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Scientific American Supplement Volumes 810, 819, 821, 822, 829, 832, 841, 1082, 1157 and 1178



Supplement Volumes for Scientific American 810-1178

TitleScientific American Supplement Volumes 810, 819, 821, 822, 829, 832, 841, 1082, 1157 and 1178
AuthorVarious Authors
PublisherMunn & Co.
Year1891-1898
Copyright1898, Munn & Co.
AmazonScientific American Reference Book
-Zanzibar
The sudden death on August 25 of Sultan Hamid bin Thwain, the ruler of Zanzibar, the attempted usurpation by Seyyid Khalid, and the bombardment of the palace by the British warships, have directed pub...
-Errors In Our Food Economy
Scientific research, interpreting the observations of practical life, implies that several errors are common in the use of food. First, many people purchase needlessly expensive kinds of food, doing ...
-Overeating - Injury To Health
But the most remarkable thing about our food consumption is the quantity. The American dietaries examined in this inquiry were of people living at the time in Massachusetts and Connecticut, though man...
-Waste Of Food In American Households
The direct waste of food occurs in two ways, in eating more than is needed and in throwing away valuable material in the form of kitchen and table refuse. That which is thrown away does no harm to hea...
-The Colors Named In Literature
Mr. Havelock Ellis has made (Contemporary Review, May) an interesting study of the color terms used by imaginative writers, which is a real contribution to scientific aesthetics. The fact that the Gre...
-What The Sea Has Taken
It was recently announced that the committee sitting under the presidency of Minister Lely, at the Hague, had determined to reclaim the Zuider Sea, and that for this purpose a dam is to be constructed...
-The De Dion And Bouton Road Motor
It was with a vehicle of the kind described in our last article that Messrs. De Dion and Bouton obtained a conspicuous success in 1894. In this competition they were the first to arrive at Mantes, doi...
-From New York To Havre In A Rowboat
The rowboat Fox, of the port of New York, manned by George Harbo, thirty-one years of age, captain of a merchantman, and Frank Samuelson, twenty-six years of age, left New York for Havre on the 6th of...
-The Waste Of Shipping
Burdensome as are the restrictions imposed upon shipowners by legislation, considerable justification is found for them when we compare the percentage of British vessels lost at sea with that of forei...
-New Methods Of Building Construction At Paris
During recent years an interesting change has been gradually brought about in the various methods of building construction employed in France, and more especially at Paris, where the size and importan...
-Belleek China
Belleek porcelain (frequently pronounced Bleak by those who do not know the derivation of the name) is a thin eggshell ware of great lightness and translucency, characterized by a creamy, or sometim...
-Goodman's Hatchet Planimeters
The instrument we are about to describe is an improvement on the hatchet planimeter and is due to Prof. Goodman, of Leeds. One form of the instrument is intended for the measurement of areas of surfac...
-Goodman's Hatchet Planimeters. Continued
The rougher instrument has some advantages, however; there are no delicate moving parts to get out of order, and the cost is but one-fourth. In order to ascertain the relative accuracy of various met...
-Apparatus For The Manufacture Of Acetylene Gas
We give herewith, from Le Genie Civil, illustrations and brief descriptions of some of the more prominent apparatus used for the manufacture of acetylene gas. Trouv Apparatus (Fig. 1). - The ...
-Apparatus For The Manufacture Of Acetylene Gas. Continued
A cock, H, placed at the lower part of the apparatus, permits of clearing the piping in case a condensation of water occurs. Figs. 5, 6, and 7. - LEQUEUX-WIESNEGG ACETYLENE APPARATUS The apparatus ...
-Device For The Display Of Lantern Slides
FRONT ELEVATION Those who would wish to have a little extra shop window attraction by way of displaying slides for the season now at hand might do worse than resort to something of the following sty...
-The Feculometer
The selling price of beets naturally depends upon their yield in sugar, and what gives potatoes their value is their yield in fecula or starch, a product that serves to nourish man and animals and tha...
-The Coming Light
There is no more eager contest than that which has been going on for some time between gas and electricity. Which of these two systems of lighting will triumph? Will electricity suppress gas, as gas h...
-An Air Bath
By J.H. Coste. This has been found useful for drying substances at temperatures above 100 C. It is usually difficult to obtain a temperature much above, say, 120 in the ordinary air oven wi...
-Firedamp Testing Station At Marchienne-Au-Pont
In a previous paper2 a description was given of the experimental gallery at the St. William pit of the Kaiser-Ferdinands-Nordbahn Colliery at Mahrisch-Ostrau (Moravia). In the present article a simila...
-Photography For Chemists. Lantern Slides By Reduction
When a negative happens to be of larger size than a quarter plate, it rarely happens that we can print a small portion by contact on a lantern plate without spoiling the composition of the picture. Th...
-Precious Stones
By Prof. Henry A. Miers, M.A., F.R.S. Lecture I The object which I have proposed to myself in these two lectures is to consider, not the history nor the artistic interest of precious stones, but sim...
-Precious Stones. Part 2
Consider next successive rays within a piece of glass or a stone which are about to emerge with different inclinations. (See Fig. 1.) As their course approaches more nearly to the surface, so will the...
-Precious Stones. Part 3
Or take the agate. Here the stone consists of layers of different materials differently colored. Its beauty is of a different nature from that of clear crystals, which it can never rival in brilliancy...
-Precious Stones. Part 4
It appears from this table that those minerals which, by their high refractive power, possess the greatest brilliancy, possess also the highest specific gravity or weightiness; that the precious stone...
-Precious Stones. Part 5
But methylene iodide further possesses the valuable property of mixing easily with benzene, which is a very light liquid. Every drop of benzene added reduces the specific gravity of the mixture, which...
-A Research On The Liquefaction Of Helium
My experiments on the liquefaction of helium were carried out with a sample of that gas, sent to me by Prof. Ramsay from London, in a sealed glass tube holding about 140 c. cm. I take this opportunity...
-A Research On The Liquefaction Of Helium. Continued
On reducing the pressure to 10 mm. of mercury the nitrogen solidified. Prof. Dewar has stated that liquid air solidifies as such, the solid product containing a slightly smaller percentage of nitrogen...
-Some Notes On Spiders
By Rev. Samuel Barber. The instinct of spiders in at once attacking a vital part of their antagonist - as in the case of a theridion butchering a cockroach by first binding its legs and then biting t...
-Engineering Notes
Austria is turning out a new variety of Mannlicher repeating rifle for its army, which is the lightest rifle in the world, weighing 3.3 kilogrammes, seven pounds and four ounces, instead of 4.4 kilogr...
-Engineering Notes. Part 2
The solid axle is of a diameter through the journals of 2 ft. 2 in., a diameter across the flanges of 5 ft. 3 in., length over all 41 ft., and weight 28 tons. The Massilon (Ohio) Bridge Company has r...
-Engineering Notes. Part 3
On one road in Great Britain, having but 2,000 miles of track, there are employed more men in the manufacture and installation of signal work than are employed by all the signal companies and in the s...
-Electrical Notes
Portraits of Morse and Fulton are printed on the reverse of the new two dollar silver certificate, affording a relief to the dreary monotony of ex-presidents, generals and statesmen. A monster electr...
-Miscellaneous Notes
Rubber trees are reported found growing in Manatee County, Fla. Japan proposes to build up her commercial navy by giving subsidies to ship builders on every ton above 1,000, and to ship owners for sh...
-Selected Recipes
Ambrosia Sirup Raspberry sirup 8 vol. Vanilla sirup 8 Hock wine 1 Amycose Shaved ice tumblerful. Raspberry juice 1 fl. oz. Orange sirup 2 ...
-Selected Formulae
Egg Phosphate Draw into a thin 9 oz. tumbler, 2 oz. of Maltese (red) orange sirup, and add an egg, a few squirts of acid phosphate, and a small piece of ice; shake well, fill shaker with soda water -...
-Selected Formulae. Continued
Insulating Compound Prof. Fessenden recommends for armature work a compound made by boiling pure linseed oil at about 200 degrees with per cent. of borate of manganese, the boiling being con...
-The Great Krupp Works
More than 1,250,000 tons of coal are consumed yearly by the famous Krupp works at Essen, Westphalia, commenced in 1810 by Peter Friedrich Krupp, and now in the possession of Herr Friedrich Krupp, memb...
-Physics Without Apparatus. The Chain And The String
To the extremity of a string about 18 in. in length attach a chain about 15 in. in length, the extremities of which are united. Holding the string vertically between the fingers, give it a rapid rotar...
-A Coin Rolling Upon A Parasol
In treatises upon physics and mechanics inertia is defined as follows: No particle of matter in a state of rest possesses within itself the power of putting itself in motion; or, if it be moving, of b...
-Breaking Stones With The Fist
It is through the live force acquired, or inertia at rest, that stones are broken by a blow of the fist. This experiment is performed as follow: The right hand being properly bandaged with a handkerch...
-Experiment On Inertia
It is not impossible to remove from a table set for a guest a large napkin employed in lieu of a table cloth, without disarranging the objects placed upon it. To this effect, it suffices to give the n...
-The Dice And The Dice Box
A dice box and two dice are held in the hand, and the question is to throw one die into the air and catch it in the box. This is not difficult, but the difficulty is to cause the second to enter, for ...
-Emperor William II. Of Germany
Since William II. of Germany ascended the throne as German Emperor and King of Prussia, on June 15, 1888, the eyes of Europe have been fixed on him. He has always been rather an unknown quantity, and...
-My Recent Journey From The Nile To Suakim. The Advance To Khartoum
By Frederic Villiers, in The Journal of the Society of Arts. The recent campaign in the Soudan was a bloodless one to the correspondent with the expedition, or, rather, on the tail of the advance. Ye...
