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Scientific American Supplement Volumes 643, 647, 664, 711, 717, 787, 794, 795, 799 and 803



Supplement Volumes for Scientific American 643-803

TitleScientific American Supplement Volumes 643, 647, 664, 711, 717, 787, 794, 795, 799 and 803
AuthorVarious Authors
PublisherMunn & Co.
Year1888-1891
Copyright1891, Munn & Co.
AmazonScientific American Reference Book
-The Crown Prince Of Germany - Prince William And His Son
At a moment when the entire world has its eyes fixed upon the invalid of the Villa Zurio, it appears to us to be of interest to publish the portrait of his son, Prince William. The military spirit of ...
-General F. Perrier
Francois Perrier, who was born at Valleraugue (Gard), on the 18th of April, 1835, descended from an honorable family of Protestants, of Cevennes. After finishing his studies at the Lyceum of Nimes and...
-The President's Annual Address To The Royal Microscopical Society
Retrospect may involve regret, but can scarcely involve anxiety. To one who fully appreciates the actual, and above all the potential, importance of this society in its bearing upon the general progre...
-The President's Annual Address To The Royal Microscopical Society. Part 2
As in the alcoholic, lactic, or butyric ferments, the process set up is shown to be dependent upon and concurrent with the vegetative processes of the demonstrated organisms characterizing these ferme...
-The President's Annual Address To The Royal Microscopical Society. Part 3
The principal difference is in their mode of multiplication by fission. The former is in every way like a bacterium in its mode of self-division. It divides, acquiring for each half a flagellum in div...
-The President's Annual Address To The Royal Microscopical Society. Part 4
There is one other matter of some interest and moment on which I would say a few words. To thoroughly instructed biologists, such words will be quite needless; but, in a society of this kind, the poss...
-Inquiries Regarding The Incubator
P.H. Jacobs Space in the Rural is valuable, and so important a subject as artificial incubation cannot perhaps be made entirely plain to a novice in a few articles; but as interested parties have wri...
-The Peak Of Teneriffe
The Hon. Ralph Abercromby made a trip to the island of Teneriffe in October, 1887, for the purpose of making some electrical and meteorological observations, and now gives some of the results which he...
-Estrade's High Speed Locomotive
We illustrate a very remarkable locomotive, which has been constructed from the designs of M. Estrade, a French engineer. This engine was exhibited last year in Paris. Although the engine was built, M...
-Estrade's High Speed Locomotive. Continued
This type of engine is now in current and daily use in England. M. Nansouty next considers the broad gauge Great Western engines with 8 ft. driving wheels. The diameters of their wheels approach thos...
-Concrete
By JOHN LUNDIE. The subject of cement and concrete has been so well treated of in engineering literature, that to give an extended paper on the subject would be but the collection and reiteration of ...
-Concrete. Continued
Care should be taken to wet adjacent porous material, or the wooden form into which concrete is being placed; otherwise the water may be extracted from the concrete, to its detriment. It has been fou...
-Machine Designing
By JOHN E. SWEET. Carrying coals to Newcastle, the oft quoted comparison, fittingly indicates the position I place myself in when attempting to address members of this Institute on the subject of m...
-Machine Designing. Part 2
Many of the modern builders of what Chordal calls the hyphen Corliss engine claim to have made a great advance by putting a post under the center of the frame, but whether in acknowledgment that the f...
-Machine Designing. Part 3
a, b, c Fig. 1, Mr. Sweet, which represented three forms of lathe and planer construction. The box form, c, proved to be fifty per cent. stronger in its vertical direction than either a or b, fifty ti...
-Machine Designing. Part 4
The tool post or tool holder that permits of a tool being raised or lowered and turned around after the tool is set, without any sacrifice of absolute stability, will be better than one in which eithe...
-The Mechanics Of A Liquid
A liquid comes in handy sometimes in measuring the volume of a substance where the length, breadth, and thickness is difficult to get at. It is a very simple operation, only requiring the material to ...
-Volute Double Distilling Condenser
This distiller and condenser which we illustrate has been designed, says Engineering, for the purpose of obtaining fresh water from sea water. It is very compact, and the various details in connection...
-Improved Current Meter
Paul Kotlarewsky, of St. Petersburg, has invented an instrument for measuring or ascertaining the velocity of water and air currents. Upon the shaft or axis of the propeller wheel, or upon a shaft ge...
-The Flower Industry Of Grasse
A paper on this subject was read before the Chemists' Assistants' Association on March 8, by Mr. F.W. Warrick, and was listened to with much interest. Mr. Warrick first apologized for presenting a pa...
-The Perfume Factory
In the perfume factory everything is done by steam. Starting from the engine room at the bottom, the visitor next enters the receiving room, where early in the morning the chattering, patois-speaking ...
-The Eucalyptus, Myrtle, Etc
Of later introduction than the trees of the orange family is the Eucalyptus globulus, which, not being able to compete with the former in the variety of nasal titillations it gives rise to, probably c...
-The Labiates
The family which overshadows all others in the quantity of essential oils which it puts at the disposal of the Grassois and their neighbors is that of the Labiatae. Foremost among these we have the la...
-The Umbellifers
Whereas the flowers of the labiate family are treated by the distillers as favorites are by the gods, and are cut off in their youth, those of the Umbelliferae are allowed to mature and develop into t...
-The Geranium
Oil of geranium is produced from the rose or oak-leaved geranium, cuttings of which are planted in well sheltered beds in October. During the winter they are covered over with straw matting. In April ...
-The Rose
Allied to the oil of geranium in odor are the products of the rose. The Rose de Provence is the variety cultivated. It is grown on gentle slopes facing the southeast. Young shoots are taken from a fiv...
-Cassie
The stronger, though less delicate, cassie is grown from seeds, which are contained in pods which betray the connection of this plant with the leguminous family. After being steeped in water they are ...
-Jonquil
A plant of humbler growth is the jonquil. The bulbs of this are set out in rows. The flowers put in an appearance about the end of March, four or five on each stem. Each flower as it blooms is picked ...
-Jasmin
A more reliable crop is that of the jasmin. This plant is reared from cuttings of the wild jasmin, which are put in the earth in rows with trenches between. Level ground is chosen; if hillside only is...
-Tuberose
The tuberose is planted in rows in a similar way to the jasmin. The stems thrown up by the bulbs bear ten or twelve flowers. Each flower as it blooms is picked off. The harvesting for the factories ta...
-Mignonette
The reseda, or mignonette, is planted from seed, as here in England. The flowering tops are used to produce the huile or pomade. ...
-Violets
Last in order and least in size comes the violet. For the flower of sweetest smell is shy and lowly, and has taken a modest place in the paper. Violets are planted out in October or April. October ...
-How To Make Photo. Printing Plates
The drawing intended for reproduction is pinned on a board and placed squarely before a copying camera in a good, even light. The lens used for this purpose must be capable of giving a perfectly sharp...
-Analysis Of A Hand Fire Grenade
By CHAS. CATLETT and R.C. PRICE. The analyses of several of these fire extinguishers have been published, showing that they are composed essentially of an aqueous solution of one or more of the fol...
-Molecular Weights
A new and most valuable method of determining the molecular weights of non-volatile as well as volatile substances has just been brought into prominence by Prof. Victor Meyer (Berichte, 1888, No. 3). ...
-The Direct Optical Projection Of Electro-Dynamic Lines Of Force And Other Electro-Dynamic Phenomena
By Prof. J.W. MOORE. II. Loops If the wire, with its lines of force, be bent into the form of a vertical circle 1 in. in diameter, and fixed in a glass plate, some of the lines of force will...
-Poisons
Poisons and poisoning was the subject of a discourse a few days ago at the Royal Institution. The lecturer, Professor Meymott Tidy, began by directing attention to the derivation of the word toxico...
-Artificial Mother For Infants
All the journals have recently narrated the curious story of the triplets that were born prematurely at the clinic of Assas Street. Placed at their birth in an apparatus constructed on the principle o...
-Gastrostomy
Surgery has, as is well known, made great progress in recent years. Apropos of this subject, we shall describe to our readers an operation that was recently performed by one of our most skillful surge...
-How To Catch And Preserve Moths And Butterflies
There is no part of our country in which one cannot form a beautiful local collection, and any young person who wants amusement, instruction, and benefit from two, three, or more weeks in the country ...
-The Clavi Harp
The beautiful instrument which we illustrate to-day is the invention of M. Dietz, of Brussels. His grandfather was one of the first manufacturers of upright pianos, and being struck with the difficult...
-The Argand Burner
Argand, a poor Swiss, invented a lamp with a wick fitted into a hollow cylinder, up which a current of air was permitted to pass, thus giving a supply of oxygen to the interior as well as the exterior...
-The Subterranean Temples Of India
During the last fifteen years Bombay has undergone a complete transformation, and the English are now making of it one of the prettiest cities that it is possible to see. The environs likewise have be...
-Timber, And Some Of Its Diseases. IV
By H. MARSHALL WARD. Before proceeding further it will be of advantage to describe another tree-killing fungus, which has long been well known to mycologists as one of the commonest of our toadstools...
-Timber, And Some Of Its Diseases. IV. Part 2
The great danger of Agaricus melleus is its power of extending itself beneath the soil by means of the spreading rhizomorphs; these are known to reach lengths of several feet, and to pass from root to...
-Timber, And Some Of Its Diseases. IV. Part 3
I cannot leave this subject without referring to a remarkably interesting museum specimen which Prof. Hartig showed and explained to me last summer. This is a block of wood containing an enormous irre...
-Influence Machines
By Mr. James Wimshurst. I have the honor this evening of addressing a few remarks to you upon the subject of influence machines, and the manner in which I propose to treat the subject is to state as ...
-Influence Machines. Continued
The next machine which I take is a Holtz. It has one plate revolving, the second plate being fixed. The fixed plate, as you see, is so much cut away that it is very liable to breakage. Paper inductors...
-Violet Copying Ink
Dissolve 40 parts of extract of logwood, 5 of oxalic acid and 30 parts of sulphate of aluminium, without heat, in 800 parts of distilled water and 10 parts of glycerine; let stand twenty-four hours, t...
