrated works on the banks of the Ruhr. As our neighbors appear to be elated over thi...
-Colors Of Thin Plates
The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh lately delivered a lecture at the Royal Institution upon The Colors of Thin Plates, a term which he explained was applied to thin films of substances, such as oily films...
-Belt Joints
From time to time, serious accidents have taken place, and the progress of work stopped, by the sudden snapping of driving belts in machinery, and, as a general rule, it is found that the collapse is ...
-Inauguration Of The Statue Of Denis Papin
A large crowd was present recently at the inauguration of the statue of Denis Papin, which took place in the court of the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, under the presidency of Mr. Lockroy, Minist...
-Decoration. The Study Of Ornaments
By MISS MARIE R. GARESCHE, St. Louis High School. Decoration is the science and art of beautifying objects and rendering them more pleasing to the eye. As an art, individual taste and skill have much...
-Position And Scope Of Ornamental Or Decorative Art
I. Object of Ornamental Art. - The object or purpose of ornament, as in the other fine arts, is to please. In music and poetry this enjoyment is conveyed to the mind through the ear; in the decorative...
-Position And Scope Of Ornamental Or Decorative Art. Part 2
We must feel that a column, no matter how beautiful, is supporting something. A floor, always a plane surface, must not be tiled or decorated in any way to express relief. This would apparently destro...
-Position And Scope Of Ornamental Or Decorative Art. Part 3
The blue vault of the sky undoubtedly suggested the dome, etc. The following are a few of the leading principles of ornamental art as set forth by Owen Jones in his Grammar of Ornament, a fine work, ...
-Position And Scope Of Ornamental Or Decorative Art. Part 4
The column originated with the Egyptians. It was at first heavy, broad compared to its length, and was usually covered with hieroglyphics. The architecture of Egypt, of which the principal forms are p...
-Position And Scope Of Ornamental Or Decorative Art. Part 5
2. Saracenic Art. - Developed from the Byzantine by the Moors and the Saracens. It differs from it, however, in one important respect. While the Byzantine makes use of numerous conventionalized plant ...
-The Montaud Accumulator
This accumulator is of the Plante type, and is modified so as to obtain a more rapid formation, a larger surface, and a symmetrical distance of the plates from each other. If into an alkaline bath sat...
-The Montaud Accumulator. Continued
FIG. 3. This appliance, which is 0.01 meter in thickness and 0.02 meter in width in the back, is made very cheaply by machinery. The weight of the accumulator bears entirely upon the back of the c...
-Electric Registering Apparatus For Meteorological Instruments
Mr. E. Gime, whose name is not unknown to our readers, sends us a description of a certain number of meteorological apparatus to which he has applied a peculiar method of registering that it is of int...
-A Clinical Lesson At "La Salpetriere."
We reproduce the picture of Mr. Andre Brouillet, which was in the Salon of 1887; and that the subject may be better understood, we give the accompanying sketch and description. This picture is very in...
-To Find The Day Of The Week For Any Given Date
Having hit upon the following method of mentally computing the day of the week for any given date, I send it you in the hope that it may interest some of your readers. I am not a rapid computer myself...
-Precious Stones Of The United States
To the recently distributed government report on the mineral resources of the United States for 1885.[1] Mr. G.F. Kunz contributes an interesting chapter in which is recorded the progress made during ...
-The Brazil Nut
THE BRAZIL NUT. Every one is acquainted with the hard-shelled, triangular fruit called the Brazil nut, but there are, perhaps, but few who know anything about the tree that produces it, or its mod...
-The Action Of The Magnet In Hypnosis
Mr. Tamburini some time ago observed that, during a period of lethargy, the approach of a magnet produced in persons affected with hysterical hypnosis a series of modifications of the respiratory func...
-The Falke Type Torpedo Boat
Among the different classes of vessels designed for special services, constructed by Messrs. Yarrow & Co., at Poplar, for the British government, is one which is stated to be the fastest torpedo boat ...
-The German Navy--The New Gunboat Eber
The gunboat Eber is an improved vessel of the Wolf type, but differs from other vessels of its class in that it has not a complete iron hull, only the frame and deck beams being of iron, while the pla...
-New British Torpedo Experiments
The torpedo experiments against the Resistance, which have been suspended since November last, were resumed on June 9 at Portsmouth by the officers of the Vernon. The injuries received by the ironclad...
-New British Torpedo Experiments. Continued
Below each boom is a flange, which serves as a line along which a traveler moves, the latter being actuated by means of a topping line running over a pulley at the head and another near the heel. Upo...
-An English Car Coupling
The new automatic railway coupling illustrated below is the invention of Mr. Richard Hill, and has been practically developed by Mr. B.H. Thwaite, of Liverpool. It will be seen that the system is some...
-Magazine Rifles
Chaffee-Reece Magazine Rifle We do not insert a drawing of this arm--one of the three selected by the American board--as it belongs to the same class and is similar in general construction to the Hot...
-Preservative Liquid
For a few weeks' preservation of organic objects in their original form, dimensions, and color, Prof. Grawitz recommends a mixture composed of 2 ounces of chloride of sodium, 2 drachms...
-Kent's Torsion Balance
The United States Torsion Balance Company, of New York, has recently brought before the public a new form of balance which presents so many ingenious and excellent features that we illustrate it below...
-Link Belting
[Footnote: From a paper read before the Technischen Verein of New York, May 28, 1887.] By CHAS. A. SCHIEREN. The old saying that there is nothing new under the sun may well be applied to leather...
-A New Process Of Casting Iron And Other Metals Upon Lace, Embroideries, Fern Leaves, And Other Combustible Materials
[Footnote: Abstract of a paper read before the Franklin Institute, April, 1887.--J.F.I.] By A.E. OUTERBRIDGE, JR. The art of making charcoal--if, indeed, so crude a process is worthy of being dignif...
-Recent Progress In Gas Engineering. The Regenerative System Of Retort Firings
At the recent meeting of Scottish gas managers Mr. A. Macpherson, of Kirkcaldy, the chairman, said: For me to attempt, with the time at my disposal, to do full justice to many important points which ...
-Improvements In Gas Purification
I must now, however, pass on to some other topics. After the proper production of the gas, we have still the processes of purification to consider, and how this operation can best be effected at the s...