-From Berber To Suakim
Toward the end of the campaign four colleaguesMessrs. Knight, Gwynne, Scudamore, Maud - and myself, took this opportunity of traversing a country very little known to the outside world, and a route wh...
-From Berber To Suakim. Part 2
Not being able to get water for the camels was a serious matter, as our animals were not of the strongest, nor had they been recently trained for a long journey without water. This was the evening of ...
-From Berber To Suakim. Part 3
We left our camping ground as the sun began to dip behind the hills shutting in the khor. Our way now lay in a more northeasterly direction, and the sun threw the hills and valleys we were approaching...
-From Berber To Suakim. Part 4
My camel had much improved by gentle treatment and I was able to ride on ahead. Just as I neared the narrow neck of the Tamai Pass, two men and a boy climbed down toward us from a small guard house, o...
-Tapirs In The Zoological Garden At Breslau
A fine pair of shabrack (Tapirus indicus) and another pair of American tapirs (Tapirus americanus) constitute the chief attraction of the house devoted to pachyderms in the Zoological Garden at Bresla...
-The Influence Of Scenery Upon The Character Of Man
The effect of scenery upon the mind of man has often been noticed and much has been written about it. Illustrations of this are generally drawn from the historic lands and from the ancient people of t...
-A Novel Way Of Riding A Bicycle
Artists of the variety stage and the circus are always trying to find something new, for the same old trapeze performances, trials of strength, performances of rope dancers, etc., have been presente...
-Requirements Of Palestine Explorer
Liet. Col. Conder says that the requirements for exploration demand a knowledge not only of Syrian antiquities, but of those of neighboring nations. It is necessary to understand the scripts and langu...
-The Neutral Use Of Cables
Eleven submarine cables traverse the Atlantic between 60 and 40 degrees north latitude. Nine of these connect the Canadian provinces and the United States with the territory of Great Britain; two (one...
-Park Making
Those who make public parks are apt to attempt too much and to injure not only the beauty, but the practical value of their creations by loading them with unnecessary and costly details. From the time...
-Influence Of Ocean Currents On Climate
Few people realize that a very large part of inhabited Europe lies to the north of the latitude which in this country is considered the limit of habitation, says Prof. Ralph S. Tarr, in The Independen...
-Causes Of Poverty
The most interesting, and at the same time the most difficult, problem connected with an analysis of cases is to determine the real cause of destitution. It requires great experience and intelligence ...
-English And French Lighthouses
An English engineer named Purves has just made a comparison in regard to the intensity of light of the lighthouses on the English coasts and those which illuminate the shores of France. The comparison...
-The Newfoundland And Nova Scotia Passenger Steamer "Bruce"
Messrs A. & J. Inglis, shipbuilders and engineers, of Pointhouse, Glasgow, have recently built a somewhat unique and certainly interesting steamer, for the conveyance of passengers between Port an Bas...
-Heat In Great Tunnels
One phase of the construction of tunnels through the Alps was recently discussed by M. Brandicourt, secretary of the Linnaean Society of the North of France, in the columns of La Nature. He showed tha...
-An English Steam Fire Engine
AN ENGLISH STEAM FIRE ENGINE. The machine which we illustrate has lately been constructed by Messrs. Merryweather & Sons, of Greenwich Road, with the view to combining the advantages of both horizon...
-Apparatus For Obtaining The Cubature Of Trees
In the exploitation of forests it is an important matter to be able to measure the cubature of trees, and the process most generally employed consists in determining their height and mean circumferenc...
-Machine Moulding Without Stripping Plates
By E. H. Mumford, Plainfleld, N.J. (Member of the Society.) Moulding machines may be classed under three heads. First, machines which only ram the moulds, and, when the ramming is done by means of a...
-Artificial India Rubber
One of the most recent important events in the history of chemistry was the discovery by an English professor that a substance corresponding in every respect to India rubber may be produced from oil o...
-Deep And Frosted Etching On Glass
The best means of producing these effects is by printing from a steel plate or lithographic stone on thin transfer paper, which, in turn, is made to give up the design to the surface of the glass, the...
-Slate And Its Applications
Slate is, as we know, merely a variety of argillite. Slate quarries are found in England, Switzerland and Italy, but it is in France especially that the industry has been most extensively developed by...
-Birthplace Of The Oilcloth Industry
In Kennebec County, Me., is the quiet borough of East Winthrop, for more than half a century known wherever oilcloth carpeting was used as Baileyville. Were it not for the inventive brain of one of E...
-The Koppel Electric Locomotives
The question of the design of small locomotives for use on pioneer lines has been always a difficult matter. The needs of the railway contractor have called for such locomotives, for which several sy...
-Liquid Rheostats
By H. S. Webb.[1] The object in view when the following tests were commenced was to obtain some data from which the dimensions of a liquid rheostat for the dissipation as heat of a given amount of en...
-The Progress Of Medical Education In The United States
A retrospective survey of the progress made and of the reforms instituted in medical education in the United States is instructive. In many respects there is cause for much congratulation, while for o...
-Deaths Under Anaesthetics
On December 17, 1897, a fatality occurred during the administration of ether. The patient, a woman aged forty-four years, who suffered from internal cancer, was admitted for operation into the new h...
-Recent Books
Applied Mechanics. A Treatise for the Use of Students who have time to work Experimental, Numerical, and Graphical Exercises illustrating the subject. By John Perry. With 371 illustrations. 12mo, cl...
-Experimental Science
By Geo. M. Hopkins Seventeenth Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 840 Pages. 800 Illustrations. Elegantly bound in Cloth. Price, by mail, postpaid, $4.00; Half Morocco, $5.00. This is a book full of int...
-A Complete Electrical Library. By Prof. T. O'Conor Sloane,
Comprising five books, as follows: Arithmetic of Electricity, 138 pages. $1.00 Electric Toy Making, 140 pages. 1.00 How to Become a Successful Electrician, 189 pp. 1.00 Standard Electrical Di...
-The Queen Regent And Alfonzo XIII
In the present war between the United States and Spain, the Queen Regent is an impressive figure, and it is entirely owing to her charm and fortitude that the present dynasty of Spain is maintained. ...
-The Milestones Of Human Progress
The subject pertains directly to the advancement of the race. Indeed, it is to the measure of this advancement I shall ask your attention. There is no doubt about the advancement. There are some peopl...
-The Milestones Of Human Progress. Part 2
We cannot draw a fixed line and say, On this side are the cultured people and on that the wild, because there are many tribes and nations who are about that line, in some respects on one side of it,...
-The Milestones Of Human Progress. Part 3
Fourth, and finally, those who divide human culture according to the food supply consider that the highest stage is reached through commerce. Commerce brings to all the great centers of human life the...
-The Milestones Of Human Progress. Part 4
The wild Tuaregs of the Sahara have a system of phonetic writing used by a few of them - the women being the literati of those tribes (the men not knowing how to read or write); but civilization means...
-The Milestones Of Human Progress. Part 5
It is the idea of the useful which teaches him his utilitarian arts; which teaches him to build his house; to chip the flint for his weapon; to sharpen the stick to dig the place to drop the seed; and...
-Tombs Of The First Egyptian Dynasty
By LUDWIG BORCHARDT, Ph.D., Director of the German School in Cairo. For many years various European collections of Egyptian antiquities have contained a certain series of objects which gave archaeolo...
-Tombs Of The First Egyptian Dynasty. Continued
In consideration of the importance of the questions involved, a short description of the tomb of Menes and of the objects found in it will certainly be of interest. The second part of De Morgan's book...
-Rose Psyche
The hybrid Polyantha Rose Psyche is a seedling from the dwarf Polyantha Rose Golden Fairy, crossed with the pollen of the Crimson Rambler. Its growth and habit, though more delicate, much resembles th...
-Sleep And The Theories Of Its Cause
The theory of the origin of sleep which has gained the widest credence is the one that attributes it to anaemia of the brain. It has been shown by Mosso, and many others, that in men with defects of t...
-Sleep And The Theories Of Its Cause. Continued
The brain can carry out not only such complicated acts as these, but it has been found to maintain during sleep its normal inhibitory control over the lower reflex centers in the spinal cord. Thus, i...
-Amateur Chronophotographic Apparatus
At the time that we described the Demeny chronophotographic apparatus we remarked that it had the advantage of permitting of the projection of very luminous images of large dimensions; but it is certa...
-The Reclaiming Of Old Rubber
By HAWTHORNE HILL. The complaint of high prices of India rubber is as old as the rubber industry, one result of which has been an unceasing effort to discover a practical substitute. Never was the se...
-The Reclaiming Of Old Rubber. Part 2
The two patents upon which the suits for infringement rested principally were No. 249,970, granted to N.C. Mitchell, in 1881, and No. 300,720, granted to the same, in 1884. About the same time the Rub...
-The Reclaiming Of Old Rubber. Part 3
One of the most successful of our rubber factory superintendents, who formerly made the reclaimed rubber used by his factory, has stated that his practice was to subject the material to an alkaline ba...
-Electrical Notes. Electricity At The Paris Exposition
Electricity will play a large part at the Paris Exposition of 1900, says the Revue Technique. No less than 15,000 h.p. will be used for lighting and 5,000 h.p. for furnishing electric power to the var...
-Brown Or Black Discoloration Of Silvered Mirrors
Generally these spots are due to faulty manipulation, too great dilution of the silver solution, or touching the plates with the fingers after they have been cleaned. Sometimes, however, they are due ...
-Wild And Domestic Sheep In The Berlin Zoological Garden
As a rule, domestic animals are accorded very little space in zoological gardens, but, although it is doubtless the first duty of these popular institutions to show visitors animals which live in a wi...