-The Evolution Of The Modern Mill
Sibley College Lectures. - 1887-88. By The Cornell University Non-Resident Lecturers In Mechanical Engineering By C. J. H. Woodbury, Boston, Mass. The great factories of the textile industries in th...
-The Evolution Of The Modern Mill. Part 2
With the advent of the steam engine as prime mover in mills, and the introduction of the turbine wheel with its trunk, affording greater facilities in the application of water power, the character of ...
-The Evolution Of The Modern Mill. Part 3
There is a large building in New York City which has recently been reconstructed, and the foundations rearranged, where the load reached to the enormous amount of six to ten tons per square foot. It w...
-The Evolution Of The Modern Mill. Part 4
The walls below the windows should be sloped, in order that there may be no opportunity to use them as a resting place for material which should be placed elsewhere. Fire Walls Brick division walls ...
-The Evolution Of The Modern Mill. Part 5
Mill towers, besides containing the stairways, also serve other purposes, as for cloak rooms for the help. They often contain a part of the fire protective apparatus, carrying standpipes with hydrants...
-The Evolution Of The Modern Mill. Part 6
The action of lime in the preservation of wood has always been attended with the most excellent results; although not suited to places subject to the action of water, which dissolves the lime, leaving...
-The Mechanical Equivalent Of Heat
By De Volson Wood, Professor of Engineering in Stevens Institute of Technology. It is clearly intimated by Mr. Hanssen, in his determination of the mechanical equivalent of heat, published in the Sci...
-Economy Trials Of A Non-Condensing Steam Engine - Simple, Compound, And Triple
By Mr. P. W. Willans, M.I.C.E. The author described a series of economy trials, non-condensing, made with one of his central valve triple expansion engines, with one crank, having three cylinders in ...
-Railway Bridge At Lachine
The subject of our large illustration this week is a large steel bridge carrying the Central Pacific Railway over the St. Lawrence River at Lachine, near Montreal. The main features of this really mag...
-Improved Screw Propeller
While the last few years have seen great advances made in the designs of steamships and of their engines, little or nothing has been done in the way of improving the screw propeller. As a general rule...
-Improved Dobby
IMPROVED DOBBY. At the Manchester Royal Jubilee Exhibition, Messrs. Butterworth & Dickinson, Burnley, showed Catlow's patent dobby, which is illustrated above, as applied to a strong calico loom. T...
-Sulphur Mines In Sicily
United States Consular Reports. Special Issue No. 10. By Phillip Carroll, U. S. Consul, Palermo. Sulphur, or brimstone, is a hard, brittle substance of various colors, from brilliant yellow to dark...
-Sulphur Mines In Sicily. Part 2
Where the ore is rich and the matrix yielding, the miners break it by means of pick-axes and pikes, but when such is not the case gunpowder is resorted to, the ore in this case being carried to the su...
-Sulphur Mines In Sicily. Part 3
Mining laborers generally can neither read nor write, and when employed in mines distant from habitations or towns, live and sleep therein, or in the open air, depending on the season or the weather. ...
-Sulphur Mines In Sicily. Part 4
In about seven or eight days sulphuric fumes and sublimed sulphur commence to escape, when it becomes necessary to add a new coat of ginesi to the covering and thus prevent the destruction of vegetati...
-An Automatic Still
By T. Maben. The arrangement here described is one that may readily be adapted to, and is specially suited for, the old fashioned stills which are in frequent use among pharmacists for the purpose of...
-Cotton Seed Oil
Cotton seed oil, said Mr. A.E. Thornton, of the Atlanta mills, is one of the most valuable of oils because it is a neutral oil, that is, neither acid nor alkali, and can be made to form the body of...
-"Huller" And "Heaters."
Then the seed is carried to the huller, where it is crushed or ground into a rough meal about as coarse as the ordinary corn grits. The next step is to separate the hulls from the kernels, all the...
-Pressing Out The Oil
As soon as a heater is ready to be emptied, the meal is taken out and put into six hair sacks, corresponding to the six pans in the press. There are six hair mats about one foot wide and six long, o...
-Manufacture Of Photographic Sensitive Plates
Quite recently Messrs. Marion & Company, London, began on their own account to manufacture sensitive photographic plates by machinery, and the operations are exceedingly delicate, for a single minute ...
-Manufacture Of Photographic Sensitive Plates. Continued
Fig. 5. Before being cleaned all sharp edges are roughly taken off those plates intended for machine coating by girls, who rub the edges and corners of the plates upon a stone; the plates are then ...
-The Use Of Ammonia As A Refrigerating Agent
By Mr. T.B. Lightfoot, M.I.C.E. Within the last few years considerable progress has been made in the application of refrigerating processes to industrial purposes, and the demand for refrigerating ap...
-The Use Of Ammonia As A Refrigerating Agent. Part 2
The object is to evaporate the liquid anhydrous ammonia at such tension and in such quantity as will produce the required cooling effect. The actual tension under which this evaporation should be effe...
-The Use Of Ammonia As A Refrigerating Agent. Part 3
The sources of loss in such an apparatus are: a. Radiation and conduction of heat from all vessels and pipes above normal temperature, which can, to a large extent, be prevented by lagging. b. Condu...
-The Use Of Ammonia As A Refrigerating Agent. Part 4
The ice which first forms on the sides of the moulds or cells is, as a rule, sufficiently transparent even without agitation. The opacity increases toward the center, where the opposing layers join, a...
-Elements Of Architectural Design. III
By H. H. Statham. III. - Continued The Romans, in their arched constructions, habitually strengthened the point against which the vault thrust by adding columnar features to the walls, as shown in F...
-Elements Of Architectural Design. III. Part 2
These difficulties were of two kinds; the first arose from the tendency of the round arch, when on a large scale and heavily weighted, to sink at the crown if there is even any very slight settlement ...
-Elements Of Architectural Design. III. Part 3
But now another and most important change was to come over the vault. The mediaeval architects were not satisfied with the mere edge left by the Romans in their vaults, and even before the full Gothic...
-Elements Of Architectural Design. III. Part 4
We have already noticed the suggestion, in early Gothic or Romanesque, of the dividing up of a pier into a multiple pier, of which each part supports a special member of the superstructure, as indicat...
-Elements Of Architectural Design. III. Part 5
We have now arrived at a style of architectural construction and expression which seems so different from that of Greek architecture, which we considered in the last lecture, that it is difficult to r...
-The Meteorological Station On Mt. Santis
THE METEOROLOGICAL STATION ON MT. SANTIS. At the second International Meteorological Congress, in 1879, the erection of an observatory on the top of a high mountain was considered. The Swiss Meteor...
-The Care Of The Eyes
By Prof. David Webster, M.D. The light of the body is the eye. Of all our senses, sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell, the sight is that which seems to us the most important. Through the eye, t...
-Gun Practice In The French Navy
GUN PRACTICE IN THE FRENCH NAVY. The gunners of the French fleet are possessed of a skill which is recognized by all the maritime powers, and these picked men proved this at the siege of Paris, wher...
-Modern Cavalry On The Field Of Battle. 1
By Col. R. S. Liddell. I feel that some apology is due from me for coming down to Aldershot and giving my opinions before so many officers whose daily experience renders them much more capable than I...
-Modern Cavalry On The Field Of Battle. 1. Part 2
In England, after the termination of this war, many German military works of great value were translated and published; the battle fields in France were visited and described; every movement of both a...
-Modern Cavalry On The Field Of Battle. 1. Part 3
Prince Kraft writes: No battle field is a tabula rasa, for in the most exposed country there are depressions. If strong skirmishing lines of infantry can advance directly over a country devoid of cov...
-Modern Cavalry On The Field Of Battle. 1. Part 4
It collects information, and is also used with horse artillery on great enterprises on the enemy's communications. Having finished the reconnaissance and covering the army on the day of battle, it fal...
-Modern Cavalry On The Field Of Battle. 1. Part 5
He will soon learn the condition of the enemy, act accordingly, harass his flanks and rear and play upon him with his artillery. An example of another manner in which cavalry may be employed after a ...
-Modern Cavalry On The Field Of Battle. 1. Part 6
Still they went on, swept past the infantry columns, and fell upon a brigade of French chasseurs. At Balaklava 670 British horsemen were launched against an entire wing of the Russian army. The briga...
-Iron Sailing Ships
Messrs. Russell & Co., Greenock and Port Glasgow, show at the Glasgow exhibition a very numerous and varied show of sailing models. First, we find the noble four-masted ships of from 1,800 tons to 2,2...
-Water Blast Pump
It is well known that the principle which is applied to the construction of vacuum or filter pumps, and which aims at the production of rarefied air in a certain inclosed space, may also be applied to...
-Transmission Of Power Between Bodies Moving At Different Velocities
A few months ago there was exhibited, in the society's reading room, a working model of an application to railway working of what the inventor calls division of the mass. In causing a body, moving a...
-Steam Generator Of Serpollet Brothers, Producing Steam Instantaneously
The explosibility of a steam generator may be measured by the relation of its total capacity to its vaporizing power. The old fashioned generators and some of the modern ones are so constructed as to ...
-Gas Lighting By High-Power Burners
In the course of a communication presented to the Societe Industrielle du Nord de la France by the manager of the Wazemmes Gas Company, he made the following remarks on gas lighting with high-power bu...
-Synchronizing Clocks
At the recent meeting of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Dublin, Mr. Davey, of Leeds, spoke of synchronizing mechanisms. He had occupied some of his spare time in attempting to synchronize cl...
-Coal Tar As Fuel For Steam Boilers
By John McCrae, of Dundee. About three years ago, when the sudden and serious fall took place in the value of the secondary products produced in gas works, many gas managers - ever desirous of doing ...
-Watch Cleaning And Repairing
By Old Fogy. Before proceeding with what I consider the best methods in this department of the watch and jewelry business, I will say that I do not, by any means, consider that my way is the best, ...
-Watch Cleaning And Repairing. Part 2
Now with these equipments, and some others, not herein named, such as vise, file block, bench stake or anvil, and a large variety of such tools as will accumulate, I am ready to give you my ideas rega...