-Burners And Regenerative Lamps
But even after we have been able to produce and send out gas of the greatest purity, our troubles are frequently only beginning, as, very often, consumers do not use, but simply waste and destroy the ...
-The Welsbach Gas Light
In the mean time, however, while electricity for lighting purposes has, to say the least, not made any startling advances, we have, besides the regenerative lamps before mentioned, the new Welsbach li...
-Paraffin As A Rival Of Coal Gas
But while the day has gone by when any one of us fears the electric light as a possible rival, we are not insensible to the fact that paraffin oil, from its present low-price, is a rival which we cann...
-Oil In Gas Making
A new departure has also recently taken place in the adoption of oil for gas making purposes. This, of course, is more fraught with danger to the coal master than to gas companies, inasmuch as, should...
-Prices Of Residual Oil Gas Products
What is of far more real consequence to us than the possible change from coal gas to oil gas, however, as long as we remain manufacturers of the former, is the value of our residual products, which ha...
-The New British Coinage And Jubilee Medal
An important addition will be made to the coins now in circulation by the issue of the double florin, the design of which is shown in one of our engravings. The reverse is composed of crowned shields,...
-Bricks And Brickwork
[Footnote: A recent lecture delivered at Carpenters' Hall, London Wall, E.C.--Building News.] By Professor T. ROGER SMITH, F.R.I.B.A. Timber, stone, earth, are the three materials most used by the b...
-Bricks And Brickwork. Part 2
There was a maximum size for the raw brick, which it was supposed served to keep bricks uniform, and the expectation was entertained that when the duty came off, many fancy sizes of bricks would be us...
-Bricks And Brickwork. Part 3
Considering the vast quantity of brickwork done in the metropolis, it is a matter for congratulation that such sound materials as good stock bricks, stone lime, and Thames sand are so easily procurabl...
-Bricks And Brickwork. Part 4
It is of importance to those whose business it is to look after or engage in building operations, that they should early learn what to look out for in each material. Of course, a man only becomes a ju...
-Bricks And Brickwork. Part 5
Now that we have considered bricks and partly considered mortar, it remains to pay some attention to brickwork. The simplest and most familiar work for a bricklayer to do is to build a wall. In doing ...
-Bricks And Brickwork. Part 6
Brick arches are constantly being turned, and of many sorts. An arch consists of a series of wedge shaped blocks, known as voussoirs, arranged in a curve, and so locking one another together that unle...
-Bricks And Brickwork. Part 7
If brickwork is easily thrown into any shape, it is also easily thrown out of shape. It has little coherence or stability, less than masonry and very considerably less than timber. If any unequal sett...
-Bricks And Brickwork. Part 8
Another mode of keeping out weather is to cement the face of the brickwork. But this hides up the work, and so tends to promote bad work, besides being often very unsightly. Among other peculiarities...
-Bricks And Brickwork. Part 9
Among examples of architecture wholly, or almost wholly, executed in red brick, I cannot pass over a building built many years ago, little known on account of its obscure situation, but a gem in its w...
-Phenomena Of Alternating Currents
[Footnote: From a paper read before the recent meeting of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, New York, and reported in the Electrical World.] By Prof. ELIHU THOMSON. The actions produce...
-Phenomena Of Alternating Currents. Part 2
When the closed circuit or coil is so placed, and is of such low resistance metal that a comparatively large current can circulate as an induced current, so as to be subject to a large self-induction,...
-Phenomena Of Alternating Currents. Part 3
If the axes of the conductors, Fig. 5, are not coincident, but displaced, as in Fig. 8, then, besides a simple repulsion apart, there is a lateral component or tendency, as indicated by the arrows. Ak...
-Phenomena Of Alternating Currents. Part 4
It is now not difficult to understand all the actions before described as obtained with the varied relations of coils, magnetic fields, and closed circuits. It will be easily understood, also, that an...
-Photographic Study Of Stellar Spectra, Harvard College Observatory
Henry Draper Memorial. First Annual Report Dr. Henry Draper, in 1872, was the first to photograph the lines of a stellar spectrum. His investigation, pursued for many years with great skill and ingen...
-Photographic Study Of Stellar Spectra, Harvard College Observatory. Part 2
The 15 inch refractor is now being used with a modification of the apparatus employed by Dr. Draper in his first experiments--a slit spectroscope from which the slit has been removed. A concave lens h...
-Photographic Study Of Stellar Spectra, Harvard College Observatory. Part 3
The results will be published in the form of a catalogue resembling the Photometric Catalogue given in volume xiv. of the Annals of Harvard College Observatory. It will contain the approximate place o...
-The Winner Of The Derby
The dark bay colt Merry Hampton had never run in public before winning the Derby on the 25th of May last. This colt, by Hampton out of Doll Tear-sheet, was one of Mr. Crowther Harrison's draught of ye...
-The Falls Of Gairsoppa
At the extreme south of the presidency of Bombay, separating the district of Kanara from the territory of Mysore, are the too little known Falls of Gairsoppa. Far higher than Niagara, four distinct d...
-Sponges
As the last of a course of lectures upon Recent Scientific Researches in Australasia, Dr. R. Von Ledenfeld lately delivered a lecture at the Royal Institution, upon Recent Additions to our Knowledg...
-Herbet's Tepid Douche
Keeping the body clean is indispensable for the preservation of good health, through obtaining an operation of the skin and expelling matter whose presence aids in the development of diseases. It is u...
-How To Make A Star Finder
Being all of wood, it is easily made by any one who can use a few tools, the only bit of lathe work necessary being the turned shoulder, K, of polar axis. A is the baseboard, 9 in. by 5 in., near each...
-Improved Oscillating Hydraulic Motor
The motor of MM. Schaltenbrand & Moller is adapted for use for household purposes, where small power is required, as in driving sewing machines. Fig. 1 shows the motor with all its parts in side elev...
-Trial Trip Of The Ohio
Some important trials of the new machinery of the screw steamer Ohio, belonging to the International Navigation Company, have recently taken place on the Clyde. The Ohio is an American built steamer m...
-The Ceara Harbor Works
The works illustrated by the engravings are now being constructed under a concession from the imperial government of Brazil. The province of Ceara has an area of about 50,000 square miles, and is one ...