-Patents. Employers' Rights
By JAMES W. SEE, Hamilton, Ohio, Member of the Society. An invention, to be patented, must be applied for by the actual inventor, and in the absence of acts constituting a transfer, the patent, and a...
-Patents. Employers' Rights. Part 2
The inventor, or some one for him, must assume the position of a pirate, and set his wits to work to contrive an organization realizing the invention but escaping the terms of the proposed claim. When...
-Patents. Employers' Rights. Part 3
It is even unwise to illustrate alternative species in a patent for, in case, of litigation, some one of the alternative species might prove to be old. This would have the effect, of course, to destro...
-The Development Of The Central Station
By SAMUEL INSULL.1 The success of the low-tension system was followed by the introduction of the alternating system, using high potential primaries with the converters at each house, reducing, as a r...
-The Development Of The Central Station. Part 2
The introduction of alternating current for transmission purposes in large cities is probably best exemplified in the station recently erected in Brooklyn, where alternating current is produced and ca...
-The Development Of The Central Station. Part 3
Take another class of business, that of the haberdasher, or small fancy goods store. As a rule these stores are comparatively small, with facilities for getting a large amount of natural light and lit...
-The Development Of The Central Station. Part 4
As the business increases from, year to year, the item of interest per unit of maximum output consequently will constantly decrease, owing to the fact that each additional unit of output following an ...
-The Lock Of The Dortmund-Ems Canal At Henrichenburg
The Dortmund-Ems Canal, destined to connect the heart of German industry with the sea, was formally dedicated on April 1, and partially opened to commerce. After its completion, German coal will be tr...
-The American "Regular"
By The English Correspondent Of The London Times On Board The United States Transport Gussie. The regular of the United States is in many respects the least equipped foot soldier of my acquaintan...
-Steering Gear Of North German Lloyd Steamers "Coblentz," "Mainz," And "Trier."
The steering gear illustrated below, which has been fitted to a number of vessels in this country as well as on the three North German Lloyd steamers above named, is designed, primarily, to effect the...
-Combined Steam Pumping And Motive Power Engine
We give herewith an illustration of a compact engine, designed by Messrs. Merryweather & Sons, of London, particularly for mining work, and already supplied to the Burma ruby mines, the Salamanca tin ...
-A Complete Electrical Library
BY PROF. T. O'CONOR SLOANE, Comprising five books, as follows: Arithmetic of Electricity, 138 pages $1.00 Electric Toy Making, 140 pages 1.00 How to Become a Successful Electrician, 189 pp. 1.0...
-Gas, Gasoline And Oil Engines
By GARDNER D. HISCOX, M.E.The only American Book on the Subject. This is a book designed for the general information of every one interested in this new and popular motive power, and its adaptation t...
-Mine Timbering
The square system of timbering, in use in most of our large mines on the Pacific coast, was first introduced in Australia by Mr. W.H. Patton, who adopted it in the Broken Hill Proprietary mines, altho...
-Transit In London, Rapid And Otherwise
By JAMES A. TILDEN. The methods of handling the travel and traffic in the city of London form a very interesting subject for the study of the engineer. The problem of rapid transit and transportation...
-Transit In London, Rapid And Otherwise. Continued
The stations are from imperfectly to well lighted, generally from daylight which sifts down from the smoky London atmosphere through the openings above. The length of the train averages about eight ca...
-Riveted Joints In Boiler Shells
By WILLIAM BARNET LE VAN. FIG. 11. Fig. 11 represents the spacing of rivets composed of steel plates three-eighths inch thick, averaging 58,000 pounds tensile strength on boiler fifty-four inches ...
-Riveted Joints In Boiler Shells. Continued
Drilling Rivet Holes In the foregoing I have not referred to the drilling of rivet holes in place of punching. The great objection to drilling rivet holes is the expense, from the fact that it takes ...
-The New British Battle Ship Empress Of India
The launching of this first-class battle ship was successfully carried out at Pembroke Dockyard on May 7. She is the second of a class of eight battle ships built and building under the Naval Defense ...
-The "Iron Gates" Of The Danube
The work of blowing up the masses of rock which form the dangerous rapids known as the Iron Gates, on the Danube, was inaugurated on September 15, 1890, when the Greben Rock was partially blown up by ...
-The New German Ship Canal
The gates which admit the water into the new canal which is to connect the Baltic with the North Sea have been recently opened by the Emperor William. This canal is being constructed by the German gov...
-The Kioto-Fu Canal, In Japan
Japan is already traversed by a system of railways, and its population is entering more and more into the footsteps of western civilization. This movement, a consequence of the revolution of 1868, is ...
-Fast And Fugitive Dyes
By Prof. J.J. HUMMEL2 As it is with many other arts, the origin of dyeing is shrouded in the obscurity of the past; but no doubt it was with the desire to attract his fellow that man first began to i...
-The Action Of Light On Dyed Colors
That light can effect radical changes in many substances was known to the ancients. Its destructive action on artists' pigments, e.g., the blackening of vermilion, was recorded 2,000 years ago by Vitr...
-The Action Of Light On Dyed Colors. Part 2
To-night I propose to give you some of the prominent results already obtained in past years, in the dyeing department of the Yorkshire College, where it has been our custom to expose to light and othe...
-The Action Of Light On Dyed Colors. Part 3
Further, an excellent group of coloring matters, giving fast browns and greens with copper and iron mordants respectively, is formed by naphthol green, resorcinol green, gambin, and dioxin. The only ...
-The Action Of Light On Dyed Colors. Part 4
Among the basic colors we search in vain, however, for a really fast dye on any fiber. Still, Magdala red, perhaps, appears faster than the rest on silk, and among the greens and blues we find a few...
-The Action Of Light On Dyed Colors. Part 5
It is interesting to examine what is the action of light upon compound colors. Is a fugitive color rendered faster by being applied along with a fast color? My own opinion, based upon general observa...
-Composition Of Wheat Grain And Its Products In The Mill
Probably the most striking difference in the average mineral composition of the grain of wheat is the very much lower proportion of phosphoric acid, and of magnesia also, in the dry substance of the b...
-American Wheats
In a comprehensive treatise on the composition of American wheats, Mr. Clifford Richardson says we cannot attribute the poverty of American wheats in nitrogen as a whole to an enhanced starch formatio...
-Precious And Ornamental Stones And Diamond Cutting
By GEORGE FREDERICK KUNZ. The statistics of this report are divided into two sections: First, the discoveries and finds of precious stones in the United States and the mineral specimens sold for muse...
-The Diamond Cutting Industry
In New York there are sixteen firms engaged in cutting and recutting diamonds, and in Massachusetts there are three. Cutting has also been carried on at times in Pennsylvania and Illinois, but has bee...
-Some Experiments On The Electric Discharge In Vacuum Tubes
By Prof. J.J. THOMSON, M.A., F.R.S. FIG. 1. - Coil of Glass Tube for Vacuum Discharge Experiments. The primary coils are filled with mercury, the secondary coils form continuous closed circuits. Th...
-The Electrical Manufacture Of Phosphorus
Dr. Readman, at the May meeting of the Glasgow Section of the Society of Chemical Industry, gave a description of the new works and plant which have been erected at Wolverhampton for the manufacture o...
-Laying A Military Field Telegraph Line
The 1st Division of the Royal Engineers, Telegraph Battalion, now encamped at Chevening, close to Lord Stanhope's park, as a summer exercise is engaged in running a military telegraph field line from ...
-An Electrostatic Safety Device
This device, as shown in the accompanying illustration, is a glass cylinder fixed on an ebonite base, and closed at the top by an ebonite cap. A solid brass rod runs from top to bottom, and near the b...
-Experiments With High Tension Alternating Currents
Messrs. Siemens and Halske, of Berlin, recently invited the members of the Elektrotechnische Verein of that city to their works to witness the demonstration of a series of experiments on alternating c...
-The Relation Of Bacteria To Practical Surgery
By JOHN B. ROBERTS, A.M., M.D., Professor of Surgery in the Woman's Medical College and in the Philadelphia Polyclinic. The revolution which has occurred in practical surgery since the discovery of t...
-The Relation Of Bacteria To Practical Surgery. Part 2
After a time the culture fluid or soil becomes so exhausted of its needed constituents, by the immense number of plants living in it, that it is unfit for their life and development. Then this particu...
-The Relation Of Bacteria To Practical Surgery. Part 3
Bacteria are present everywhere. They exist in the water, earth, air, and within our respiratory and digestive tracts. Our skin is covered with millions of them, as is every article about us. They can...
-The Relation Of Bacteria To Practical Surgery. Part 4
Suppuration of operative and accidental wounds was, until recently, supposed to be essential. We now know, however, that wounds will not suppurate if kept perfectly free from one of the dozen forms of...
-The Relation Of Bacteria To Practical Surgery. Part 5
I have taken the liberty of bringing here a number of culture tubes containing beautiful specimens of some of the more common and interesting bacteria. The slimy masses seen on the surfaces of jelly c...
-Influence Of Repose On The Retina
Some interesting researches have lately been published in an Italian journal concerning the influence of repose on the sensitiveness of the retina (a nervous network of the eye) to light and color. Th...
-Sun Dials
An article on the subject, recently published by us, has gained for us the communication of two very interesting sun dials, which we shall describe. The first, which we owe to the kindness of General ...
-The Undying Germ Plasm And The Immortal Soul
By Dr. R. VON LENDENFELD. [The following article appeared originally, last year, in the German scientific monthly, Humboldt. It, is reproduced here (by permission) - the English from the hand of Mr. ...