-Watch Cleaning And Repairing. Part 3
Of course to explain every detail of the method of repairing the various parts of a watch would take more space than you would allow in your journal, and hence I will not attempt to go into minute det...
-The New Central Railway Station At Frankfort On The Main
The new central railway station at Frankfort on the Main is one of the most imposing structures of modern times, not only as regards its dimensions, but also because of the effect which its architectu...
-The Commercial Exchange, Paris
At the beginning of the year 1881, the committee on finances of the common council of Paris received a petition from the central committee of the syndical chambers asking for the establishment of an o...
-A Basis From Which To Calculate Charges For Electric Motor Service
The theoretical side of the electric motor question has been very ably presented to and discussed by this association, but thus far the practical side has been somewhat neglected. It will be my purpo...
-Exhaust Fans
First on the list of power consumers is the exhaust fan, taking it in average use. There are, however, circumstances under which its use will be limited to as low as 70 or 75 per cent. of its contract...
-Exhaust Fans. Part 2
The regulation of the motor in this case should be accomplished by the conditions of pressure in the pressure tank, as is the case with a steam pump employed in this service. The next application of ...
-Exhaust Fans. Part 3
A more striking illustration of the advantages to the electric light company in the subdivision of power into the smallest possible units it would be hard to find. There is a difference in efficiency ...
-Some Abyssinian Customs
WOMAN WITH UNDRESSED HAIR. ABYSSINIAN HAIR DRESSER. Abyssinian women have an extraordinary head of hair. The hair, though not very long, is very bushy, so that it takes the capillary artist no ...
-How A Mound Was Built
While exploring mounds in Ohio this season, under the direction of the National Bureau of Ethnology, says Mr. Gerard Fowke, in a paper prepared for Science, I used great care in the examination of ...
-A Chinese Imperial Cemetery
By Lieut. Hon. H. N. Shore, R.N. Some ten miles north of Peking, in a valley where silence reigns supreme, is situated one of the most remarkable and imposing burial grounds in the world. Here, nestl...
-Dyspepsia: Its Causes And Prevention
Dyspepsia has once been called the American sickness, and although this may be a slander against which many of the inhabitants of our great republic might protest, bad digestion is a disease frequen...
-Dyspepsia: Its Causes And Prevention. Continued
Unfortunately, we are still far from the time when the public will appreciate that prevention is better than cure. Perhaps this fundamental principle of health will be honored during the 20th centur...
-A New Surgical Operation
Among the matters of interest which were brought before the British Medical Association, at the recent Glasgow meeting, was an account by Mr. Brudenell Carter of a method which he had devised of openi...
-Putzeys' Flushing Reservoir
Every sewer is more or less exposed to intermissions in the flow of the water that it leads, and the result is a diminution in velocity which leads to deposits of solid material. Hence the necessity o...
-Pepsin
By A. Percy Smith, F.I.C., F.C.S., Rugby. The method usually adopted for estimating the peptonizing power of pepsina porci consists in dissolving 1 to 2 grains in 8 to 12 ounces of water, to which 40...
-Subterraneous Flora And Fauna
By Dr. Otto Zacharias. It is generally correct to say that air, light and moisture form the chief conditions necessary for the development of organic plant or animal life. One of these conditions, ho...
-Subterraneous Flora And Fauna. Continued
Of late the investigations of naturalists have been extended to the animal life existing not only in grottoes and caves, but also in mines and pits created by the action of man, and this has led to ma...
-Timber, And Some Of Its Diseases. IX
By H. Marshall Ward. In the months of April and May, the younger needle-like leaves of the Scotch pine are occasionally seen to have assumed a yellow tinge, and on closer examination this change in c...
-Timber, And Some Of Its Diseases. IX. Continued
Fig. 33. - Vertical section through a very young aecidium of Peridermium Pini (var. acicola), with part of the subjacent tissue of the leaf, h, the mycelium of the parasitic fungus running between the...
-The Defense Of Gibraltar: Experimental Naval And Military Operations
A novel and interesting series of operations was carried out at Gibraltar a few weeks ago, with a view to test the promptitude with which the garrison of the famous Rock could turn out to resist a sud...
-Gibraltar And Neighborhood. Report By Consul Sprague
Notwithstanding that the political situation of Europe seems to be less threatening among its leading powers, still the uncertainty prevalent among those who are generally considered the arbiters of p...
-Gibraltar
The point or rock known as Gibraltar is a promontory two and one-half miles long and from a quarter to three-quarters of a mile wide. It rises abruptly from the sandy shore to a height at its highest ...
-The Franz Josef I, New War Ship
Another addition was made to the Austrian navy by the launching on May 18 of the ram cruiser Franz Josef I. from the yards of S. Rocco in the Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino. Her dimensions are: Length...
-Clark's Gyroscopic Torpedoes
Figs. 1 and 2 represent, upon a scale of about 1/10, two types of torpedoes, the greatest number possible of the parts of which are made revolvable, so as to render the torpedoes as dirigible as the g...
-The First Steamboat On The Seine
FIRST STEAMBOAT BUILT ON THE SEINE. The accompanying engraving represents the remarkable steamboat that the unfortunate Marquis de Jouffroy constructed at Paris in 1816, after organizing a company f...
-The Electric Motor Tests On The New York Elevated Railroad
The American Institute of Electrical Engineers at its last meeting of the season, held June 25, again considered the subject of electrical traction, the paper presented by Mr. Leo Daft being based upo...
-Magnetism In Its Relation To Induced Electromotive Force And Current
By Elihu Thomson. There is perhaps no subject which at the present time can have a greater interest to the physicist, the electrician, and the electrical engineer than the one which heads this paper....
-Magnetism In Its Relation To Induced Electromotive Force And Current. Part 2
While we are in the habit of saying that a conductor moved across a field of lines, or vice versa, generates electric current, I think the statement incomplete. The movement only sets up a potential d...
-Magnetism In Its Relation To Induced Electromotive Force And Current. Part 3
But the condenser charges and backs up and stops the discharge from the primary, even giving a reverse current. The lines of magnetic force collapse, however, and have their effect in the enormous pot...
-Magnetism In Its Relation To Induced Electromotive Force And Current. Part 4
Fig. 2. Fig. 3. The moment we begin the bringing of iron into proximity with an electric conductor conveying current, we provide a better medium for the flow or development of magnetic lines or ci...
-Magnetism In Its Relation To Induced Electromotive Force And Current. Part 5
The magnetism in air, gases, and non-magnetic bodies, being assumed to be that of the ether, this medium shows no such effects as those we get with the ring. It does not become permanently polarized, ...
-Magnetism In Its Relation To Induced Electromotive Force And Current. Part 6
That the core receives the energy when the coil cannot is shown in the well known fact that in some dynamos with armatures of bobbins on iron cores, the running of the armature coils on open circuit g...
-Electric Lighting At The Paris Exhibition - The Oerlikon Works
Immediately on entering the Machinery Hall by the galerie leading from the central dome, and occupying a prominent position at the commencement of the Swiss section, is a very important plant of dynam...
-Electric Lighting At The Paris Exhibition - The Oerlikon Works. Part 2
Fig. 10. The illustration, Fig. 10, represents the automatic re-regulator - C.E.L. Brown's patent. Motion is imparted to the cores of two electro-magnets at the ends by the pulleys, W W. The cores ...
-Electric Lighting At The Paris Exhibition - The Oerlikon Works. Part 3
The catch, L, Fig. 8, has a lateral play, and serves to engage in the teeth of the rack rod, so as to prevent its falling when being trimmed. Each carbon when in position is held against two rectangul...
-The Ader Flourish Of Trumpets
Although telephonic novelties are not numerous at the Universal Exposition, telephony - that quite young branch of electric science - is daily the object of curious and interesting experiments which w...
-Notes On Dyewood Extracts And Similar Preparations
By Louis Siebold, F.I.C., F.C.S. During the last ten years there has been an enormous increase in the production of these preparations, and the time will come when their application in dyeing and cal...
-Notes On Dyewood Extracts And Similar Preparations. Continued
Extracts made from logwood roots are now largely manufactured and often substituted or mixed with the extracts of real logwood, and have in some instances been palmed of as logwood extracts of high qu...
-Orthochromatic Photography
By Oscar O. Litzkow. What I want to show is the manner in which the process has been tested. My employer, Mr. Bierstadt, has given me permission to show you some samples, and also his chart containin...
-Platinotype Printing
Platinotype, which may be considered to be the most artistic of photographic printing processes, may be separated into its three modifications - the hot bath and cold bath, in which a faintly visible ...
-On Allotropic Forms Of Silver
By M. Carey Lea. In the first part of this paper were described certain forms of silver; among them a lilac blue substance, very soluble in water, with a deep red color. After undergoing purification...
-Turpentine And Its Products
By Edward Davies, F.C.S., F.I.C. In treating this subject it is necessary to limit it within comparatively narrow bounds, for bodies of the turpentine class are exceedingly numerous and not well unde...
-On The Occurrence Of Paraffine In Crude Petroleum
It is well known that the paraffine obtained by the distillation of petroleum residues is crystalline, while that obtained directly (as in the filtration of residuum) is amorphous. Ozokerite or ceresi...
-Transmission Of Pressure In Fluids
By Albert B. Porter. The young student of physics occasionally has difficulty in grasping the laws of pressure in fluids. His every day experience has taught him that a push against a solid body caus...
-Pear Duchesse D'Angouleme
Although well known to fruit growers and generally represented in all parts of Britain, this noble French pear has not become a universal favorite. If the quality of the fruit, independently of its fi...
-Succession Of Forest Growths
The following is from an address delivered by Mr. Robert Douglas before the Association of American Nurserymen at the meeting in Chicago recently. It is the prevailing and almost universal belief tha...
-The "Hatchery" Of The Sun-Fish
I have thought that an example of the intelligence (instinct?) of a class of fish which has come under my observation during my excursions into the Adirondack region of New York State might possibly b...
-Ancient Lake Dwellings
Among the many traces which man has left of his existence in long past ages on the face of the earth, says a correspondent of the Scotsman, none are more interesting and instructive than the lake dwel...