-Electric Street Railroads
By GEORGE W. MANSFIELD. Why should we prefer electricity as the propelling agent of our street cars over all other known methods? I answer, without hesitation, because it is the best, and being the b...
-Electric Street Railroads. Continued
3d. Equipment at station and rolling stock. The rolling stock would be in each case approximately the same. Consisting of cars of equal seating capacity, the difference of cost would be the necessary...
-Electrical Alarm For Pharmacies
Fig. 1. To avoid the errors which sometimes occur in a pharmacy or in a laboratory, where one bottle is taken for another, especially in the case of those containing highly poisonous or dangerous s...
-Apparatus For Determining Mechanically The Reaction Period Of Hearing
The following apparatus, constructed after the designs of Dr. Loeb, assistant in the Physiological Institute at Wurzburg, is for the purpose of measuring the reaction period of hearing, that is, the p...
-A New Disinfector
The accompanying engravings represent a new disinfecting apparatus invented by Mr. W.E. Thursfield, M. Inst. C.E., of Victorgasse, Vienna. The principle on which its action is based is that the comple...
-A New Disinfector. Continued
Series of Trials. I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII. XIV. XV. Portable Apparatus. Stationary Apparatus. Contents of boiler, in gallons 3.85 4.18 - 4.18 4.18 4.18 5...
-Drawing Instrument For Accurate Work
By J. Lehrke. This arrangement consists in a cylindrical metal or horn mounted lens two to four centimeters long, and magnifying two or three times, and two or three centimeters in diameter, whose si...
-Barlow's Machine For Moulding Candles
That style of machine for moulding candles in which the candles are forced out at the top by means of a piston is the one most employed, and it is an apparatus of this kind that we illustrate herewith...
-A New Alkali Process
In several former notes and articles in these pages, we have spoken of the severe crisis through which the old established, or Leblanc, process has now for some years been passing. It is, in fact, p...
-A New Alkali Process. Continued
In outline the process is as follows: We will suppose that a quantity of bicarbonate of sodium has been just precipitated from a brine solution, and we have the residual ammonium chloride to deal with...
-Temperature Of Gas Distillation
An important subject for investigation, which has not yet been satisfactorily determined, is the temperature at which it is most beneficial to distill coals of various qualities. The practice of allow...
-The Largest Black Ash Furnace In The World
The Widnes Alkali Company have recently erected an enormous revolving black ash furnace, which is 30 ft. in length and has a diameter of 12 ft. 6 in. The inside length is 28 ft. 6 in., with a diameter...
-The Statue Of Philip Lebon
The inauguration of the statue of Philip Lebon, the inventor of lighting by gas, occurred on the 26th of June, at Chaumont, under the auspices of the Technical Gas Society of France. The statue, which...
-A New Process For The Distillation And Concentration Of Chemical Liquids
Especially Adapted To The Manufacture Of Sulphate Of Ammonia. Inventor, Alex. Angus Croll By George Anderson, of London. The paper I have to lay before you describes the last product of the brain of...
-The Analysis Of Urine. Introduction
Whatever may be the position of British pharmacists in comparison with those of other countries, it cannot be said that they have paid the attention to the analysis of urine which the subject has rece...
-The Analysis Of Urine. Introduction. Part 2
It is always advisable to mention the reaction to test papers of all samples received. Urine is normally acid, but there are certain diseases which render fluid neutral or alkaline. The urea of acid u...
-The Analysis Of Urine. Introduction. Part 3
To a practiced operator the indications yielded by the use of this test are of great value; but beginners are exceedingly liable to mistake its various reactions, and to report the urine as saccharine...
-The Analysis Of Urine. Introduction. Part 4
Galippe's picric acid test has within the last few years attracted much attention, chiefly through the commendation it has received from Dr. George Johnson. A saturated solution is prepared by dissolv...
-The Analysis Of Urine. Introduction. Part 5
The following solutions must be prepared: 1. Dissolve 5 grammes of nitrate of silver in 100 c.c. of distilled water, and add ammonia until the precipitate first formed redissolves. 2. Dilute strong ni...
-Liquid And Gaseous Rings
All who have learned a little of chemistry doubtless remember the experiment with vortex rings produced by phosphorus trihydride mixed with a little phosphide of hydrogen. As this curious phenomenon e...
-Shall We Have A National Horse?
To the Editor of Scientific American Supplement: In your issue for August 13 is A Proposition for a Government Breeding Farm for Cavalry Horses, by Lieutenant S.C. Robertson U.S.A., First Cavalry. ...
-Shall We Have A National Horse?. Part 2
We are indeed an infant country, but have grown to an age where parental restraint must be used now, if ever. We have millions of farmers in America, breeding annually millions of horses; and except w...
-Shall We Have A National Horse?. Part 3
After the war of 1812 our forefathers imported many Arabian stallions to recuperate the blood of their remnants in horses. From 1830 such prominent men as Andrew Jackson and Henry Clay said all they c...
-Shall We Have A National Horse?. Part 4
With his wife, Lady Anne, he dwelt with the different tribes of the desert, studying the Arabs as a people, in their customs and habits, also traditions with beliefs. In matter of their horses, Mr. Bl...
-Scenes Among The Extinct Volcanoes Of Rhineland
In the province of the Rhine there is a range of mountains, including several extinct volcanoes, which offer grand and beautiful scenery and every opportunity for geological study, leading the mind ba...
-The "Meteorologiske Institut" At Upsala, And Cloud Measurements
The Meteorological Institute at Upsala has gained so much fame by the investigations on clouds which have been carried on there during the last few years, that a few notes on a recent visit to that es...
-The "Meteorologiske Institut" At Upsala, And Cloud Measurements. Part 2
At the fifteenth second they stop, read the various arcs, and the operation is complete. But when the angles have been measured the height has to be calculated, and also the horizontal and vertical v...
-The "Meteorologiske Institut" At Upsala, And Cloud Measurements. Part 3
This is a remarkable result, and shows conclusively the superiority of the altazimuth to the photographic method of measuring the heights of clouds. Whenever opportunity occurs, measures of clouds ar...