-The Undying Germ Plasm And The Immortal Soul. Part 2
By the development of this process, multicellular metazoa arose from the colonies of similar protozoa, and at length culminated in the higher animals and man. If we examine the human body, its origin...
-The Undying Germ Plasm And The Immortal Soul. Part 3
As a matter of fact, the series of reproductive cells possess the essential attributes of the human soul; they are the immortal living part of a man, which contain, in a latent form, his spiritual pec...
-Cocos Pynaerti
This is an acquisition to the dwarf growing palms, and a graceful table plant. It first appeared in the nurseries of M. Pynaert, Ghent, and is evidently a form of C. Weddelliana, having similar charac...
-The Mississippi River
By JACQUES W. REDWAY. Introduction The purport of the following paper is to show that corrosion of its banks and deposition of sediment constitute the legitimate business of a river. If the bed of t...
-The Mississippi River. Part 2
Joliet, a French trader, was a man possessed of far more brains than marked the average men of his times. He had not only the indomitable courage which is essential to the successful explorer, but he ...
-The Mississippi River. Part 3
In more than one place the current forms a loop ten, twenty and even thirty miles around, rather than to cut through a neck perhaps not half a mile in width. It is one of the most capricious of rivers...
-The Mississippi River. Part 4
Within a few years the town of Napoleon, which has already been mentioned as the site which beheld the cross erected by Marquette and the seizure of La Salle, was the scene of still another chapter in...
-Freezing Mixtures
The following selection of mixtures causing various degrees of cold, the starting point of the cooling being indicated in the first column, will probably serve many purposes. It should be stated that ...
-The Application Of Electrolysis To Qualitative Analysis
By CHARLES A. KOHN, B.Sc., Ph.D., Assistant Lecturer in Chemistry, University College, Liverpool. The first application of electrolysis to chemical analysis was made by Gaultier de Claubry, in 1850, ...
-The Application Of Electrolysis To Qualitative Analysis. Continued
An addition of 1 grm. of ammonium oxalate to the suspected solution is sufficient. Copper 0.00005 grm. of copper can be very readily detected by electrolyzing an acid solution in the usual way. A sp...
-The Production Of Hydrogen And Oxygen Through The Electrolysis Of Water
All attempts to prepare gaseous fluids industrially were premature as long as there were no means of carrying them under a sufficiently diminished volume. For a few years past, the trade has been deli...
-Transformations Of The Voltameter
In a laboratory, it is of no consequence whether a liter of hydrogen costs a centime or a franc. So long as it is a question of a few liters, one may, at his ease, waste his energy and employ costly s...
-Transformations Of The Voltameter. Continued
The different porcelains and earths behave, from this point of view, in a very unequal manner. For example, an earthen vessel from the Pillivayt establishment supports some decimeters of water, while ...
-Musical Instruments: Their Construction And Capabilities. II
By A.J. HIPKINS, F.S.A. Lecture II I will now invite your attention to the wind instruments, which, in Handel's time, were chiefly used to double in unison the parts of stringed instruments. Their m...
-Musical Instruments: Their Construction And Capabilities. II. Part 2
The old cylindrical ear-piercing fife is an obsolete instrument, being superseded by a small army flute, still, however, called a fife, used with the side drum in the drum and fife band. The transver...
-Musical Instruments: Their Construction And Capabilities. II. Part 3
The bassoon is the legitimate bass to the oboe and to the wood wind in general. It was evolved in the sixteenth century from the pommers and bombards: the tenors and basses of the shawm or oboe family...
-Musical Instruments: Their Construction And Capabilities. II. Part 4
We must also place among double-reed instruments the various bagpipes, cornemuses, and musettes, which are shawm or oboe instruments with reservoirs of air, and furnished with drones inclosing single ...
-Musical Instruments: Their Construction And Capabilities. II. Part 5
The increased complication of mechanism is against a change, and there is even a stronger reason, which I cannot do better than translate, in the appropriate words of M. Lavoix fils, the author of a w...
-Musical Instruments: Their Construction And Capabilities. II. Part 6
No doubt there has been of late years a great improvement in the manufacture of valves. Many horns are still made with crooks covering an octave from B flat to B flat, 8 feet 6 inches to 17 feet; but ...
-Musical Instruments: Their Construction And Capabilities. II. Part 7
Mr. W. Wyatt has recently taken out a patent for a double-slide trumpet, which possesses a complete chromatic scale. In the required length of slide the ear has always to assist. It is clear that the ...
-Musical Instruments: Their Construction And Capabilities. II. Part 8
The serpent has been already mentioned as the bass of the obsolete zinken or wooden cornets, straight or curved, with cupped mouthpiece. It gained its serpentine form from the facility given thereby t...
-How Gas Cylinders Are Made
The supply of compressed gas in metal cylinders has now assumed the proportions of an important industry, more especially since it was found possible, by the Brin process, to obtain oxygen direct from...
-Historical Development Of The Horseshoe
By District Veterinarian ZIPPELIUS, of Wurtzburg. Translated by S.E. Weber, V.S.1 Kind, gentle steed, nobly standing, Four shoes will I put on your feet, Firm and good, that you'll be fleet, That i...
-Historical Development Of The Horseshoe. Part 2
How then did out of this Roman cure shoe develop the horseshoeing of southern Europe? It was to be expected, with the Roman horseshoe, that the mode of fastening became unsatisfactory and necessitate...
-Historical Development Of The Horseshoe. Part 3
FIG. 11. From the African and Turkomanic horseshoe, through the turning up of the toes and heels, originated later the Turkish, Grecian and Montenegrin horseshoe of the present as shown by Fig. 12. ...
-Historical Development Of The Horseshoe. Part 4
Stephen I., the first king of Hungary, formerly was a heathen, and was named Najk. He reigned from 997 to 1038. His important events were the many victorious wars led against rebellious chieftains o...
-Sheet Glass From Molten Metal
The present practice in making metal sheets is to cast ingots or slabs and then reduce these by repeated rollings and reheating. Attempts have been previously made to produce sheets directly from molt...
-Weldless Steel Chains
At the Royal Naval Exhibition, London, Messrs. William Reid & Co. are exhibiting their weldless steel chains, which we now illustrate. Of the many advantages claimed for steel chains, it may be promi...
-Weldless Steel Chains. Part 2
The second operation (illustrated in Fig. 2) is to punch out of the pair of opposite webs, a a, pairs of oblong mortises - two pairs, c c, and one pair, d d. These three pairs of mortises (which might...
-Weldless Steel Chains. Part 3
In the case of large cables only the metal is preferably heated for the eighth, ninth, and tenth operations. I will now refer to the figures which illustrate the series of tools whereby the above men...
-The System Of Military Dove Cotes In Europe
France The history of the aerial postal service and of the carrier pigeons of the siege of Paris has been thoroughly written, and is so well known that it is useless to recapitulate it in this place....
-The Isle Of Man Twin Screw Steamer Tynwald
We place on record the details of the first high speed twin screw steamer built for the service. Of this vessel, named the Tynwald, we give a profile and an engraving of stern, showing the method of s...
-The Treatment Of Refractory Ores
Mr. Jas. J. Shedlock, with the assistance of Mr. T. Denny, of Australia, has constructed on behalf of the Metallurgical Syndicate, of 105 Gresham House, London, an apparatus on a commercial scale, whi...
-Refining Silver Bullion
A number of years ago the author devised a method for refining silver bullion by sulphuric acid, in which iron was substituted for copper as precipitant of silver, the principal feature being the sepa...
-A Case Of Drowning, With Resuscitation
By F.A. BURRALL, M.D., New York. As is usual at this season, casualties from drowning are of frequent occurrence. No class of emergencies is of a more startling character, and I think that a history ...
-A Case Of Drowning, With Resuscitation. Continued
A simple examination which any one can make of his own buccal cavity will show that posterior to the last molar teeth, when the jaws are closed, is an opening bounded by the molars, the body of the ...
-The Story Of The Universe
By Dr. WILLIAM HUGGINS. The opening meeting of the British Association was held in Park Hall, Cardiff, August 18, where a large and brilliant audience assembled, including, in his richly trimmed offi...
-The Story Of The Universe. Part 2
Other Speculations The nebular hypothesis of Laplace required a rotating mass of fluid which at successive epochs became unstable from excess of motion, and left behind rings, or more probably, perha...
-The Story Of The Universe. Part 3
Now the spectroscope had placed in our hands this power, which, though so essential, had previously appeared almost in the nature of things to lie forever beyond our grasp; it enabled us to measure di...
-The Story Of The Universe. Part 4
A Delicate Operation The determination of the distances of the fixed stars from the small apparent shift of their positions when viewed from widely separated positions of the earth in its orbit was o...
-Climatic Changes In The Southern Hemisphere
By C.A.M. TABER. Having had occasion to cruise a considerable time over the Southern Ocean, I have had my attention directed to its prevailing winds and currents, and the way in which they affect its...
-Ammonia
In the majority of refrigerating and ice machines ammonia gas is the substance used for producing the refrigeration, although there are other machines in which other material is employed, one of these...
-The New Labor Exchange, Paris
The new Labor Exchange is soon to be inaugurated. We give herewith a view of the entrance facade of the meeting hall. The buildings, which are the work of Mr Bouvard, architect, of the city of Paris, ...
-Manufacture Of Roll Tar Paper
Roofing paper was first used in Scandinavia early as the last century, the invention being accredited to Faxa, an official of the Swedish Admiralty. The first tar and gravel roofs in Sweden were very ...
-Manufacture Of Roll Tar Paper. Part 2
A fire was next started within a building covered with a tar paper roof; the flame touched the roof boarding, which partly commenced to char and smoulder, but the bright burning of the wood was preven...