-How To Raise Turkeys
The best feed for young turkeys and ducks is yelks of hard-boiled eggs, and after they are several days old the white may be added. Continue this for two or three weeks, occasionally chopping onions f...
-Water As A Therapeutical Agent
By F.C. Robinson, M.D. My experience in the use of water in almost every disease occurring in this climate has long since satisfied me that it is less objectionable and produces quicker and better re...
-On The Health Value To Man Of The So-Called Divinely Beneficent Gift, Tobacco
By J.M.W. Kitchen, M.D., New York. With perhaps the exception of heredity, the question of stimulants and narcotics in their relation to the physical welfare of the race is second to none in importan...
-On The Health Value To Man Of The So-Called Divinely Beneficent Gift, Tobacco. Continued
It is of course difficult, and perhaps even impossible, to accurately estimate the value of tobacco to the race; but let us glance at the pros and cons, and then each one can roughly estimate for hims...
-Acetic Acid As A Disinfectant
Dr. F. Engelmann, in Cent. f. Gyn., claims that acetic acid possesses equally as good antiseptic properties as carbolic acid; in fact, that it is to be preferred, as it is completely harmless, even if...
-Counter-Irritation In Whooping Cough
By G.F. Inglott, M.D. To combat this often distressing disease I have tried the administration of several medicines, namely, bromide of potassium, asafoetida, valerian, morphine, belladonna, etc., an...
-Development Of The Embryo
At a recent meeting of the Physical Society, Berlin, Prof. Preyer spoke on reflexes in the embryo. His researches extended over many classes of animals. As representing mammals, guinea pigs were chief...
-Iridescent Crystals
By Lord Rayleigh. The principal subject of the lecture is the peculiar colored reflection observed in certain specimens of chlorate of potash. Reflection implies a high degree of discontinuity. In so...
-The Naval Forges And Steel Works At St. Chamond
With the idyls and historic or picturesque subjects that the Universal Exposition gives us the occasion to publish, we thought we would make a happy contrast by selecting a subject of a different kind...
-Forging A Propeller Shaft
During the recent visit of the Shah of Persia to England, he visited, among other places, the great works of John Brown & Co., at Sheffield, and witnessed the pressing of a propeller shaft for one of ...
-Crank And Screw Shafts Of The Mercantile Marine
By G. W. Manuel. Being asked to read a paper before your institute, I have chosen this subject, as I think no part of the marine engine has given so much trouble and anxiety to the seagoing engineer;...
-Crank And Screw Shafts Of The Mercantile Marine. Part 2
Figs. No. 1 and No. 2 show the design of the old and new main bearings, and, I think, require but little explanation. Most of you present will remember your feelings when, after a hot bearing, the b...
-Crank And Screw Shafts Of The Mercantile Marine. Part 3
To make solid crank shafts of this material, say of 19 inches diameter, the ingot would weigh 42 tons, the forging, when completed, 17 tons, and the finished shaft 11 tons; so that you see the...
-Experimental Aid In The Design Of High Speed Steamships
By D. P. The achievement of one triumph after another in the matter of high speed steamships, and especially the confidence with which pledges of certain results are given and accepted long before ac...
-Experimental Aid In The Design Of High Speed Steamships. Continued
It will thus be seen that model experiments had been made by investigators long before the time of the late Dr. William Froude, of Torquay. It was not, however, until this gentleman took the subject o...
-The Ship In The New French Ballet Of The "Tempest."
A new ballet, entitled the Tempest, by Messrs. Barbier and Thomas, has recently been put upon the stage of the Opera at Paris with superb settings. One of the most important of the several tableaux ...
-The Girard Hydraulic Railway
We give herewith some illustrations of this railway which has recently excited so much technical interest in Europe and America, and which threatens to revolutionize both the method and velocity of tr...
-Quartz Fibers
In almost all investigations which the physicist carries out in the laboratory, he has to deal with and to measure with accuracy those subtile and to our senses inappreciable forces to which the so-ca...
-Quartz Fibers. Part 2
Any attempt that may be made to increase the delicacy of apparatus by reducing their dimensions is at once prevented by the relatively great importance of the vagaries of the silk suspension. The res...
-Quartz Fibers. Part 3
While it is evident that these fibers give us the means of producing an exceedingly small torsion, and one that is not affected by weather, it is not yet evident that they may not show the same fatigu...
-Quartz Fibers. Part 4
To show that these longitudinal bands are due to the irregularities, I have drawn a taper piece of quartz by hand, in which the two edges make with one another an almost imperceptible angle, and the s...
-Nature, Composition, And Treatment Of Animal And Vegetable Fabrics
The inseparable duties of studying the composition of the various animal and vegetable fabrics, as also their nature - when in contact with the various mineral, vegetable, animal, and gaseous bodies a...
-The Production Of Ammonia From Coal
By Ludwig Mond. As exemplifying to a certain extent the application of methodical research to an industrial problem, I propose to bring before you to-day an account of the work I have been engaged in...
-The Production Of Ammonia From Coal. Part 2
(1.) Processes which propose to combine nascent hydrogen with nitrogen at high temperatures or by electricity, with or without the presence of acid gases. (2.) Processes in which nitrides are first f...
-The Production Of Ammonia From Coal. Part 3
We found, however, that the cyanide when exposed to the atmosphere at a temperature above 300 C. is readily destroyed under reformation of carbonate of barium, so that it is absolutely necessary ...
-The Production Of Ammonia From Coal. Part 4
We experimented upon numerous kinds of fuel, common slack and burgy of the Lancashire, Staffordshire, and Nottinghamshire districts. We found not much difference in the amount of nitrogen contained in...
-The Production Of Ammonia From Coal. Part 5
The gas producers which I prefer to use are of rectangular shape, so that a number of them can be put into a row. They are six feet wide and 12 feet long inside. The air is introduced and the ashes re...
-The Production Of Ammonia From Coal. Part 6
We have tried many experiments to produce hydrochloric acid in the producers, with the hope of thereby increasing the yield of ammonia, as it is well known that ammonium chloride vapor, although it co...
-The Production Of Ammonia From Coal. Part 7
In order to maintain a constant current, we have from time to time (say once an hour) to interchange the gases, so as to counteract the disturbing influence produced by the transport of the sulphuric ...
-Alkali Manufactories
When the alkali, etc., Works Regulation Act was passed in 1881, it was supposed that the result would be that the atmosphere in the districts where such works are situated would be considerably improv...
-The Fuels Of The Future
It is undeniable that in this country, at least, we are accustomed to regard coal as the chief, and, indeed, the only substance which falls to be considered under the name of fuel. In other countries,...
-The Fuels Of The Future. Continued
The differences between these substances really consist in the degree of fixing of the carbon or solid portion of the product, as it were, which exists. Thus in coal and jet the carbon is of stable ch...
-Portable Electric Light
The famous house of MM. Sautter, Lemonnier & Co. takes a conspicuous part in the Paris exhibition, and from the wide range of its specialties exhibits largely in three important branches of industry: ...
-Electric Motor For Alternating Currents
Prof. Galileo Ferraris, of Turin, who has carefully studied alternating currents and secondary transformers, has constructed a little motor based upon an entirely new principle, which is as follows: I...
-The Electric Age
By Charles Carleton Coffin. The application of electricity for our convenience and comfort is one of the marvels of the age. Never in the history of the world has there been so rapid a development of...
-Early Electric Lighting
The opening of the new station of the Electric Lighting Co., of Salem, Mass., was recently celebrated with appropriate festivities. Among the letters of regret from those unable to attend the opening...
-The Modern Theory Of Light
By Prof. Oliver Lodge. To persons occupied in other branches of learning, and not directly engaged in the study of physical science, some rumor must probably have traveled of the stir and activity ma...
-The Modern Theory Of Light. Part 2
But now proceed to ask what is this ether which in the case of light is thus vibrating? What corresponds to the elastic displacement and recoil of the spring or pendulum? What corresponds to the inert...
-The Modern Theory Of Light. Part 3
The Hertz receiver is the simplest thing in the world - nothing but a bit of wire or a pair of bits of wire adjusted so that when immersed in strong electric radiation they give minute sparks across a...
-On Purification Of Air By Ozone - With An Account Of A New Method
By Dr. B. W. Richardson. During the time when I was engaged in my preliminary medical studies - for I never admit to this day of being anything less than a medical student - the substance called ozon...
-On Purification Of Air By Ozone - With An Account Of A New Method. Part 2
Recently a very singular hypothesis has been broached in regard to the blue color of the firmament and ozone. It has been observed that when a tube is filled with ozone, the light transmitted through ...
-On Purification Of Air By Ozone - With An Account Of A New Method. Part 3
By the use of his ozone bottles Polli believed that he had supplied a means most suitable for directly destroying in the air miasmatic principles, without otherwise interfering with the respiratory fu...
-Heat In Man
At a recent meeting of the Physiological Society of Berlin, Prof. Zuntz spoke on heat regulation in man, basing his remarks on experiments made by Dr. Loewy. The store of heat in the human body at any...
-Preservation Of Spiders For The Cabinet
For several years past, I have devoted a portion of my leisure time to the arrangement of the collection of Arachnidae of the Natural History Museum of the University of Gand. This collection, which i...
-Dried Wine Grapes
According to a report of the Committee of the Grape Growers' and Wine Maker's Association of California, the drying of wine grapes on a large scale was begun during the vintage season of 1887, in whic...
-Walnut Oil
By Thomas T. P. Bruce Warren. This oil, which I obtained from the fully ripened nut of the Jugluns regia, has so many excellent properties, especially for mixing with artists' colors for fine art wor...
-The Pyro Developer With Metabisulphite Of Potash
By Dr. J. M. Eder. Lately I called attention to the metabisulphite of potassium as an addition to the pyro solution for development, and can give now some of my experiences with this salt. The metab...
-The French Ironclad War Ship Colbert
The central battery ironclad Colbert is one of the ten ships of the French navy that constitute the group ranking next in importance to the squadron of great turret ships, of which the Formidable is t...
-Steam Engine Valves. Riding Cut-Off Valves
Peculiarities And Merits Of The Different Styles By THOMAS HAWLEY. In considering the slide valve in its simple form with or without lap, we find there are certain limitations to its use as a valve ...