-Canadian Petroleum
Notes Of A Recent Visit To Some Of The Petroleum-Producing Territories Of The United States And Canada By Boverton Redwood, F.I.C., F.C.S. When I visited Canada in 1877-78, the refining of petroleum...
-The Canadian Torpedo
The wells are torpedoed on completion with from 8 to 10 quarts of nitroglycerine, at a cost of 4 dols. (16s.) per quart. The torpedoes employed in the Canadian oil field are much smaller than those us...
-Trees From A Sanitary Aspect
By Charles Roberts, F.R.C.S., etc. As this is the usual time of the year for planting, pruning, and removing forest trees and shrubs, it is a fit time for considering the influence which trees exert ...
-Solidification By Pressure
M. Amagat has succeeded in solidifying various liquids, by compressing them in cylinders of bronze and steel. He has also photographed the crystals after crystallization, by means of a ray of electric...
-The British Association At Manchester
THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION AT MANCHESTER PORTRAITS OF THE PRESIDENT AND PRESIDENTS OF SECTIONS The fifty-seventh annual meeting of the British Association was opened on Wednesday evening, Aug. 31, 1887...
-Progress Of Chemistry
A sketch of that progress in the science of chemistry alone would be the subject of his address. The initial point was the views of Dalton and his contemporaries compared with the ideas which now prev...
-Chemistry Of Vital Functions
He would now briefly trace a few of the more important steps which had marked the recent study of the relations between the vital phenomena and those of the inorganic world. No portion of the science ...
-Chemistry Of Vegetation
The phenomena of vegetation, no less than those of the animal world, had, however, during the last fifty years been placed by the chemist on an entirely new basis. Liebig, in 1860, asserted that the ...
-Chemical Pathology
Touching us as human beings even still more closely than the foregoing was the influence which chemistry had exerted on the science of pathology, and in no direction had greater progress been made tha...
-The Crimson Line Of Phosphorescent Alumina
Crookes has presented to the Royal Society a paper on the color emitted by pure alumina when submitted to the electric discharge in vacuo, in answer to the statements of De Boisbaudran. In 1879 he had...
-Carbonic Acid In The Air
By THOMAS C. VAN NUYS and BENJAMIN F. ADAMS, JR. During the month of April, 1886, we made eighteen estimations of carbonic acid in the air, employing Van Nuys' apparatus,1 recently described in this ...
-Analysis Of Kola Nut
Alkaloids or crystallizable principles: Per Cent. Caffeine. 2.710 Theobromine. 0.084 Bitter principle. 0.018 Total alkaloids. - - - 2.812 Fatty matters: Saponifiable fat o...
-Chapin Wrought Iron
By W.H. SEARLES, Chairman of the Committee, Civil Engineers' Club of Cleveland, O. Notwithstanding the wonderful development of our steel industries in the last decade, the improvements in the modes ...
-Celluloid
Professor Sadler, of the University of Pennsylvania, has lately given an account of the development and method of the manufacture of celluloid. Alexander Parkes, an Englishman, invented this remarkabl...
-Apparatus For Testing Champagne Bottles And Corks
Mr. J. Salleron has devised several apparatus which are destined to render valuable service in the champagne industry. The apparently simple operation of confining the carbonic acid due to fermentatio...
-Improved Biscuit Machine
The accompanying illustration represents a combined biscuit cutting, scrapping, and panning machine, specially designed for running at high speeds, and so arranged as to allow of the relative movement...
-Improved Cream Separator
A hand separator of this type was exhibited at the Royal Show at Newcastle by the Aylesbury Dairy Company, of 31 St. Petersburg Place, Bayswater, England. IMPROVED CREAM SEPARATOR. Fig. 1. IMPRO...
-Gas From Oil
At the twenty-fourth annual meeting of the Gas Institute, which was recently held in Glasgow, Dr. Stevenson Macadam, F.R.S.E., lecturer on chemistry, Edinburgh, submitted the first paper, which was on...
-The Manufacture Of Salt Near Middlesbrough
By Sir LOWTHIAN BELL, Bart., F.R.S. The geology of the Middlesbrough salt region was first referred to, and it was stated that the development of the salt industry in that district was the result of ...
-Cotton Industries Of Japan
The cotton plant principally cultivated in Japan is of the species known as Gossypium herbaceum, resembling that of India, China, and Egypt. The plant is of short stature, seldom attaining a growth of...
-Centrifugal Extractors. Sugar Machines
By ROBERT F. GIBSON. Sugar Machines Besides separating the crystalline sugar and the sirup, secondary objects are to wash the crystals and to pack them in cakes. The cleansing fluid or white liquor...
-Centrifugal Extractors. Sugar Machines. Part 2
Discharging The drained sugar may either be lifted over the top of the basket (in machines which stop to be emptied), or be cast through openings in the bottom provided with valves. A section of the ...
-Centrifugal Extractors. Sugar Machines. Part 3
Fig. 27. One plan (Pat. 346,030), designed to combine the advantages of a direct acting motor and an oscillating shaft, mounts the whole machine, motor and all, on a rocking frame. The spindle is o...
-Centrifugal Extractors. Sugar Machines. Part 4
Very fine sawdust is, to a considerable extent, employed in sugar refineries as a filtering medium. By such use the sawdust becomes mixed with sand, fine particles of cane, etc. As sawdust of such fin...
-Centrifugal Extractors. Sugar Machines. Part 5
Class II., Creamers. - Centrifugals of the second class separate liquids from liquids. There are two main applications in this class - to separate cream from milk and fusel oil from alcoholic liquors....
-Centrifugal Extractors. Sugar Machines. Part 6
Class III., Solids From Solids. - As for grain machines, which are in this class, it may be said that in centrifugal flour bolters, bran cleaners, and middlings purifiers, though theoretically centrif...
-A New Type Of Railway Car
Fig. 1. - CAR WITH LATERAL PASSAGEWAYS. Figs. 1 and 2 give a perspective view and plan of a new style of car recently adopted by the Bone-Guelma Railroad Company, and which has isolated compartment...
-Foundations Of The Central Viaduct Of Cleveland, O
The Central viaduct, now under construction in the city of Cleveland, is probably the longest structure of the kind devoted entirely to street traffic. The superstructure is in two distinct portions, ...