-Manufacture Of Roll Tar Paper. Part 3
The paper is made in different thicknesses and designated by numbers to the size and weight. Waste paper, bookbinders' shavings, etc., can be used for making the paper. As much wool as possible shoul...
-Manufacture Of Roll Tar Paper. Part 4
Any magnesia present in the filtrate of the oxalate of lime is by the addition of a solution of phosphate of soda separated as phosphate of ammonia and magnesia, after having stood twenty-four hours. ...
-Manufacture Of Roll Tar Paper. Part 5
The pan is generally filled with distilled coal tar, and the heating is regulated in such a manner that the temperature of the impregnating mass is raised far beyond 212 Fahrenheit. This accelera...
-Manufacture Of Roll Tar Paper. Part 6
It is true that asphaltum papers will always in a fresh state contain a small percentage of volatile ingredients, which after a while make it hard and friable upon the roof; but, by reason of its grea...
-A Physical Laboratory Indicator
The difficulties attending the management of a physical laboratory are much greater than those of a chemical one. The cause of this lies in the fact that in the latter the apparatus is less complicate...
-New Method Of Extinguishing Fires
This is by George Dickson, of Toronto, Canada, and David Alanson Jones. A mixture of water and liquefied carbon dioxide upon being discharged through pipes at high pressure causes the rapid expansion...
-Smokeless Gunpowder
By HUDSON MAXIM. During the last forty years leading chemists have continued to experiment with a view to the production of a gunpowder which should be smokeless. But not until the last few years has...
-Smokeless Gunpowder. Part 2
1st. It is absolutely smokeless, that is, its products of combustion are entirely gaseous. 2d. Its products of combustion are in no way deleterious or unpleasant. 3d. It is perfectly safe to manufac...
-Smokeless Gunpowder. Part 3
Having now explained how the knowledge came to be arrived at that the aforementioned compound of highest grade nitro-glycerine and highest grade gun-cotton would constitute the best basis for a smokel...
-Noiselessness
A great many stories have been told about the noiselessness of smokeless powder. But there is no such thing as a noiseless gunpowder. The report of a gun charged with smokeless powder is very sharp, a...
-The Construction And Maintenance Of Underground Circuits
By S.B. FOWLER. The numerous disastrous storms of the last winter have brought out very vividly the advantages of having all wires placed underground, and many inquiries have been addressed to the co...
-The Construction And Maintenance Of Underground Circuits. Part 2
In starting to pull in the draw rope a wire brush should be attached to the wire and to this again the rope, and when the brush arrives at the distant end of the duct it very likely will bring with it...
-The Construction And Maintenance Of Underground Circuits. Part 3
It is also very important to see that there are no sharp points on the conductors themselves, on the copper sleeve, on the edges of the lead covering or on the lead sleeve. All these should be made pe...
-Railroads To The Clouds
If George Stephenson, when he placed the first locomotive on the track and guaranteed it a speed of six miles an hour, could have foreseen that in less than eighty years the successors of his rude mac...
-Railroads To The Clouds. Continued
Many years ago a hotel was built on the summit of the Rigi for the benefit of the tourists who daily flocked to this remarkable peak to enjoy the benefit of its wonderful scenery. The mountain is dens...
-The Marceau
THE FRENCH ARMORED TURRET SHIP MARCEAU The Marceau, the last ironclad completed and added to the French navy, was put in commission at Toulon in April last, and has lately left that town to join th...
-A Review Of Marine Engineering During The Past Decade. Steam Pipes
By Mr. ALFRED BLECHYNDEN, of Barrow-in-Furness Continued From Supplement, No. 820, Page 13097. Steam Pipes The failures of copper steam pipes on board the Elbe, Lahn, and other vessels have drawn ...
-A Review Of Marine Engineering During The Past Decade. Steam Pipes. Continued
Economy Of Fuel Coming to the highly important question of economy of fuel, the average consumption of coal per indicated horse-power is 1.522 lb. per hour. The average working pressure is 158.5 lb. ...
-The Little House
By M.M. One of the highest medical authorities is credited with the statement that nine-tenths of the diseases that afflict humanity are caused by neglect to answer the calls of Nature. This state...
-The Hygienic Treatment Of Obesity
By Dr. Paul Cheron. In order to properly regulate the regimen of the obese, it is first necessary to determine the source of the superfluous adipose of the organism, since either the albuminoids or t...
-The Hygienic Treatment Of Obesity. Part 2
Tea Two or three ounces of fruit; one kind of pastry; one cup of tea. Supper Three or four ounces of lean beef or fish; one or two glasses of red wine. At Bed-Time Grog without sugar (whisky and ...
-The Hygienic Treatment Of Obesity. Part 3
The results claimed by Oppenheim, Debove, et al. were immediately challenged--and it is now generally admitted, not without some justice--by Germain See. It seems certain, to say the least, that water...
-The Hygienic Treatment Of Obesity. Part 4
M. De St. Germain achieved good results by combining judicious exercise with moderate alimentation, excluding wine and bread. M. Dujardin Beaumetz, who professes to have given most close and careful ...
-Paris, France. Stilt Walking
SYLVAIN DORNON, THE STILT WALKER OF LANDES. Sylvain Dornon, the stilt walker of Landes, started from Paris on the 12th of last March for Moscow, and reached the end of his journey at the end of a fi...
-Remains Of A Roman Villa In England
A correspondent of the Lincolnshire Chronicle writes: For some weeks past, remains of a Roman villa have been exposed to view by Mr. Ramsden's miners in Greetwell Fields. From, the extent of the tesse...
-Gum Arabic And Its Modern Substitutes
By Dr. S. RIDEAL and W.E. YOULE. Subjoined is a table giving the absolute viscosity of various gums. A comparison of the uncorrected viscosities with the corrected shows the great importance of Slott...
-Gum Arabic And Its Modern Substitutes. Part 2
Curves showing viscosity change with temperature for three typical gums. A--Arabic VII. B--Senegal VIII. C--Ghatti 15. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE UPON VISCOSITY--GUM VII. Temperature. C. ...
-Gum Arabic And Its Modern Substitutes. Part 3
Besides obtaining this curve for change in viscosity from maximum amount of metarabin to no metarabin at all, we also traced the decrease in viscosity of the maximum solution by dilution with water....
-Gum Arabic And Its Modern Substitutes. Part 4
The Ghattis are especially good in withstanding climatic changes. Dextrins containing much starch are less hygroscopic than those which are nearly free from it, as the same conditions which promote t...
-Mr. Cailletet's Cryogen
The cryogen, a new apparatus constructed by Mr. E. Ducretet, from instructions given by Mr. Cailletet, is designed for effecting a fall of temperature of from 70 to 80 C. below zero, throu...
-Method Of Producing Alcohol
In carrying out my improved process in and with the apparatus employed in ordinary commercial distilleries, says Mr. Alfred Springer, of Cincinnati, O.. I preferably employ separate vats or tubs for t...
-Spectroscopic Determination Of The Sensitiveness Of Dry Plates
After describing other methods of determining the sensitiveness of plates, Mr. Gf. F. Williams, in the Br. Jour, of Photo., thus explains his plan. I will now explain the method I adopt to ascertain t...
-The Redoutable
The central battery and barbette ship Redoutable, illustrated this week, forms part of the French Mediterranean squadron, and although launched as early as 1876 is still one of its most powerful ships...
-Armor Plating On Battleships: France And Great Britain
The visit of the French squadron under Admiral Gervais to England has revived in many a nautical mind the recollection of that oft-repeated controversy as to the relative advantages of armored belts a...
-Demolition Of Rocks Under Water Without Explosives-Lobnitz System
By EDWIN S. CRAWLEY. The methods of demolishing rocks by the use of explosives are always attended by a certain amount of danger, while at the same time there is always more or less uncertainty in re...
-Progress In Engineering
Mr. T. Forster Brown, in his address to the Mechanical Science Section of the British Association, said that great progress had been made in mechanical science since the British Association met in the...
-Coal Mines
Summarizing the position of mechanical science, as applied to the coal mining industry in this country, Mr. Brown observed that there was a general awakening to the necessity of adopting, in the newer...
-Steam Trams And Electric Trams
Considerable progress had within recent years been made in the mechanical appliances intended to replace horses on our public tram lines. The steam engine now in use in some of our towns had its drawb...
-Improved Changeable Speed Gearing
This is the invention of Lawrence Heath, of Macedon, N.Y., and relates to that class of changeable speed gearing in which a center pinion driven at a constant rate of speed drives directly and at diff...
-Electrical Standards
Nature states that the Queen's Printers are now issuing the Report (dated July 23, 1891) to the President of the Board of Trade, of the Committee appointed to consider the question of constructing sta...
-The Two Or Three Phase Alternating Current Systems
By CARL HERING. The occasion of the transmission of power from Lauffen to Frankfort has brought to the notice of the profession more than ever before the two or three phase alternating current system...
-The Two Or Three Phase Alternating Current Systems. Continued
FIG. 4. FIG. 5. The two figures, 4 and 5 (or 7), correspond with each other in so far as the currents in the three leads, shown in heavy lines, have a phase between those of the two which compos...
-The London Paris Telephone
By W.H. Preece, F.R.S. 1. I have already on two occasions, at Newcastle and at Leeds, brought this subject before Section G, and have given the details of the length and construction of the proposed ...
-The London Paris Telephone. Part 2
FIG. 1. (b.) The internal opposition arises from the resistance, R, the capacity, K, and the electromagnetic inertia, L, of the circuit. A current of electricity takes time to rise to its maximum s...
-The London Paris Telephone. Part 3
R (K - M) = t FIG. 4. FIG. 5. Thus it happens that the London-Paris telephone works better than was expected. The nature of M is probably equivalent to about 0.0075 per mile, and therefo...