-Steam Engine Valves. Riding Cut-Off Valves. Part 2
It will be noted that there is but one edge of this valve that is required to do any work, and that is to close the valve. The eccentrics are so placed that the passage in the main valve is opened lon...
-Steam Engine Valves. Riding Cut-Off Valves. Part 3
FIG. 3 This is one great objection to the rack and gear operated by the governor, that two flat valves riding upon each other and sliding in opposite directions at times require a considerable amou...
-Steam Engine Valves. Riding Cut-Off Valves. Part 4
FIG. 5 This valve, Fig. 5, differs from the others also in this particular, that the exhaust takes place at the end of the valve instead of under the arch. Two eccentrics are used, the one for the ...
-Firing Points Of Various Explosives
An apparatus, devised by Horsley, was used, which consisted of an iron stand with a ring support holding a hemispherical iron vessel, in which paraffin or tin was put. Above this was another movable s...
-Station For Testing Agricultural Machines
The minister of agriculture has recently established a special laboratory for testing agricultural materiel. This establishment, which is as yet but little known, is destined to render the greatest se...
-Water Softening And Purifying Apparatus
We have recently had brought under our notice a system of water and sewage purification which appears to possess several substantial advantages. Chief among these are simplicity in construction and op...
-The Trisection Of Any Angle
By FREDERIC R. HONEY, Ph.B., Yale University. The following analysis shows that with the aid of an hyperbola any arc, and therefore any angle, may be trisected. If the reader should not care to foll...
-Test Card Hints
By Dr. F. OGDEN STOUT. I know it is the custom with a great many if not the majority of opticians to fit a customer without knowing whether he has presbyopia, hypermetropia, or any of the other error...
-Charles Goodyear
CHARLES GOODYEAR was born in New Haven, December 29, 1800. He was the son of Amasa Goodyear, and the eldest among six children. His father was quite proud of being a descendant of Stephen Goodyear, on...
-Charles Goodyear. Continued
In the line of these, he discovered that rubber, dipped in nitric acid, formed a surface cure, and he made a great many goods with this acid cure which were spoken of, and which even received a letter...
-The Electromagnet
By Professor SILVANUS P. THOMPSON, D.Sc., B.A., M.I.E.E. III. Researches Of Professor Hughes FIG. 51. - HUGHES' ELECTROMAGNET. His object was to find out the best form of electromagnet, the best ...
-The Electromagnet. Part 2
Distance between shoes. Millimeters. Attraction, in grammes. 2 900 10 1,012 15 1,025 25 965 40 890 60 550 With a stronger battery the magnet without shoes had an attraction of 885 gra...
-The Electromagnet. Part 3
The two lower curves in Fig. 54 illustrate this, from which it is at once plain that the magnetizing power for very brief currents is greater when the two coils are put in parallel with one another th...
-The Electromagnet. Part 4
It is interesting to note how the perfecting of the magnetic circuit increases the self-induction. Thanks to the kindness of Mr. Preece, I have been furnished with some most valuable information abou...
-Electric Erygmascope
The erygmascope is the name of an electric lighting apparatus designed for the examination of the strata of earth traversed by boring apparatus. It consists of a very powerful incandescent lamp inclo...
-A New Electric Ballistic Target
The electrical target usually employed in determining velocities of projectiles consists of a wooden frame on which is strung a copper wire so as to make a continuous circuit arranged in parallel vert...
-The Outlook For Applied Entomology. Legislation
The amount of legislation in different countries that has of late years been deemed necessary or sufficiently important, in view of injurious insects, is a striking evidence of the increased attention...
-The Outlook For Applied Entomology. Legislation. Part 2
Finally, for results which it is desired to promptly get before the people, the agricultural press is at our disposal, and so far as the entomological work of the department of agriculture is concerne...
-The Outlook For Applied Entomology. Legislation. Part 3
With the different State agricultural colleges, and the State agricultural societies, or boards, we have every advantage for building up a national bureau of agriculture worthy of the country and its...
-The Outlook For Applied Entomology. Legislation. Part 4
I cannot but feel that this is in some respects a misfortune, and it will devolve upon you to decide upon several questions of importance that will materially affect our future existence. That there i...
-The Outlook For Applied Entomology. Legislation. Part 5
It were supererogation to point out to a body of this kind the value of the most careful and thorough work in connection with life histories and habits, often involving as it does much microscopic stu...
-Potash Salts
My attention was attracted to potash salts as an insecticide, by the casual remark of an intelligent farmer, that washing his young pear trees with a muriate of potash solution cleared them of scales....
-The Expense Margin In Life Insurance
The principle of mutuality requires that the burden of expense in life insurance should be borne by all the members equally; but, even with the most careful adjustment, the allowance usually made is c...
-The Expense Margin In Life Insurance. Part 2
As far as insurance is concerned, there is less difference between regular and co-operative companies than is generally supposed. Regular companies assess each policy in advance for a year's insurance...
-The Expense Margin In Life Insurance. Part 3
In the first place, there should be no policy in the company that does not contribute its proportionate share of the expense allowance during every year of its life. I make a special point of this, fo...
-The Flood At Karlsbad
During the flood which occurred in Germany and Bohemia, the last week of November, Karlsbad was especially unfortunate; it suffered such an inundation as had never before been known in the Sprudelsta...
-Theatrical Water Plays
In one of the plays at Hengler's Circus in London a water scene is introduced, for which purpose the main ring is flooded with water in a manner which is both striking and interesting. FLOODING A C...
-Science In The Theater
In the pretty little hall of the Boulevard des Italiens, at Paris, a striking exhibition of simulated hypnotism is given every evening. This entertainment, which has met with much success, was devise...
-Newer Physiology And Pathology
By Prof. SAMUEL BELL, M.D. Physiology has for many decades been a science founded on experiment, and pathology has been rapidly pressing forward in the same direction. To read the accounts of how cer...
-Newer Physiology And Pathology. Part 2
All these different organisms have become familiar to us under the generic term bacteria, which is a very unfortunate application, as it really applies to only a single class of fungi. Cohn calls them...
-Newer Physiology And Pathology. Part 3
The scientific investigators would say you have injected with the sputum into the blood of your unfortunate patient, pus, morphological elements, and perhaps half a dozen other forms of bacteria, any ...
-The Composition Of Koch's Lymph
What Professor Koch Says It Is, And What It Can Do. (By Cable To The Medical Record.). Berlin, January 15, 1891 The curiosity to know the composition of the famous lymph has been gratified by the pub...
-The Composition Of Koch's Lymph. Continued
Against the practical application of such dilutions of dead tubercle bacilli there presented itself the fact that the tubercle bacilli are not absorbed at the inoculation points, nor do they disappear...
-Can We Separate Animals From Plants?
By ANDREW WILSON. One of the plainest points connected with the study of living things is the power we apparently possess of separating animals from plants. So self-evident appears this power that th...
-Can We Separate Animals From Plants?. Continued
Starch is surely a typical plant product, yet it is undoubtedly manufactured, or at least stored up, by animals - a work illustrated by the liver of man himself, which occasionally produces sugar out ...
-The Recovery Of Silver And Gold From Plating And Gilding Solutions
In view of the rapid development and extension of the methods of electro-plating with silver and gold, and of the large amount of spent liquors containing silver or gold thus produced, it has long bee...
-Improved Overhead Steam Traveling Crane
We show in Fig. 1 a general view, and in Figs. 2 and 3 a side elevation and plan of an overhead steam traveling crane, which has been constructed by Mr. Thomas Smith, of Rodley, near Leeds, for use in...
-Best Diameter Car Wheels
It goes almost without saying that for any given service we want the best car wheel, and in general it is evident that this is the one best adapted to the efficient, safe and prompt movement of trains...
-A New Integrator
By Professor KARL PEARSON, M.A. As I fear the title of my paper to our Society to-night contains two misstatements of fact in its three words, I must commence by correcting it. In the first place, th...
-A New Integrator. Continued
2. The instrument must not be liable to get out of order by fair handling and a reasonable amount of wear and tear. I cannot speak at present with certainty as to how far our integraph satisfies this ...
-Some Hints On Spiking Track
The usual dimensions of track spikes are 51/2 X 9.16 inches square, their weight about half a pound each. Their common defects are brittleness and imperfect points. In spiking track, the most importan...
-The Experiments At The Annapolis Proving Grounds
The desperate war that has been waging between the gun and armor plate, ever since the period when protective plates were first applied to naval constructions, is familiar to all. In this conflict the...
-High Explosives In Warfare
By Commander F.M. BARBER, U.S.N. In commencing my paper this evening I desire to call your attention to the fact that I am dealing with a subject which, though not theoretical, is still hardly practi...
-High Explosives In Warfare. Part 2
First came the simple torpedo, at the end of an ordinary boat's spar. Then came the special torpedo boat with its great speed, then the revolving cannon and rapid-fire gun to meet the torpedo boat. At...
-High Explosives In Warfare. Part 3
The fact that the high explosives are so much heavier than gunpowder has an important bearing on the size of the containing case. Their sp. gr. is as follows: Pounds Nitro-glycerine 1.6 Bla...
-High Explosives In Warfare. Part 4
Various methods of arriving at comparative values have been tried, but the figures are very variable, as will be seen by the following tables. Berthelot's commission, some ten years ago, exploded ten ...
-The Manufacture And Use Of Plaster Of Paris
It has long been a familiar fact that gypsum yields on baking a material which possesses the power of setting with water to a firm mass, this setting being accomplished much more quickly than is the c...
-The Manufacture And Use Of Plaster Of Paris. Continued
The arrangement employed in France is known as the four a boulanger, or baker's furnace. The temperature attained in the furnace itself never exceeds low redness. The material preferred is the softer ...
-Spacing The Frets On A Banjo Neck
By Prof. C.W. MacCord. The amateur performer on the banjo, if he be of a mechanical turn, is often tempted to exercise his skill by making an instrument for himself; and the temptation is the greater...
-Glove Making
Glove making is almost a century old in this country, having been begun in the neighborhood of Gloversville and Johnstown, N.Y., about 1803. Until 1862 the manufacture of gloves in Fulton County, alth...