-Centrifugal Pumps At Mare Island Navy Yard, California
By H.R. CORNELIUS. In December, 1883, bids were asked for by the United States government on pumping machinery, to remove the water from a dry dock for vessels of large size. The dimensions of the d...
-The Part That Electricity Plays In Crystallization
Since the discovery of the multiplying galvanometer, we know for an absolute certainty that in every chemical action there is a production of electricity in a more or less notable quantity, according ...
-Electric Time
By M. LIPPMANN. The unit of time universally adopted, the second, undergoes only very slow secular variations, and can be determined with a precision and an ease which compel its employment. Still it...
-New Method Of Maintaining The Vibration Of A Pendulum
A recent number of the Comptes Rendus contains a note by M.J. Carpentier describing a method of maintaining the vibrations of a pendulum by means of electricity, which differs from previous devices of...
-Dr. Morell Mackenzie
The name of the great English laryngologist, which has long been honored by scientists of England and the Continent, has lately become familar to everyone, even in unprofessional circles, in Germany b...
-Hypnotism In France
The voluntary production of those abnormal conditions of the nerves which to-day are denoted by the term hypnotic researches has manifested itself in all ages and among most of the nations that are ...
-Hypnotism In France. Part 2
Unbounded enthusiasm and unjust blame alike subsided into a silence that was not broken for ten years. Then Charles Richet, a renowned scientist, came forward in 1875, impelled by the duty he felt he ...
-Hypnotism In France. Part 3
Dumont-Pallier and Magnin accede to the theory of intermediate stages, and have tried to lay down rules for them with as great exactness as Charcot's school. They also are very decided about the three...
-The Duodenum: A Siphon Trap
By Mayo Collier, M.S. Lond., F.R.C.S. Eng.; Senior Assistant Surgeon, North-West London Hospital; Assistant Demonstrator of Anatomy, London Hospital Medical College. We may take it for granted that a...
-Wisconsin Cranberry Culture
Among the many thousands of well informed persons with whom the cranberry is a staple article of food throughout the autumn and winter, and who especially derive from its pungent flavor sharp relish f...
-Soudan Coffee. (Parkia Biglobosa.)
There are valuable plants on every continent. Civilized Europe no longer counts them. Mysterious Africa is no less largely and spontaneously favored with them than young America and the ancient territ...
-The Height Of Summer Clouds
A knowledge of the heights and movements of the clouds is of much interest to science, and of especial importance in the prediction of weather. The subject has therefore received much attention during...
-On The Cause Of Iridescence In Clouds
By G. JOHNSTONE STONEY. When the sky is occupied by light cirro-cumulus cloud, an optical phenomenon of the most delicate beauty sometimes presents itself, in which the borders of the clouds and thei...
-The Spanish Torpedo Boat Azor
THE SPANISH TORPEDO BOAT AZOR. The Azor was built by Yarrow & Co., London, is of the larger class, having a displacement of 120 tons, and is one of the fastest boats afloat. Her speed is 24...
-The New Spanish Armored Cruiser Reina Regente
THE NEW SPANISH ARMORED CRUISER REINA REGENTE. The new armored cruiser Reina Regente, which has been built and engined by Messrs. James & George Thomson, of Clydebank, for the Spanish government, h...
-Oliver Evans And The Steam Engine
A correspondent of the New York Times, deeming that far too much credit has been given to foreigners for the practical development of the steam engine, contributes the following interesting resume: O...
-Oliver Evans And The Steam Engine. Continued
In this book he gives directions how to propel boats by means of his engine against the current of the Mississippi. Prior to this publication he associated himself with some citizens of Kentucky - one...
-Auguste's Endless Stone Saw
It does not seem as if the band or endless saw should render the same services in sawing stone as in working wood and metals, for the reason that quite a great stress is necessary to cause the advance...
-Roburite, The New Explosive
A series of experiments of great interest and vital importance to colliery owners and all those engaged in mining coal has been carried out during the last ten days in the South Yorkshire coal field. ...
-The Mechanical Reeling Of Silk
When automatic machinery for thread spinning was invented, English intelligence and enterprise were quick to utilize and develop it, and thus gained that supremacy in textile manufacture which has rem...
-The Mechanical Reeling Of Silk. Part 2
While spinning, the worm moves its head continually from right to left, laying on the filament in a succession of lines somewhat resembling the shape of the figure eight. As the worm continues the wor...
-The Mechanical Reeling Of Silk. Part 3
The reel is now put into movement, and winds the thread formed by the union of the filaments. It is at this moment that the real difficulties of the reeler begin. She has now to maintain the size and ...
-The Mechanical Reeling Of Silk. Part 4
We have described the processes by which cocoons are ordinarily cooked and brushed, these being the first processes of the filature. Instead of first softening the gum of the cocoons and then attackin...
-The Mechanical Reeling Of Silk. Part 5
Fig. 1 THE MECHANICAL REELING OF SILK. By this means the thread which is passing from one pulley to the other is stretched by an amount equal to the difference of the winding speed of the two pulle...
-Apparatus Used For Making Alcohol For Hospital Use During The Civil War Between The States
By CHARLES K. GALLAGHER, Washington, N.C. A is an ordinary farm boiler or kettle, with an iron lid securely bolted on; B, a steam pipe ending in a coil within a trough, D. C, D, two troughs made of g...
-Confederate Apparatus For Manufacturing Saltpeter For Ammunition
By CHARLES K. GALLAGHER, Washington, N.C. Any convenient number of percolators, made of rough boards, arranged over a trough after the style of the old fashioned lye stand, similar to the figure. I...
-The Telemeter System
By F.R. UPTON. In this paper, read before the British Association, the author explained that the Telemeter System, invented by C.L. Clarke, of New York, is a method by which the slow movement of a ...
-A New Monster Revolving Black Ash Furnace And The Work Done With It
By WATSON SMITH, Lecturer in Chemical Technology in the Victoria University, etc. The Widnes Alkali Company, limited, to which I am indebted for permission to describe this latest addition to a famil...
-Improvements In The Manufacture Of Portland Cement
By FREDERICK RANSOMS, A.I.C.E. So much has been said and written on and in relation to Portland cement that further communications upon the subject may appear to many of the present company to be sup...