-The Manufacture Of Phosphorus By Electricity
One of the most interesting of the modern applications of electricity to the manufacture of chemicals is to be found in the recently perfected process known as the Readman-Parker process, after the in...
-The Manufacture Of Phosphorus By Electricity. Continued
As this machine is virtually a series wound machine, the magnet coils each consist of a few turns only of forged copper bars, 1 in. wide by 1 in. thick, forged to fit the magnet cores. There ...
-New Bleaching Apparatus
The apparatus forming the subject of this invention was designed by Francis A. Cloudman, Erwin B. Newcomb, and Frank H. Cloudman, of Cumberland Mills, Me., and comprises a series of tanks or chests, t...
-The Use Of Compressed Air In Conjunction With Medicinal Solutions In The Treatment Of Nervous And Mental Affections. Being A New System Of Cerebro-Spinal Therapeutics
By J. LEONARD CORNING, A.M., M.D., New York, Consultant in Nervous Diseases to St. Francis Hospital, St. Mary's Hospital, the Hackensack Hospital, etc. To merely facilitate the introduction of medici...
-Treatment Of Nervous And Mental Affections with Compressed Air. Part 2
Hence, if we let d' represent the amount of blood incarcerated behind the ligatures, x the magnitude of the physiological effect which we are seeking, b the amount of remedy exhibited, and a the total...
-Treatment Of Nervous And Mental Affections with Compressed Air. Part 3
We now arrive at our third fact, which will require more extensive elaboration. Third Fact The pharmaco-dynamic potency of stimulants, sedatives, analgesics, and probably of all remedies which posse...
-Eyesight: Its Care During Infancy And Youth
By L. WEBSTER FOX, M.D. Medical science, as taught in our medical colleges to-day, has two objects in view: (1) the prevention of disease; (2) the amelioration of disease and its cure. Some of our ad...
-Eyesight: Its Care During Infancy And Youth. Part 2
A discussion, in a recent number of the British Medical Journal,2 on The Claims and Limitations of Physical Education in Schools, has many valuable hints which should be followed by educators in thi...
-Eyesight: Its Care During Infancy And Youth. Part 3
The eyeball is smaller than in the Caucasian, but when we examine the interior we find the same distribution of the blood vessels and same shape of the optic nerves. The pigment deposit in the choroid...
-Eyesight: Its Care During Infancy And Youth. Part 4
My friend, Dr. Grady, of Omaha, communicated to me a history of three hunters who almost lost their eyesight by too long exposure to the bright rays of the sun falling on snow. The abuse of tobacco l...
-Eyesight: Its Care During Infancy And Youth. Part 5
Lord Kingsborough, speaking of the ancient Mexicans, says: They were acquainted with many scientific instruments of strange invention, whether the telescope may not have been of the number is uncerta...
-Eyesight: Its Care During Infancy And Youth. Part 6
I shall not dwell upon the scientific part of color blindness, nor discuss either the Young-Helmholtz or the Hering theories of color defect, but shall deal with its practical use in everyday life. U...
-Eyesight: Its Care During Infancy And Youth. Part 7
On my return, I applied to have him removed from the ship, as he was, in my opinion, quite unfit to have charge of the deck at night, and this application was granted. After this occurrence I always, ...
-The Water Molecule
By A. GANSWINDT. Water consists of one atom of oxygen and two atoms of hydrogen. This proposition will not be disputed in the least by the author; still, it may be profitable to indulge in a few st...
-The Formation Of Starch In Leaves
In 1750, Bonnet, a Genevese naturalist, remarked that leaves immersed in water became covered in the sun with small bubbles of a gas that he compared to small pearls. In 1772, Priestley, after discove...
-Standards And Methods For The Polarimetric Estimation Of Sugars
Section 1, paragraph 231, of the act entitled An act to reduce revenue and equalize duties on imports and for other purposes, approved October 1, 1890, provides: 231. That on and after July 1, eig...
-Standards And Methods For The Polarimetric Estimation Of Sugars. Part 2
This form of instrument is adjusted to the Ventzke scale, which, for the purposes of this report, is defined to be such that 1 of the scale is the one hundredth part of the rotation produced in t...
-Standards And Methods For The Polarimetric Estimation Of Sugars. Part 3
The proper conduct of these processes, in connection with the use of accurately graduated apparatus, is the only surety against the numerous sources of error which may be encountered. Different sugars...
-Standards And Methods For The Polarimetric Estimation Of Sugars. Part 4
The complete verification of the accurate adjustment of the polariscope by means of three control plates, as given above, should be employed whenever it is set up for the first time by the officer usi...
-Standards And Methods For The Polarimetric Estimation Of Sugars. Part 5
The funnel and vessel used to receive the filtrate must be perfectly dry. The first portion of the filtrate, about 20 to 30 c.c., should be rejected entirely, as its concentration may be affected by a...
-The Grand Falls Of Labrador
Hamilton Inlet, or Ionektoke, as the Esquimaus call it, is the outlet to the largest river on the Labrador Peninsula, and of great importance to commerce, Rigolet, the headquarters of the Hudson Bay C...
-The Grand Falls Of Labrador. Continued
On the way down the river another party, composed of Messrs. Bryant and Kenaston of Philadelphia, was met, who were on the same business as the Bowdoin party, the discovery of the falls. Mr. Bryant ha...
-Ants
By RUTH WARD KAHN. Astronomy has made us all familiar with the conception of the world over our heads. We no longer speculate with Epicurus and Anaxagoras whether the sun may be as large as a quoit, ...
-A Gem-Bearing Granite Vein In Western Connecticut
By L.P. GRATACAP. In the county of Litchfield, Conn., in the midst of some of the most attractive hill country of that region, a very striking mineral fissure has been opened by Mr. S.L. Wilson, whic...
-The Study Of Mankind
Professor Max Muller, who presided over the Anthropological Section of the British Association, said that if one tried to recall what anthropology was in 1847, and then considered what it was now, its...
-The Recent Battles In Chile
The battle of Concon took place Aug. 21, 1891. Nine thousand Congressional troops advancing toward Valparaiso from Quinteros Bay, where they had landed the day previous, were met by Balmaceda's troops...
-The Sun's Motion In Space
By A.M. CLERKE. Science needed two thousand years to disentangle the earth's orbital movement from the revolutions of the other planets, and the incomparably more arduous problem of distinguishing th...
-The Sun's Motion In Space. Continued
Unless, indeed, effect should be given to Clerk Maxwell's suggestion for deriving the absolute longitude of the solar apex from observations of the eclipses of Jupiter's satellites (Proc. Roy. Soc., v...
-Animal Origin Of Petroleum And Paraffin
R. Zaloziecki, in Dingl. Polyt. Jour., gives a lengthy physical and chemical argument in favor of the modern view that petroleum and paraffin owe their origin to animal sources; that they are formed f...
-The Origin Of Petroleum
By O.C.D. Ross, M.Inst.C.E. Petroleum is one of the most widely distributed substances in nature, but the question how it was originally produced has never yet been satisfactorily determined, and con...
-The Origin Of Petroleum. Continued
(HS + SO == HO + 2S). It is a powerful oxidizing agent, and it converts sulphurous into sulphuric acid. Thus: CaCOHS,2HO, } yield { (CaSO.HO) (gypsum) and CH, which is marsh gas. And 2CaCO...
-The Colorado Desert Lake
Mr. J.J. Mcgillivray, who has been for many years in the United States mineral survey service, has some interesting things to say about the overflow of the Colorado desert, which has excited so much c...
-Hemlock And Parsley
By W.W. BAILEY. The study of the order Umbelliferae presents peculiar difficulties to the beginner, for the flowers are uniformly small and strikingly similar throughout the large and very natural gr...
-The Eremuri
EREMURUS HIMALAICUS. (Flowers white.) It has often been a matter of astonishment to me that eremuri are not more frequently seen in our gardens. There are certainly very few plants which have a sta...
-Raphides, The Cause Of The Acridity Of Certain Plants
By R.A. WEBER, Ph.D. At the last meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Prof. W.R. Lazenby reported his studies on the occurrence of crystals in plants. In this report he...
-The Whale-Headed Stork
THE WHALE-HEADED STORK - BALaeNICEPS REX. Of all the wonders that inhabit the vast continent of Africa, the most singular one is undoubtedly the Balaeniceps, or whale-headed stork. It is of relativ...
-The California Raisin Industry
Fresno County, for ten miles about Fresno, furnishes the best example of the enormous increase in values which follows the conversion of wheat fields and grazing land into vineyards and orchards. Not ...
-The California Raisin Industry. Part 2
Fresno City is the center from which one may drive in three directions and pass through mile after mile of these colonies, all showing signs of the wealth and comfort that raisin making has brought. O...
-The California Raisin Industry. Part 3
He takes the bunches by the stem, placing the largest and finest in the first grade box, those which are medium sized in the second grade, and all broken and ragged bunches in the third class. When th...
-Cold And Mortality
By Dr. B.W. RICHARDSON. During the seven weeks of extreme atmospheric cold in which the last year ended and with which the present year opened, every one has been startled by the mortality that has p...
-Cold And Mortality. Part 2
It is necessary, however, to know more than this general statement of an approximate fact; we ought to understand the method by which the reduction of temperature influences, and the details of the ph...
-Cold And Mortality. Part 3
We may, therefore, leave this element of extraction of heat as a most important, but not as the sole, agent of evil. Suppressed Oxidation The second element is the effect on the process of oxidation...
-Cold And Mortality. Part 4
In exposure to the lowest wave of temperature in this country these extreme effects are not commonly developed; but minor effects are brought out which are most significant. In particular, the effect ...