-Glove Making. Continued
With the preparation of kid leather alum is the astringent curative agent. Its operation is accompanied by that of others whose purpose is to secure elasticity and pliability, and mainly to preserve t...
-Fabric For Upholstery Purposes
The object of this invention is to produce a firm, solid, dust-resisting, and durable woven cloth, composed, preferably, entirely of cotton, but it may be of a cotton warp combined with a linen or oth...
-Reversible Ingrain Or Pro-Brussels Carpet
The object of this invention is to manufacture, in a cheap fabric, a closer imitation of Brussels carpets. As is well known, an ordinary Brussels carpet is made with a pattern on one side only, but ac...
-Araeo-Picnometer
A modified araeometer has been recently patented by Aug. Eichhorn, in Dresden, Germany (Deutsches Reichs-Patent, No. 49,683), which will prove a great boon to chemists, distillers, physicians, etc., a...
-Gaseous Illuminants
By Prof. VIVIAN B LEWES. IV Continued From Supplement, No. 793, Page 12669 Mr. Frank Livesey, in the concluding sentence of a paper read before the Southern District Association of Gas Managers and...
-Gaseous Illuminants. Part 2
This system has been extensively tried, and indeed used to a certain extent, but the results have not been altogether satisfactory, one of the troubles which have had to be contended with being chokin...
-Gaseous Illuminants. Part 3
Having had control of the apparatus for several months, and, with the aid of a reliable assistant, having checked everything that went in and came out of the generator, I am in a position to state aut...
-Gaseous Illuminants. Part 4
In such a room, however, if the doors and windows were absolutely air tight, and there was no fireplace, diffusion through the walls would change the entire air once an hour, so that the percentage wo...
-Gaseous Illuminants. Part 5
And the enriched coal gas would, therefore, cost 1s. 3/4d. per thousand, the extra 11/2-candle power having been gained at an expense of 3/4d. or 1/2d. per candle. Tabulating these results we have - ...
-Gaseous Illuminants. V
By Prof. VIVIAN B. LEWES. Having now brought before you the various methods by which ordinary coal gas can be enriched, so as to give an increased luminosity to the flame, I wish now to discuss the m...
-Gaseous Illuminants. V. Part 2
Several theories have been brought forward to explain this phenomenon, but the true one is that the burner abstracts so much heat from the flame at that point that it is unable to burn there, and this...
-Gaseous Illuminants. V. Part 3
Moreover, the amount of water vapor given off during the combustion of gas is greater than in the case of the other illuminants. Water vapor having a great power of absorbing radiant heat from the bur...
-Gaseous Illuminants. V. Part 4
Having disposed in a few words of a subject which, if fully treated, would occupy a long course of lectures by itself, I will pass on to the consideration of gas as at present used as a fuel. There i...
-Gaseous Illuminants. V. Part 5
These figures are of the greatest interest, as they show conclusively that the extreme top of the Bunsen flame is the only portion of the flame which can be used for heating a solid substance without ...
-Gaseous Illuminants. V. Part 6
In the first place, for every 478.5 cubic feet of hydrogen made under perfect theoretical conditions never likely to be obtained in practice, 56 lb. of iron were converted into the magnetic oxide, and...
-Electrical Laboratory For Beginners
By GEO. M. HOPKINS. It is only when theory and practice, study and experiment, go hand in hand that any true progress is made in the sciences. A head full of theory is of little value without practic...
-Conventional Sign For The Battery And Galvanometer
In making electrical diagrams it is necessary to frequently represent a battery. It requires too much time to make a sketch or drawing of a battery. Besides this, the drawing of any particular kind of...
-Decomposition Of Water
To illustrate the decomposition of water, connect the copper strips, H H, to the poles of the battery by means of wires, as shown in Fig. 3, and insert them in a tumbler of water acidulated with a few...
-Solenoid
By connecting one of the coils, A, with the battery by means of the wires, the action of a helix or solenoid is shown. When so connected, the helix will draw up with itself a barrel pen, or any light ...
-Magnetization Of Steel
By inserting in the solenoid a knitting needle, or any bar of hardened or tempered steel, and sending a current through the coil, the steel will become permanently magnetized. ...
-Electromagnet
By placing the two coils, A, upon the magnet frame, B, and connecting one terminal of each with the battery, the remaining terminals being connected together, as shown in Fig. 5, an electromagnet is f...
-Electric Motor
By placing the magnet thus formed upon the motor base, C, in front of the armature, h, as shown in Fig. 6, and connecting one terminal of the magnet with the battery and the other with the clamping sc...
-Compass And Magnetic Experiments
By placing one end of the bar magnetized by the solenoid near the compass contained by the cabinet (Fig. 7) it will be seen that one end of the compass needle is attracted. When the opposite end of th...
-Galvanometer
By placing one of the coils, A, in the block, D, then placing in the cavity in the top of the block the compass, with the line marked N S arranged at right angles to the axis of the coil, a serviceabl...
-Experiments Showing The Effects Of Resistance
By placing the galvanometer in the circuit of the battery, as shown in Fig. 9, and noting the deflection of the needle, it will be ascertained that a certain amount of current is flowing. Now, by plac...
-Resistance Of A Fluid Changed By The Addition Of Another Fluid
A very pretty and instructive experiment may be performed by arranging the apparatus as shown in Fig. 10, with the copper strips, H H, inserted in clean water and the galvanometer placed in the circui...
-Magnetic Electric Induction
By placing one of the coils, A, on the magnet frame, B, and connecting it by the wires with the galvanometer, arranged as before described, and bringing the permanent magnet, F, suddenly against the p...
-Induction Coil
By placing both coils, A, upon the bundle of soft iron wires, G, connecting one of them with the terminals of the battery, as shown in Fig. 12, and holding the terminals of the other coil in the moist...
-Extra Current
An experiment showing the extra or self-induced current consists in arranging the motor as shown in Fig. 6, and connecting wire with each conductor leading from the battery to the motor, as shown in F...
-Telegraph Sounders And Keys
The cabinet contains material for two telegraph sounders and keys which will enable the user to establish a short telegraph line with a single cell of battery. The armature, m, may be lifted from its ...
-Magnetic Figures
By arranging the coil so as to form an electro-magnet, as before described, and holding the magnet under a plate of glass sprinkled with fine iron filings, as shown in Fig. 15, and then sending a curr...
-Experiment Showing The Current
By removing the coil, A, from beneath the compass, E, and connecting the ends of the transverse wire, a' a', with the battery Fig. 16, then lifting the plates of the battery out of the solution and al...
-Microphone And Telephone
Take two small carbon rods, p p, if procurable, if not, use two ordinary nails, and connect them up in the circuit of the battery; lay them upon a thin box so that the rods or nails cross each other, ...
-Electro Metallurgy
Dissolve an ounce of sulphate of copper in a half pint of water; add a few drops of sulphuric acid; connect with the zinc pole of the battery the object to be coppered. To the wire connected with the ...
-The Heating Effect Of The Current
With a piece of very fine platinum wire (No. 36 or 40), placed in the circuit of the battery, the heating effect of the current may be shown. A half inch of No. 36 platinum wire will serve for the exp...
-Duplication Of Batteries
Should the experimenter desire to go more deeply into the effects of the current, he will need a more powerful battery. The battery described has been made on a very simple plan, to enable the amateur...
-The Action Of The Silent Discharge On Chlorine
Arguing from the fact that oxygen gas, when subjected to the silent discharge, partially undergoes condensation into ozone, it seemed possible, says Mr. H.M. Vernon, in the Chemical News, that other e...
-Estimating Carbon In Organic Substances
By J. MESSINGER. This is an improvement on the author's method of two years ago. The method is now applicable to compounds with which previously low results were obtained. The substance is weighed i...
-New Race Of Dwarf Dahlias
The dahlia has held a prominent place among garden flowers for many years, and it has received new life in the acquisition of a section little expected by cultivators, but peculiarly welcome. This cla...
-Some Winnebago Arts
In the Proceedings of the New York Academy of Sciences an abstract is given of a paper on the above, read by Dr. Frederick Starr: It is well known that a tribe may have peculiarities in speech, in ma...
-The Philosophy Of Consumption
By Dr. J.S. CHRISTISON, Chicago. A proclamation by an eminent physician that he has discovered a specific cure for consumption in its most prevalent and insidious form, known as tuberculosis, might w...
-The New Labor Exchange At Paris
There will soon be inaugurated (probably about the 14th of July) a new establishment that has long been demanded by the laboring population, that is to say, a new labor exchange, the buildings of whic...
-The Business End Of The American Newspaper
By A.H. SIEGFRIED. The controlling motive and direct purpose of the average newspaper are financial profit. One is now and then founded, and conducted even at a loss, to serve party, social, religiou...
-The Business End Of The American Newspaper. Part 2
But the personal workers upon the great magazines and the daily newspapers are for each a battalion or a regiment, and in the aggregate a vast army. The Century Magazine regularly employs in its edito...
-The Business End Of The American Newspaper. Part 3
It has been suggested to me that many of my hearers this evening know little or nothing of the processes of the printer's art, and that some exposition of it may interest a considerable portion of thi...
-The Business End Of The American Newspaper. Part 4
Under existing conditions newspapers of any importance, in the smaller cities, use one and sometimes two presses, capable of producing from 7,000 to 9,000 complete eight page papers each hour, each ma...
-The Business End Of The American Newspaper. Part 5
Take a representative and pertinent example. Eight years ago there were in New York ten or eleven standard newspapers, as ably and inclusively edited and as energetically and successfully conducted, b...
-How To Prevent Hay Fever
By ALEXANDER RIXA, M.D., New York. In the May (1890) number of the Therapeutic Gazette I furnished some contribution to the Treatment of Hay Fever. I reported therein a favorable result in the trea...
-The Source Of Chinese Ginger
In the Kew Bulletin for January an interesting account is given of the identification of the plant yielding the rhizome employed to make the well-known Chinese preserved ginger. As long ago as 1878 Dr...