-Improvements In The Manufacture Of Portland Cement. Continued
The foregoing are some of the defects which the author applied himself to remove, and he now desires to draw attention to the way in which the object has been attained by the substitution of a revolvi...
-Mix And Genest's Microphone Telephone
We illustrate in the annexed engraving the microphone-telephone constructed by Messrs. Mix & Genest, of Berlin, which, after extended trials, has been adopted in preference to others by the imperial p...
-Electrolysis And Refining Of Sugar
Mr. G. Fahrig, of Eccles, Lancashire, has invented a new process of refining sugar through electrolysis. The brown sugar is decolorized by means of ozone produced by electric currents of high tension ...
-A Current Meter
We give a description of a meter we made in June, 1883. You will find a cross section of the meter and also a printed dial we had made at the time. We called it an ampere register, but no doubt we wou...
-Storage Batteries For Electric Locomotion
By A. RECKENZAUN. The idea of employing secondary batteries for propelling vehicles is almost contemporaneous with the discovery of this method of storing energy. To Mr. Plante, more than to any othe...
-Storage Batteries For Electric Locomotion. Part 2
M. Trouve exhibited a small boat and a tricycle, both worked by Plante accumulators, at Paris, in 1881. The first locomotive actuated by storage batteries was used at a bleaching works in France in 1...
-Storage Batteries For Electric Locomotion. Part 3
The advantages of storage battery street cars for city traffic are self-evident, so that I need not trouble you with further details in this respect, but I would beg those who take an interest in the ...
-Storage Batteries For Electric Locomotion. Part 4
I have made some very careful observations on the cable tramway in Philadelphia, which is quite an extensive system. I have never been able to ascertain the exact amount of waste in pulling the cable ...
-Bristol Cathedral
BRISTOL CATHEDRAL. An Augustinian monastery, founded by Robert Fitzhardinge in 1142, had its church, of Norman architecture, to which additions were made in the early English period. When Edmund Kn...
-Waves
In the first days of August, two startling announcements reached us from the United States. They were as follows: (1.) The commander of the Cunarder Umbria reports that at 3 o'clock on July 27, abou...
-Waves. Continued
Thus an actual current of water is produced in straits and narrow channels; and it is always important to distinguish between the tide wave, as bringing high water, and the tidal stream - between the ...
-Practical Education
It is now recognized that one of the elements in which the public school systems of the United States are most lacking is in the practical branches in teaching trades and industry. There is too much b...
-A Gigantic Load Of Lumber
When it was announced in the Lumberman that the barge Wahnapitae had carried a cargo of 2,181,000 feet of lumber, letters were received asking if it was not a typographical error. It was thought by ma...
-The Newbery-Vautin Chlorination Process
The process of extracting gold from ores by absorption of the precious metal in chlorine gas, from which it is reduced to a metallic state, is not a very new discovery. It was first introduced by Plat...
-The Newbery-Vautin Chlorination Process. Continued
Thus the pressure applied not only enables a strong solution of chlorine to be formed with the water in the barrel, but forces this into contact with the gold through every crevice in the ore. Chlorin...
-Apparatus For Exercising The Muscles
The apparatus herewith illustrated consists of a wooden base, which may be bolted to the floor, and which supports two wooden uprights, to which is affixed the apparatus designed to exercise the legs....
-The Bull Optometer
Dr. Javal has just presented to the Academy of Medicine a very ingenious and practical optometer devised by George J. Bull, a young American doctor, after a number of researches made at the laboratory...
-The Sanitation Of Towns
By Mr. J. GORDON, C.E. The average mortality for England and Wales was 22.4 in 1838, and in 1886 19.3, which shows a saving on last year's population of England and Wales of 86,400 lives annually, an...
-The Sanitation Of Towns. Part 2
The most recent contribution to this subject, in direct opposition to these views, is to be found in the address of Professor Attfield to the Hertfordshire Natural History Society and Field Club, in w...
-The Sanitation Of Towns. Part 3
The progress in sanitation on the Continent, America, and the colonies has not been coincident with the progress in England, but these countries have largely benefited by the experience of the United ...
-The Chemistry Of The Cotton Fiber
By Dr. BOWMAN. Every chemist knows that cotton is chiefly composed of cellulose, CHO, with some other substances in smaller quantities. This, although the usual opinion, is only true in a partial sen...
-Synthesis Of Styrolene
MM. Vabet and Vienne, in a recent number of Comptes Rendus, state that by passing a current of acetylene through 200 grammes of benzene containing 50 grammes of aluminum chloride for 30 hours the oily...
-Notes On Saccharin
By EDWARD D. GRAVILL, F.C.S., F.R.M.S. Now that a supply of this reputed substitute for sugar has been placed upon the London market, it will doubtless have attracted the attention of many pharmacist...
-Alcohol And Turpentine
In a paper entitled The Oxidation of Ethyl Alcohol in the Presence of Turpentine, communicated to the Chemical Society by Mr. C.E. Steedman, Williamstown, Victoria, the author states that dilute eth...
-Benier's Hot Air Engine
The hot air engine, although theoretically recognized for some time past as the most economical means of converting heat into motive power, has up to the present met with little success. This is due t...
-Your Future Problems
By CHARLES E. EMERY. Mr. President and Ladies and Gentlemen: It has not been considered the duty of the speaker, in addressing the graduating class, to dwell on the triumphs of science or the advanta...
-Your Future Problems. Part 2
St. Paul has said: For though I be free from all men, yet have I made myself servant of all that I might gain the more. This is the keynote of policy, and though in humbling yourself you control and...
-Your Future Problems. Part 3
The members of many organizations, even of intelligent men, are blindly led by chiefs of various titles, of which perhaps the walking delegate is the most offensive one to reasonable people. This clas...
-Your Future Problems. Part 4
Labor should not be organized for selfish ends, but for its own good, so as to secure steady and permanent employment, rather than prevent it by impracticable schemes and unwise methods, which will cr...
-Heating Marine Boilers With Liquid Fuel
We were recently witness of an experiment made at Eragny Conflans on the steam yacht Flamboyante. It was a question of testing a new vaporizer or burner for liquid fuel. The experiment was a repetitio...