-The Treatment Of Glaucoma
As this disease is so fatal to vision, any remedy that may be suggested to diminish the frequency of its termination in blindness cannot fail to be read of with interest. M. Nicati, in the Revue gener...
-A Twin Screw Launch Run By A Compound Engine
TWIN SCREW STEAM LAUNCH GEMINI. The launch shown in our illustration was built in New Westminster, British Columbia, Canada. She is 42 ft. keel and 7 ft. beam, and has 4 ft. depth of hold. She has ...
-Improvements In The Construction Of River And Canal Barges
By M. RITTER (KNIGHT) VON SZABEL, late Austrian Naval Officer, of Vienna. This innovation consists essentially in an arrangement by which two distinct vessels, on being revolved round their longitudi...
-Weldon's Range Finder
Colonel Weldon has recently considerably modified and improved his ingenious range finder, and we illustrate herewith from Engineering the form in which it is now manufactured. It consists of a metal ...
-Wheels Linked With A Bell Crank
FIG. 1 There are four ways in which a connecting rod is made use of in machine work. The first is in linking two wheels together that stand in the same position, but a slight distance off centers. T...
-The Decorative Treatment Of Natural Foliage
By HUGH STANNUS. Lecture I. 1. - The Elements Of Decoration The chief impelling Motives which have caused that treatment of objects which is now termed Decorative, have been: (a) That neces...
-The Decorative Treatment Of Natural Foliage. Continued
ART POLE.................................................SCIENCE POLE Realism (See 10). Conventionalism (See 14). Disguised Artificialism (See 6). Botanical Analysis (See &sec...
-The Cyclostat
The various processes commonly employed for the observation of bodies in motion (intermittent light or vision) greatly fatigue the observer, and, as a general thing, give only images, that are difficu...
-Mercury Weighing Machine
We illustrate herewith a novel type of weighing machine. Hitherto the weighing machines in common use have either been designed with some kind of steelyard apparatus, upon which weights could be moved...
-Reefing Sails From The Deck
While this method may be applied to topsails and top-gallant-sails, I especially apply it to courses, which, being so difficult to reef the old way, may by this method be reefed from the deck in a few...
-A New Process For The Bleaching Of Jute
L.K. Morse. Rockport, Me., Oct. 28, 1891. By Messrs. LEYKAM and TOSEFOTHAL. Jute is well known as a very cheap fiber, and its employment in textile industry is consequently both extensive and always ...
-The Independent - Storage Or Primary Battery - System Of Electric Motive Power
By KNIGHT NEFTEL. Owing to a variety of causes, the system which was assigned to me at the last convention to report on has made less material progress in a commercial way than its competitors. Prim...
-On The Elimination Of Sulphur From Pig Iron
By J. MASSENEZ, Hoerde. If in the acid and the basic Bessemer processes the molten pig iron is taken direct to the converter from the blast furnace, there is the disadvantage that the running of the ...
-On The Occurrence Of Tin In Canned Food
By H.A. WEBER, Ph.D. The following investigation of the condition of foods packed in tin cans was prompted by an alleged case of poisoning, which occurred at Mansfield, Ohio, in April, 1890. A man an...
-On The Occurrence Of Tin In Canned Food. Continued
Inner coating eroded. Serial No. 578. - Sample of canned pears, received of Mr. Edward Bethel, July 29, 1890. Labeled: Bartlett Pears. Solan's Brand, packed in Solano Co., California. Juice.Per ...
-New Process For The Manufacture Of Chromates
By J. MASSIGNON and E. VATEL. The ordinary method of manufacturing the bichromates consists in making an intimate mixture of finely pulverized chrome ore, lime in large excess, potash or soda, or cor...
-A Violet Coloring Matter From Morphine
A violet coloring matter is formed, together with other substances, by boiling for 100 hours in a reflux apparatus a mixture of morphine (seven grammes), p-nitrosodimethylaniline hydrochloride (five g...
-Liquid Blue For Dyeing
The new liquid blue of M. Dornemann is intended to avoid the formation of clots, etc., which lead to irregularity in shade, if not to the formation of spots on the textile. In addition to accomplishin...
-The Great Bell Of The Basilica Of The Sacred Heart Of Montmartre
The main work on the basilica of the Sacred Heart is now completed and the bell tower surmounts it. So we have now a few words to say about La Savoyarde - the name of the great bell which is designe...
-New Sugar Items. France
Water that has been used to wash frozen beets contains a small percentage of sugar. As the washing period, in such cases, is longer than with normal beets, the sugar in beet cells has time to pass thr...
-New Sugar Items. France. Part 2
The exact influence of a low temperature upon beet cells has never been satisfactorily settled. Considerable light has recently been thrown upon the subject by a well known chemist. It is asserted tha...
-New Sugar Items. France. Part 3
If the beet seed be saturated in a phenic solution before planting, the difficulty may be overcome. We are soon to have a new method for selecting mothers for seed production. Details of the same are...
-New Sugar Items. France. Part 4
Belgium If fresh cossettes are fed to cows, in quantities per diem representing 20 per cent. of the animal's weight, they have a thinning effect. When the refuse has been siloed for eight months, and...
-American Workshops
An interesting paper on some of the leading American workshops was lately read before the members of the Manchester Association of Engineers on Saturday by Mr. Hans Renold. After expressing his opinio...
-Modern Methods Of Quarrying
Mr. Wm. L. Saunders, for many years the engineer of the Ingersoll Rock Drill Co., and hence thoroughly familiar with modern quarrying practice, read a paper before the last meeting of the American Soc...
-Modern Methods Of Quarrying. Part 2
FIG. 3, 4, 5 and 6 Fig. 3 is a round hole drilled either by hand or otherwise, preferably otherwise, because an important point is to get it round. Fig. 4 is the improved form of hole, and this is ...
-Modern Methods Of Quarrying. Part 3
Another theory which is much the same in substance is then given, and after some general discussion of the theory of the action of the forces under the several systems, the paper continues: The new f...
-The Trotter Curve Ranger
This little instrument was exhibited in a somewhat crude state at the meeting of the British Association at Newcastle in 1889. It has since been modified in several respects, and improvements suggeste...
-The Rail Spike And The Locomotive
Early in October, 1830, and shortly after the surveys of the Camden and Amboy Railroad were completed, Robert L. Stevens (born 1787) sailed for England, with instructions to order a locomotive and rai...
-The Rail Spike And The Locomotive. Part 2
In England the T rail still continues to be used. The London and Birmingham Railway, opened in 1838, was laid with Berkenshaw rails; part with the straight and part with the fish-bellied rail, and the...
-The Rail Spike And The Locomotive. Part 3
Great similarity will be noticed in the American locomotives built for many years after the arrival of the John Bull, especially in the matter of making the keys, brasses, etc., on the connecting ro...
-The Rail Spike And The Locomotive. Part 4
This first movement of passengers by steam in the State of New Jersey was regarded as a success from every point of view, and in commemoration of the important events here enacted the boundaries of th...
-The Rail Spike And The Locomotive. Part 5
On December 17, 1832, the first passengers were taken from Bordentown through to South Amboy. Fifty or sixty people went. It was a rainy day. On January 24, 1833, the first freight cars were put on...
-The British Cruiser Aeolus
The new twin screw cruiser aeolus was launched from the Devonport Dockyard on the 13th November. The first keel plate of the aeolus was laid in position on the 10th March last year, and up to the pres...
-Trials Of H.M. Cruiser Blake
Special interest, says Engineering, attaches to the trials of the protected cruiser Blake, in view of the assertion frequently made by Admiralty authorities, from the first lord downward, to the effec...
-Hints To Shipmasters
A Master in charge of a tramp steamer in these days must, if he wishes for any comfort in life, take good care of himself, for the pressure and hurry which is inseparable from his position, combined w...
-Hints To Shipmasters. Continued
As to the crew. A master who has full command of himself ought to be able to rule judiciously even the most unruly crew, but before he is in a really strong position to do this, he must treat them fai...
-Alfred Tennyson
Alfred Tennyson, the poet laureate of England, was born at Sornersby, Lincolnshire, April 9, 1810, and was the third of a large family of children, eight of whom were boys and three girls. His father ...
-Fiftieth Year Of The Prince Of Wales
In the case of a distinguished person whose public life has a claim to be regarded with national and social interest, his fiftieth birthday must be considered a jubilee; and Monday, Nov. 9, in the pre...
-Development With Sucrate Of Lime
I have experimented with carbonate of lithia as an accelerator, and I have obtained with it rather favorable results. However, in opposition to Mr. Wickers, I have always found that carbonate of lithi...
-Duck Hunting In Scotland
The wild duck is a shy bird, apt to spread his wings and change his quarters when a noble sportsman is seen approaching his habitation with a fowling piece. You have heard of the ass who put on a lion...
-A Plea For The Common Telescope
By G.E. LUMSDEN. These are the palmiest days in the eventful history of physical and observational astronomy. Along the whole line of professional and amateur observation substantial progress is bein...
-A Plea For The Common Telescope. Part 2
For nearly one hundred and fifty years all refracting telescopes labored under one serious difficulty. The images formed by them were more or less confused by rainbow tints, due to the bending, or ref...
-A Plea For The Common Telescope. Part 3
As you know, the North Star is a most beautiful double. Its companion is of the ninth order of magnitude, that is, three magnitudes smaller than the smallest star visible to the naked eye on a dark ni...
-Archaeological Discoveries At Cadiz
Those who have had the good fortune to visit Andalusia, that privileged land of the sun, of light, songs, dances, beautiful girls, and bull fighters, preserve, among many other poetical and pleasing r...