-Floating Elevator And Spoil Distributor
We illustrate a floating elevator and spoil distributor constructed by Mr. A.F. Smulders, Utrecht, Holland, for removing dredged material out of barges at the Baltic Sea Canal Works. We give a perspec...
-Improved Cold Iron Saw
The engraving given herewith shows a general view of the Demon cold saw, designed for cutting iron, mild steel, or other metals of fairly large sections, that is, up square or round, and any rectan...
-A Railway Through The Andes
The railway system of the Argentine Republic is separated from the Chilian system by the chain of the Andes. The English contractors, Messrs. Clark & Co., have undertaken to connect them by a line whi...
-The Empress Of India
THE NEW BRITISH PACIFIC LINE EMPRESS OF INDIA. The Empress of India is intended to be the pioneer of three fast mail steamers, built by the Barrow Shipbuilding Company for service in connection with...
-Chicago As A Seaport
The prairie land in the southwest corner of Lake Michigan, which, seventy years ago, was half morass from the overflowing of the sluggish creek, whose waters, during flood, spread over the low-lying, ...
-Chicago As A Seaport. Continued
The physical nature of the country is well suited for carrying out such a project on a scale far larger than that required for sewage purposes, and works thus carried out would, to a small extent, res...
-N.F. Burnham And His Life Work
By W.H. BURNHAM. The inventor and patentee of all water wheels known as the Burham turbine died from Bright's disease of the kidneys at his home, York, Pa., Dec. 22, 1890, aged 68 years 9 months and ...
-Alternate Current Condensers
At a recent meeting of the Physical Society, London, Mr. James Swinburne read a paper on alternate current condensers. It is, he said, generally assumed that there is no difficulty in making commercia...
-The Telegraphic Communication Between Great Britain, Europe, America, And The East
By GEORGE WALTER NIVEN. There are at present twenty-six submarine cable companies, the combined capital of which is about forty million pounds sterling. Their revenue, including subsidies, amounts to...
-Telegraphic Communication Between Great Britain, Europe, America, And The East. Part 2
MAP SHOWING MAIN CABLES FROM EUROPE AND THEIR CONNECTIONS WITH CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES. Reference to places - A, Heart's Content; B, Placentia; C, St. Peter Miquelon; D, North Sydney, Cape Breto...
-The Telegraphic Communication Between Great Britain, Europe, America, The East. Part 3
When the Calais-Dover and other short cables were first worked, it was found that the ordinary needle instrument in use on land lines was not sufficiently sensitive to be affected trustworthily by the...
-Electricity In Transitu - From Plenum To Vacuum
By Prof. WILLIAM CROOKES, F.R.S. If an idle pole, C, C, Fig. 12 (P=0.0001 millimeter or 0.13 M), protected all but the point by a thick coating of glass, is brought into the center of the molecular s...
-Properties Of Radiant Matter
One of the most characteristic attributes of radiant matter - whence its name - is that it moves in approximately straight lines and in a direction almost normal to the surface of the electrode. If we...
-Properties Of Radiant Matter. Continued
A drawing of another experimental piece of apparatus is shown in Fig. 16. A pear-shaped bulb of German glass has near the small end an inner concave negative pole, A, of pure silver, so mounted that...
-Phosphorescence In High Vacua
I have already pointed out that the molecular motions rendered visible in a vacuum tube are not the motions of molecules under ordinary conditions, but are compounded of these ordinary or kinetic moti...
-Stereoscopic Projections
The celebrated philosopher Bacon, the founder of the experimental method, claimed that we see better with one eye than with two, because the attention is more concentrated and becomes profounder. On ...
-The Effect On Fowls Of Nitrogenous And Carbonaceous Rations
On July 2, 1889, ten Plymouth Rock hens, one year old, and as nearly as possible of uniform size, were selected from a flock of thirty-five. At the same time ten chickens, hatched from the same hens m...
-The Effect On Fowls Of Nitrogenous And Carbonaceous Rations. Continued
Production Of Eggs During the first week the carbonaceous fed hens laid three eggs while the others laid two. The two groups were, therefore, practically evenly divided at the start as to the conditi...
-Herbaceous Grafting
My attention has been called a number of times to the unsatisfactory records and directions concerning the grafting of herbaceous plants. There appears to have been very little attention given to the ...
-A Humorous Health Officer
The Michigan State Board of Health recently took Health Officer Davis, of Close Village, to task for failing to send in his weekly reports. His reply was unique. He says: There has not been enough si...
-The New German Dispatch Boat Meteor
In time of war the dispatch boats are the eyes of the fleet. It is their duty to reconnoiter and ascertain the strength of the enemy and to carry the orders of the commander. For this service great sp...
-The Raising Of The Ulunda
Shortly after the recovery of the Ulunda, below described, the North American and West Indian squadron of the Royal Navy visited Halifax, Nova Scotia. The simple and novel means adopted for raising th...
-The Raising Of The Ulunda. Continued
Before this took place the whole of the lower deck over the badly damaged holds had been prevented from bursting up by means of wooden shores, which were placed in rows about 4 ft. apart, and wedged f...
-The Thermic Motor Of The Future?
Up to recent years there was no reason for putting the question that forms the title of this article, for it was admitted by all that the conversion of thermic energy, or heat produced by the combusti...
-The Thermic Motor Of The Future?. Continued
of steam. 0.487 liters. Consumption of water for cooling the cylinder. 50.0 Consumption of oil for lubricating the cylinder. 3.74 grammes. Consumption of grease. 0.45 Consumption of gas redu...
-Improved Pneumatic Hammer
We publish illustrations of a Thwaites suspension pneumatic power cwt. hammer of a new design, for planishing pipes and plates, for which we are indebted to Engineering. As indicated in the p...
-Compressed Air Production
Sibley College Lectures. - 1890-91. By The Cornell University Non-Resident Lecturers In Mechanical Engineering. By WM. L. SAUNDERS, C.E., of New York. I cannot but realize as I stand before you tha...
-Compressed Air Production. Part 2
Experiments made by M. Regnault and others on the influence of heat on pressures and volumes of gases have enabled us to fix the absolute zero of temperature as -461 degrees Fahrenheit. This point, 46...
-Compressed Air Production. Part 3
The diagram shows that when a volume of air is compressed adiabatically to 21 atmospheres (294 lb. gauge pressure), it will occupy a volume a little more than one-tenth; the total increase of temperat...
-Compressed Air Production. Part 4
FIG. 5. Many efforts were made to equalize the power and resistance by constructing the air compressor on the crank shaft principle, putting the cranks at various angles, and by angular positions ...
-Compressed Air Production. Part 5
FIG. 8. The friction loss on a duplex compressor seldom gets lower than 15 per cent., while straight line compressors show as low a loss as 5 per cent. Fig. 8 illustrates the Rand Duplex Air Compr...
-Compressed Air Production. Part 6
FIG. 14. When the compressor is unloaded, it is evident that the function of the air piston is merely to force the compressed air through the discharge valves and passages from one end to the othe...
-Compressed Air Production. Part 7
Clearance is not taken into consideration in the foregoing figures, but clearance is very much more of a bete noir in theory than in practice. The early designers, as shown in the Dubois-Francois il...
-Compressed Air Production. Part 8
1 Tension in Atmospheres. 2 Volume. 3 Work of Compression. Cubic Meters in Kilogram-meters. 4 Work of Compression. Cubic Feet in Foot Pounds. 5 Volume. 6 Work of Compression. (Dry.) Cubic Meters ...
-Compressed Air Production. Part 9
Before the introduction of condensing air receivers, wet air resulting in freezing was considered the most serious obstacle to water injection; but this difficulty no longer exists, as experience has ...
-Compressed Air Production. Part 10
The compressed air is doubtless cooled before it gets even as far as the receiver, because so much water is tumbled over into the pipes with it, but to produce economical results the cooling should ta...
-The Power Of Water, Or Hydraulics Simplified
By G.D. Hiscox. Current Wheels For Power And Raising Water The natural flow of water in a current is probably one of the oldest and cheapest of the methods for obtaining power, or the lifting of wat...
-How To Remove Paint And Varnishes
To remove paint and varnishes, which resist the action of strong lye, Dr. Stockmeier recommends a mixture of water of ammonia, two parts, and turpentine, one part; this applied to the surface to be cl...
-On Gas Motors
M. Witz, says the Gas World, has been conducting a series of experiments on the Delamare-Deboutteville and Malindin gas engine, driven by Dowson gas, and in which the gas generator takes the place of ...
-A Projecting Apparatus For Balances Of Precision
The luminous projection apparatus illustrated herewith, when adapted to a balance of precision, permits of effecting weighings very rapidly. For the same approximation, the velocity of oscillation bec...
-Starches For The Finishing Of Cotton Fabrics
The starches have been classified by Dr. Muter, according to the appearance they give under the microscope, into five groups: Class I Hilum and concentric rings visible. All the granules, oval or ov...
-Marble And Mosaic
By T.R. SPENCE. I do not propose to enter into any historical details as to the first and subsequent application of mosaics. In a general sense we understand mosaic as a combination of various more o...
-Marble And Mosaic. Continued
This, in conjunction with the upper surfaces in dark, rich color, had a most delightful effect. We, as students, can learn most from the Ravenna examples, for great are the needs of light and silvery...
-The St. Lawrence Hospital For The Insane
The St. Lawrence State Hospital at Ogdensburg, N.Y., is a center of public, professional, philanthropic, and legislative interest. Though projected in advance of the adoption of the system of State ca...
-The St. Lawrence Hospital For The Insane. Part 2
THE ST. LAWRENCE HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE. State Architect Isaac G. Perry planned the St. Lawrence State Hospital buildings on ideas suggested by medical experience, with a breadth of comprehension...
-The St. Lawrence Hospital For The Insane. Part 3
Detached group No. 2 is intended for 185 men of the chronic insane class, who require more than ordinary care and observation. Detached group No. 3 is composed of two-story buildings for 322 women. It...
-The Electrical Purification Of Sewage And Contaminated Water
By WM. WEBSTER. The term sewage many years ago was rightly applied to the excremental refuse of towns, but it is a most difficult matter to define the liquid that teems into our rivers under the name...