-The Change Of Gauge Of Southern Railroads In 1886
By C.H. HUDSON. Many of the wheels that were still in use with the long hub were put into a lathe, and a groove was cut an inch and a half back from the face, leaving our cast collar, which was easil...
-The Change Of Gauge Of Southern Railroads In 1886. Part 2
With the ordinary pressure of city gas upon this pipe it was found that the air pump must keep an air pressure of 40 pounds, that the air and gas might mix properly at the branch or fork, so we could ...
-The Change Of Gauge Of Southern Railroads In 1886. Part 3
Most of the rail was old chair iron, short, and consequently more time was used in making the change than would have been required had our work been on fishplate rail. Our sections here were about eig...
-The Change Of Gauge Of Southern Railroads In 1886. Part 4
Whatever was the cause, it was found that frequently the line on the moved side was not perfect, and, of course, many spikes had to be drawn and the rail lined up and respiked. The more careful the wo...
-The Change Of Gauge Of Southern Railroads In 1886. Part 5
And the superintendent of the S.F. & W. R.R. has also furnished the expenses for that road: No. Average Cost. Engines and tenders 75 $76.31 Cars (passenger) 95 4.67 Cars (freight) 1,133 3.8...
-Torpedo Boats For Spain
In our present issue, on page 9948, we give illustrations of two torpedo boats, the Azor and Halcon, which have lately been constructed by Messrs Yarrow & Co., of Poplar, for the Spanish government. T...
-The Spanish Cruiser Reina Regente
In our SUPPLEMENT, No. 620 we gave an illustration of this ship, with some particulars. The interest expressed in naval circles for further information induces us to give still further engravings of t...
-Film Negatives
Having had a certain measure of success with Eastman stripping films, I have been requested by your council to give a paper this evening dealing with the subject, and particularly with the method of w...
-How Different Tones In Gelatino-Chloride Prints May Be Varied By Developers
The following formulae are for use with gelatino-chloride paper or plates. The quantities are in each case calculated for one ounce, three parts of each of the following solutions being employed and a...
-Note On The Construction Of A Distillery Chimney
FIG. 1 - ELEVATION. At a recent meeting of the Industrial Society of Amiens, Mr. Schmidt, engineer of the Steam Users' Association, read a paper in which he described the process employed in the con...
-The Production Of Oxygen By Brin's Process
Considerable interest has been aroused lately in scientific and industrial circles by a report that separation of the oxygen and nitrogen of the air was being effected on a large scale in London by a ...
-The Production Of Oxygen By Brin's Process. Continued
The pumping now ceases, and the temperature of the retorts is raised to about 800 C. The workman is able to judge the temperature with sufficient accuracy by means of the small inspection holes, ...
-French Disinfecting Apparatus
IMPROVED DISINFECTING APPARATUS. We represent herewith a sanitary train that was very successfully used during the prevalence of an epidemic of sudor Anglicus in Poitou this year. It consisted of a...
-An Electrical Governor
We abstract the following from a paper on electric lighting by Prof. J.A. Fleeming, read before the Iron and Steel Institute, Manchester. The illustration is from Engineering. ELECTRICAL GOVERNOR. ...
-The Electric Current As A Means Of Increasing The Tractive Adhesion Of Railway Motors And Other Rolling Contacts
By ELIAS E. RIES. The object of this paper is to lay before you the results of some recent experiments in a comparatively new field of operation, but one that, judging from the results already attain...
-Electric Current As A Means Of Increasing The Tractive Adhesion Of Railway Motors And Other Rolling Contacts. Part 2
I have here a model car and track arranged to show the equipment and operation of the system as applied to railway motors. The current in the present instance is one of alternating polarity which is c...
-The Electric Current As Means Of Increasing The Tractive Adhesion Of Railway Motors And Other Rolling Contacts. Part 3
You will notice that each axle of the motor car is wound with a helix of insulated wire, the helices in the present instance being divided to permit the attachment to the axles of the motor connection...
-Electric Launch
Trials have been made at Havre with an electric launch built to the order of the French government by the Forges et Chantiers de la Mediterrane. The vessel, which has rather full lines, measur...
-The Commercial Exchange, Paris
Leveling the ground, pulling down old buildings, and distributing light and air through her wide streets, Paris is slowly and continuously pursuing her transformation. At this moment it is an entire d...
-The Manufacture Of Cocaine
Cocaine is manufactured from the dry leaves of the Erythroxylon coca, which grows in the valleys of the East Cordilleras of South America - i.e., in the interior of Peru and Bolivia. The fresh leaves ...
-The Chemical Basis Of Plant Forms
By HELEN C. DE S. ABBOTT. The succession of plants from the lower to the higher forms will be reviewed superficially, and chemical compounds noted where they appear. When the germinating spores of t...
-The Chemical Basis Of Plant Forms. Continued
The vascular cryptogams are especially characterized by their mineral composition.16 The ash is extraordinarily rich in silicic acid and alumina. Equisetum 17 silicic acid 60 per cent. Aspidium ...
-New Method For The Quantitative Determination Of Starch
A.V. Asboth The author maintains that unsatisfactory results are obtained in determinations of starch when the method employed is based upon the inversion of sugar, formed as an intermediate product,...
-Synthesis Of The Alkaloids
In the note on the constitution of alkaloids in a recent issue, we referred more especially to what we may term the less highly organized bases. Most of our knowledge, as we now have it, regarding suc...
-A Group Of Hampshire Downs
The Hampshire Down breed of sheep originated about 80 years ago by a cross of South Downs on the horned, white-faced sheep which had for ages been native of the open, untilled, hilly stretch of lan...
-The Yale College Measurement Of The Pleiades
The Messrs. Repsold have established, and for the present seem likely to maintain, a practical monopoly in the construction of heliometers. That completed by them for the observatory of Yale College i...
-Deep Sea Dredgings: Examination Of Sea Bottoms
By THOMAS T.P. BRUCE WARREN. I believe Prof. Ehrenberg was one of the first to examine, microscopically, deep sea dredgings, some of which were undertaken for the Atlantic cable expedition, 1857. I ...
-The Compound Steam Turbine
Last year the whole of the lighting of the Newcastle Exhibition was effected by the agency of seventeen of these motors, of which four were spare, giving in the aggregate 280 electrical horse power. A...