-The Electrical Purification Of Sewage And Contaminated Water. Continued
The results of this chemical investigation show that the chief advantages of this system of putrefaction are: First. - The active agent, hydrated ferrous oxide, is prepared within the sewage itself...
-Lavender And Its Varieties
By J. CH. SAWER, F.L.S. Lavender - technically Lavandula. This name is generally considered to be derived from the word lavando, gerund of the verb lavare, to wash or to bathe, and to originate f...
-Lavender And Its Varieties. Continued
The L. vera was identified in 1541, and introduced into England in 1568, flourishing remarkably well under cultivation, and yielding an oil far superior in delicacy of fragrance to that obtained from ...
-Spectrum Of The Sun And Elements
The Johns Hopkins University Circular, No. 85, issued in February, contains Prof. Rowland's report of progress in spectrum work. The spectra of all known elements, with the exception of a few gaseous ...
-Allotropic Forms Of Metals
Writing on some curious properties of metals and alloys, Mr. W.C. Roberts-Austen, says the Engineer, remarks that the importance of the isomeric and allotropic states has been much neglected in the ca...
-The Great Equatorial Of The Paris Observatory
The great instrument which has just completed the installation of our national observatory is constructed upon the same principle as the elbowed equatorial, 11 in. in diameter, established in 1882, ac...
-Lily Of The Valley
There is no flower more truly and universally popular than the lily of the valley. What can be more delicious and refreshing than the scent of its fragrant flowers? What other plant can equal in sprin...
-Report On Insects. The Onion Maggot. Phorbia Ceparum (Meig.)
Early in June a somewhat hairy fly, Fig. 9, may be seen flying about, and depositing its eggs on the leaves of the young onion plants, near the roots, Fig. 10. Dr. Fitch describes this fly as...
-The Cabbage Butterfly. Pieris Rapae (Linn.)
In the New England States there are three broods of this insect in a year, according to Mr. Scudder, the butterflies being on the wing in May, July, and September; but as the time of the emergence var...
-The Apple Tree Tent Caterpillar. Clisiocampa Americana (Harr.)
Large, white, silken web-like tents, Fig. 15, are noticed by the roadsides, in the early summer, on wild cherry trees, and also on fruit trees in orchards, containing numerous caterpillars of a blacki...
-The Forest Tent Caterpillar. Clisiocampa Disstria (HÜBner.)
This species, commonly known as the forest tent caterpillar, closely resembles the apple tree tent caterpillar, but does not construct a visible tent. It feeds on various species of forest trees, su...
-The Stalk Borer. Gortyna Nitela (Gruen.)
The perfect moth, Fig. 19, 1, expands from one to one and a half inches. The fore wings are a mouse gray color, tinged with lilac and sprinkled with fine yellow dots, and distinguished mainly by a whi...
-The Pyramidal Grapevine Caterpillar. Pyrophila Pyramidoides (Guen.)
This caterpillar, Fig. 21, is generally found on grapevines early in June, but also feeds on apple, plum, raspberry, maple, poplar, etc. It is about an inch and a half in length, with the body taperin...
-The Grape Berry Moth. Eudemis Botrana (S.V.)
The moths emerge and fly early in June, and are quite small, measuring, when the wings are expanded, only two-fifths of an inch, Fig. 23, a, enlarged. The fore wings are purplish or slate brown from t...
-The Codling Moth. Carpocapsa Pomonella (Linn.)
This well known insect has a world-wide reputation, and is now found wherever apples are raised. The moths are on the wing about the time the young apples are beginning to set, and the female lays ...
-The Cabbage Leaf Miner. Plutella Cruciferarum (Zell.)
The cabbage leaf miner is not a native of this country, but was imported from Europe. The perfect moth, Fig. 25, f, with the wings expanded (h, with the wings closed, g, a dark variety), measures t...
-The Gartered Plume Moth. Oxyptilus Periscelidactylus (Fitch.)
The caterpillars of this species draw together the young grape leaves, Fig. 26, a, in the spring, with fine silken threads, and feed on the inside, thus doing much damage in proportion to their size. ...
-The Breeds Of Dogs
The dog exhibitions that have annually taken place for the last eight years at Paris and in the principal cities of France have shown how numerous and varied the breeds of dogs now are. It is estimate...
-The Breeds Of Dogs. Continued
We shall not follow the effects of the combination of these three types through the ages, and the formation of the different breeds; for that we shall refer our readers to a complete work upon which w...
-Pointers
Man hunted for ages with dogs that he united in a pack; but these packs were of a very heterogeneous composition, since they included strong dogs, light dogs very swift of foot, shepherds' dogs, and o...
-The Brach Hounds
To-day we reserve the name of brachs for all pointers with short hair. The type of the old brach still exists in Italy, Spain, the south of France and in Germany. It is characterized by its large size...
-Spaniels
The old type of spaniel has nearly disappeared, yet we still find a few families of it in France, especially in Picardy and perhaps in a few remote parts of Germany. The old spaniel was of the same bu...
-Barbets And Griffons
To this latter category belong the dogs, par excellence, for hunting in swamps. The barbets are entirely covered with long curly hair, like the poodles, which are directly derived from them. They are ...
-Restocking The Seine With Fish
A few days ago, at Bougival, a short distance below the dam of the Marly machine, there were put into water 40,000 fry of California trout and salmon, designed to restock the Seine, which, in this reg...
-Modern Armor
By F.R. BRAINARD, U.S.N. The building of a navy, which has been actively going on for the past few years, has drawn public attention to naval subjects, and recent important experiments with armor pla...
-Modern Armor. Part 2
It was found that laminated and sandwiched armor gave very much less resisting power than solid rolled plates of the same thickness. Wrought iron armor is made under the hammer or under the rolls, i...
-Modern Armor. Part 3
Forged steel armor, tempered in oil, is fabricated at Le Creusot, France, by Schneider & Co., using open-hearth steel, and forging under the 100 ton hammer. The ingots are cast, with twenty-five per c...
-Modern Armor. Part 4
V = the velocity of the projectile in feet per second. a = the diameter of the projectile in inches. w = the weight of the projectile in pounds. E = the thickness of the backing in inches. e = the ...
-The Compressed Air System Of Paris
The demand for compressed air as a motive power is constantly increasing in Paris; the company, according to its official reports, is financially prosperous, and it seems difficult to understand how i...
-The Compressed Air System Of Paris. Part 2
THE NEW COMPRESSED AIR STATION AT PARIS. (FIG. 5, 6) Moreover, according to Professor Riedler, the consumption of steam by the new Schneider engines will be only 5.3 kilos. per horse power and per h...
-The Compressed Air System Of Paris. Part 3
The Cockerill compressors experimented on at the same time showed a maximum duty of 306 cubic feet of air. A considerable advantage is claimed in drawing clean and cool air from the outside of the bui...
-The Compressed Air System Of Paris. Part 4
According to Professor Riedler, from 15 to 20 per cent. above the power at the central station can be obtained by means at the disposal of the power users, and it has been shown by experiment that by ...
-The Compressed Air System Of Paris. Part 5
Motor. | | |Admis-| Ex- |Nominal| Brake | min- |power.| sion.|haust.| horse | horse | ute. | | | | power.| power. _________________|______|______|______|______|_______|________ | | |deg. C|deg. C|...
-The Compressed Air System Of Paris. Part 6
It was found, during the first, second, and fourth tests, that considerable leakage occurred between the St. Fargeau central station and the Rue de Belleville. During the trials two and four, an uncer...
-The Builders Of The Steam Engine - The Founders Of Modern Industries And Nations
By Dr. R.H. THURSTON, Director of Sibley College, Cornell University. Papin, Worcester, Savery, were the authors of the period of application of the power of steam to useful work in our later days. T...
-The Builders Of The Steam Engine. Part 2
If to any one man could be assigned the credit, it is Newcomen who is to be considered the inventor of the steam engine. James Watt, indisputably the great inventor that he was, found the steam engin...
-The Builders Of The Steam Engine. Part 3
Then, again, as the water was gradually driven out of the containing vessel by the steam pressing on its surface, new portions of the vessel and new masses of water were continually brought in contact...
-The Builders Of The Steam Engine. Part 4
In our very best and largest engines, the waste found by Watt to constitute three fourths of all heat supplied has been brought down to ten per cent., a fact which well exemplifies the advances made s...
-The Builders Of The Steam Engine. Part 5
The patent law established Boulton and Watt and the firm paid back the nation with handsome usury, giving it unimaginable profits indirectly through its control of the work of the world and large prof...
-The Builders Of The Steam Engine. Part 6
Dr. Strong, in that remarkable book, Our Country, says: One man, by the aid of steam, is able to do the work which required two hundred and fifty men at the beginning of the century. The machinery ...
-Improved Hand Car
In the accompanying illustration we show a new design of hand car, being introduced by the Courtright Manufacturing Co., of Detroit. It will be seen that the apparatus for propelling the car is ver...
-The Conic Sections
By Prof. C.W. MACCORD, Sc.D. In Fig. 1 let D be a given point, and O the center of a given circle, whose diameter is FG. Bisect DF at A. Also about D describe an arc with any radius DP greater than D...
-Table Of Atomic Weights
(Issued December 6, 1890.) By request of the Committee of Revision and Publication of the Pharmacopoeia of the United States of America, Prof. F.W. Clarke, chief chemist of the United States Geologic...
-The Tanning Materials Of Europe
The tanning materials of Europe are of an altogether different type from those of the United States. The population is so dense that the quantity of home materials produced is not nearly proportionate...
-Pathological Tanning Materials Of Europe
We now leave the physiological class and take up those tanning materials included in the pathological class, or those of abnormal growth. Galls These are not consumed to any great extent at the pres...
-An Apparatus For Heating Substances In Glass Tubes Under Pressure
By H. PEMBERTON, Jr. Chemists who do not happen to have in their laboratories oil or air baths for heating closed tubes can make an air bath at short notice from materials furnished by all dealers in...
-Testing Cement
An improved method of testing Portland cement has been adopted by M. Deval, Chief Superintendent of Bridges and Roads, who has charge, under M. Saele, of the Public Works Laboratory of the City of Par...









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