-The Compound Steam Turbine. Continued
These washers are pressed together by a spiral spring, N, and nut, and, by friction against each other, steady or damp any vibration in the spindle that may be set up by want of balance or other cause...
-Hargreaves' Thermo-Motor
From the researches and investigations of Carnot, Joule, Rankine, Clausius, and Sir William Thomson, the science of thermo-dynamics has not only been brought into existence, but fully matured. We lear...
-An Investigation Into The Internal Stresses Occurring In Cast Iron And Steel
By General Nicholas Kalakoutzky. No. I. Determination Of The Influence Of Internal Stresses On The Strength Of Materials We call internal stresses those which exist within the mass of any hollow cyl...
-An Investigation Into The Internal Stresses Occurring In Cast Iron And Steel. Part 2
Equation (2) may be written thus - t = T R - - - R + r r - Rr - - - - r2 (3) Substituting successively r = r and r = R, we obtain expressions for the stresses on the external and i...
-The Internal Stresses Occurring In Cast Iron And Steel. Part 3
An example of injury inflicted in this way is to be found in the method adopted for hooping cast iron tubes cast by Rodman's process. If we take into consideration the undoubted fact of the existence ...
-Elements Of Architectural Design
By H.H. Statham. Lecture I Judging from the nature of the correspondence on architecture and the duty of architects which is frequently seen in the columns of the daily papers, the Times especially,...
-Elements Of Architectural Design. Part 2
Now this dependence of architectural design upon plan and construction is one of the conditions which is often overlooked by amateurs in forming a judgment upon architectural design; and the overlooki...
-Elements Of Architectural Design. Part 3
The truth runs through all art. There are, alas, so many people who do not seem to have the faculty of taking pleasure, and there is so much architecture about our streets which it is impossible to su...
-Elements Of Architectural Design. Part 4
We will accordingly emphasize the base of the column, just as we emphasized the base of the wall, by a projecting moulding, not only giving expression to this connection of the column with the ground,...
-Elements Of Architectural Design. Part 5
Let us try grouping the windows a little, and at the same time breaking up the flat surface of the front wall (Fig. 12). Here, as before, we have divided the building by a horizontal string, but only ...
-Elements Of Architectural Design. Part 6
The building may be just as convenient when you once know its dodges, but it does not appear so, and it loses the great effect of direct vista and climax. An able architect, who had given much though...
-Elements Of Architectural Design. Part 7
This is shown on Fig. 19, where the portion showing the roof is also marked N, and it will be seen that the surface which is sloping in Fig. 17 is seen in the side elevation only as a space between a ...
-Elements Of Architectural Design. Part 8
The Greeks certainly employed such a system, though there are not sufficient data for us to judge exactly on what principle it was worked out. In regard to the Parthenon, and some other Greek building...
-Elements Of Architectural Design. Part 9
Figs. 29 through 34 We may carry out this a little further by imagining a varied treatment on plan of a marked-out space of a certain size and proportion, on which a church of some kind, for instan...
-The Lowe Incandescent Gas Burner
This burner is in the form of a cylinder made of a composition in which magnesium predominates, and gives a light of 210 candle power with a consumption of three and one-half cubic feet of gas per hou...
-Progress Of The Sorghum Sugar Industry
We are indebted to Prof. E.B. Cowgill, of Kansas, for a copy of his recent report to the Kansas State Board of Agriculture concerning the operations of the Parkinson Sugar Works, at Fort Scott, Kansas...
-Progress Of The Sorghum Sugar Industry. Continued
Total number tons of cane bought 3,840 seed tops bought 437 - - - Total number tons of field cane 4,277 There was something over 500 acres planted. Some of it failed to come at all, s...
-The Menges Thermo-Magnetic Generator And Motor
We have received from M. Menges (of the Hague) a most interesting description of an apparatus on which he has been at work for some time past, with the object of generating electricity by the direct c...
-Observations On Atmospheric Electricity
By Prof. L. Weber. I will try to give a short report of some experiments I have made during the last year in regard to atmospheric electricity. It was formerly uncertain whether the electrostatic pot...
-Linnaeus
By C.S. Hallberg. At intervals in the history of science, long periods of comparative inertia have attended the death of its more distinguished workers. As time progresses and the number of workers i...
-On A Method Of Making The Wave Length Of Sodium Light The Actual And Practical Standard Of Length
By Albert A. Michelson and Edward W. Morley. The first actual attempt to make the wave length of sodium light a standard of length was made by Peirce.1 This method involves two distinct measurements:...
-Cold Storage For Potatoes
Upon this subject I am able to speak with the freedom habitually enjoyed by some voluminous agricultural writers - my imagination will not be hampered by my knowledge. In debatable climates, like Ohi...
-A Fivefold Comet
The figure illustrating this article is taken from L'Astronomie, and represents the remarkable southern comet of January, 1887, as drawn on successive days by Mr. Finlay, of Cape Town. The comet was ...
-A Fivefold Comet. Part 2
According to some calculations, the comet of 1843 seemed to have a period of about thirty-five years, which accorded well with the idea that it was the comet of 1668, returned after five circuits. Nor...
-A Fivefold Comet. Part 3
However, we were all mistaken. The comet of 1882 retreated on such a course, and with such variation of velocity, as to show that its real period must be measured, not by months, as had been supposed,...
-The Isolation Of Fluorine
The element fluorine has at last been successfully isolated, and its chief chemical and physical properties determined. Many chemists, notably Faraday, Gore, Pflaunder, and Brauner, have endeavored to...
-An Apparatus For Preparing Sulphurous, Carbonic, And Phosphoric Anhydrides
By H.N. Warren, Research Analyst. Having had occasion to prepare a quantity of sulphurous anhydride, for the purpose of reducing chromates previous to their analysis, I made use of the following appa...
-The Arrangement Of Atoms In Space In Organic Molecules
The expression chemical structure, as commonly used by chemists, has, as is well known, nothing to do with the arrangement of atoms in space. The structural formula does not profess to represent spa...
-Great Warmth In Paper
It should be thoroughly understood by all that any common paper, coarse wrapping paper, new or old newspapers, etc., are admirable to keep out cold or keep in warmth. The blood of all domestic animals...









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