-Prehistoric Horse In America
To the Editor of the Scientific American: Apropos to Professor Cope's remarks before the A.A.A.S. at Washington, reported in SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, September 12, inclose sketch of a mounted man, whethe...
-Further Researches Upon The Element Fluorine
By A.E. TUTTON. Since the publication by M. Moissan of his celebrated paper in the Annales de Chime et de Physique for December, 1887, describing the manner in which he had succeeded in isolat...
-Physical Properties Of Fluorine
Fluorine possesses an odor which M. Moissan compares to a mixture of hypochlorous acid and nitrogen peroxide, but this odor is usually masked by that of the ozone which it always produces in moist air...
-Methods Of Experimenting With Fluorine
When it is desired to determine the action of fluorine upon a solid substance, the following method of procedure is adopted. A preliminary experiment is first made, in order to obtain some idea as to ...
-Action Of Fluorine Upon The Non-Metallic Elements
Hydrogen As just described, hydrogen combines with fluorine, even at -23 and in the dark, with explosive force. This is the only case in which two elementary gases unite directly without the int...
-Action Of Fluorine Upon Metals
Sodium and potassium combine with fluorine with great vigor at ordinary temperatures, becoming incandescent, and forming their respective fluorides, which may be obtained crystallized from water in cu...
-Action Of Fluorine Upon Non-Metallic Compounds
Sulphureted Hydrogen When the horizontal tube shown in Fig. 3 is filled with sulphureted hydrogen gas and fluorine is allowed to enter, a blue flame is observed on looking through the fluorspar windo...
-Action Of Fluorine Upon Metallic Compounds
Chlorides of the metals are instantly decomposed by fluorine, generally at the ordinary temperature, and in certain cases, antimony trichloride for instance, with the appearance of flame. Chlorine is ...
-Action Of Fluorine Upon A Few Organic Compounds
Chloroform When chloroform is saturated with fluorine, and subsequently boiled, carbon tetrafluoride, hydrofluoric acid and chlorine are evolved. If a drop of chloroform is agitated in a glass tube w...
-Apparatus For The Estimation Of Fat In Milk
By E. MOLISABI. The author, after criticising the various methods for estimating fat in milk which have been proposed from time to time, agrees with Stokes (Analyst, 1885, p. 48), Eustace Hill (An...
-American Association - Ninth Annual Report Of The Committee On Indexing Chemical Literature
The Committee on Indexing Chemical Literature respectfully presents to the Chemical Section its ninth annual report. Since our last meeting the following bibliographies have been printed: 1. A Bibli...
-The French Wine Law
The French wine law (Journ. Officiel, July 11, 1891) includes the following provisions: Sect. 1. The product of fermentation of the husks of grapes from which the must has been extracted with water, ...
-The Allotropic Conditions Of Silver
M. Berthelot recently called the attention of the Academy (Paris) to the memoirs of Carey Lea on the allotropic states of silver, and exhibited specimens of the color of gold and others of a purple co...
-The Scientific American. Cyclopedia Of Receipts,. Notes And Queries
65O PAGES. PRICE $5. This splendid work contains a careful compilation of the most useful Receipts and Replies given in the Notes and Queries of correspondents as published in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN...
-The Living Jerboa In The Zoological Garden Of Berlin
Like other strangely formed quadrupeds, the jerboas are counted among the curiosities of the animal kingdom, and as such are described in natural history; but, nevertheless, there has never been a goo...
-New Observations On The Language Of Animals
By M. DE LACAZE DUTHIERS, of the Institute of France. I had occasion in a note published several years ago in the Revue Scientifique to mention a parroquet which I have since continued to observe, th...
-New Observations On The Language Of Animals. Part 2
Another example, little known in thickly populated countries, is drawn from a curious scene which I witnessed during a winter passed in Perigord Noir. We had remarked that for several nights the three...
-New Observations On The Language Of Animals. Part 3
When I lifted my glass to my lips he would draw back, working gradually nearer to the farther door, and at last disappear and hide. One who was looking at him without seeing me could tell by his wails...
-New Observations On The Language Of Animals. Part 4
We have seen that this tonality of the watch dog's cries is competent to indicate that a person is coming to the house. We find similar cries of warning uttered by birds. When I was a professor in the...
-New Observations On The Language Of Animals. Part 5
It is not the word he speaks that is of interest; he might have been taught another, and it would have been the same; but it is the tone. In this case, too, the articulation gives an easier clew to th...
-Modification Of Our Climate
By JOSEPH WALLACE. Every now and then some weather sage predicts extremely cold winters, and another ventures to say that the sun is gradually losing heat and in time Arctic cold will prevail over th...
-The Eruption Of Krakatoa
Before the year 1883 physical geographers, in speaking of the most disastrous volcanic eruption on record, referred first, in point of time, to the celebrated eruption of Vesuvius, in A.D. 79, when th...
-Pentapterygium Serpens
This is one of five species of Himalayan plants which, until recently, were included in the genus vaccinium. The new name for them is ugly enough to make one wish that they were vacciniums still. Pent...
-The Perforation Of Flowers
The subject of the relations and adaptations which exist between flowers and insects does not appear to excite as much popular attention as many other branches of natural science which are no more int...
-Electricity In Horticulture
The influence of electricity upon vegetation has been the subject of numerous investigations. Some have been made to ascertain the effects of the electric current through the soil; others to ascertain...
-Electricity In Agriculture
By CLARENCE D. WARNER. It is well known that currents of electricity exist in the atmosphere. Clouds are charged and discharged. There is a constant change of electricity from earth to air and from a...
-Electricity In Agriculture. Continued
Peas.Days. Beans.Days. Barley.Days. Sunflowers.Days. Electrified seeds developed in 2.5 3 2 8.5 Non-electrified seeds developed in 4 6 5 15 It was also observed that the plants coming from ...
-The Treatment Of Rattlesnake Bite By Permanganate Of Potassium, Based On Nine Successful Cases
By AMOS W. BARBER, M.D.,1 Cheyenne. Poisoned wounds, inflicted by the fangs of the rattlesnake, are happily more rare each year, since, as the country is becoming more populated, the crotalus is rapi...
-The Treatment Of Rattlesnake Bite By Permanganate Of Potassium. Continued
Into these wounds was poured a fifteen per cent. solution of permanganate of potassium, and fully half an hour was devoted to kneading this drug into the tissues. In addition I made many hypodermic in...
-Chinese Competitive Examinations
Wuchang, on the Yangtsze opposite Hankow, is the capital of the two provinces Hupeh and Hunan. Here, every third year, the examination for competitors from both provinces is held, and a correspondent ...
-High Speed Engine And Dynamo
We illustrate a high speed engine and dynamo constructed by Easton & Anderson, London. This plant was used at the Royal Agricultural Society's show at Doncaster in testing the machinery in the dairy, ...
-Chlorine Gas And Soda By The Electrolytic Process
The decomposition of a solution of common salt, and its conversion into chlorine gas and caustic soda solution by means of an electric current, has long been a study with electro-chemists. Experimenta...
-Completion Of The Mersey Tunnel Railway
On the 11th of January (says the Liverpool Daily Post) will be opened for traffic the new station of the Mersey Tunnel Railway at the bottom of Bold Street. With the completion of the station at Bold ...
-A Steam Street Railway Motor
While in Paris, President Yerkes, of the North Chicago Street Railway Company, purchased a noiseless steam motor, the results in experimenting with which will be watched with great interest. The ac...
-Twenty-Four Knot Steamers
Probably the most important form of steam machinery is the marine engine, not only because of the conditions under which it works, but because of the great power it is called upon to exert. Naturally ...
-Twenty-Four Knot Steamers. Continued
With the Britannic and Germanic as models of 5,000 tons and 5,000 horse power at 16 knot speed, the 24 knot vessel would require to be of 57,000 tons and 85,000 horse power, to carry sufficient coal f...
-The Military Engineer And His Work
By Col. W.R. KING. It is not an easy matter to present a dry subject in such an attractive form as to excite a thrilling interest in it, and military science is no exception to this rule. An ingeniou...
-The Military Engineer And His Work. Part 2
... And still the wonder grew That one small head could carry all he ought to know [Never lose sight of fact for the sake of rhyme.] In general terms, his duties consist of: 1. Military surveys...
-The Military Engineer And His Work. Part 3
3d. Unless we have a fleet for every harbor, it would be impossible to depend upon this kind of defense, as the enemy would select whichever harbor he found least prepared to receive him. It would be ...
-The Military Engineer And His Work. Part 4
One simple plan for this is to have a small telephone in the torpedo with some loose buckshot on the diaphragm, which is placed in a horizontal position, and will be slightly tilted as the torpedo is ...
-The Military Engineer And His Work. Part 5
The Theoretical Journal of the siege prescribes just what is to be done each day by both attack and defense up to the final catastrophe, and this somewhat discouraging outlook for the defenders was fo...
-The Military Engineer And His Work. Part 6
A careful geodetic and hydrographic survey of the Great Northern Lakes, including every harbor upon them and the rivers connecting them, was carried on for many years and was finally completed some te...
-How Mechanical Rubber Goods Are Made
While the manufacture of rubber goods is in no sense a secret industry, the majority of buyers and users of such goods have never stepped inside of a rubber mill, and many have very crude ideas as to ...
-How Enameled Letters Are Made
The following is a description of a brief visit by a representative of the Journal of Decorative Art to the new factory of the Patent Letter and Enamel Company, Ltd., situate in the East End of London...
-Burning Brick With Crude Oil Fuel
At the present time there is not the least reason why either wood, coal, or any other solid fuel should be used for the burning of brick. This style of burning brick belongs to a past age. The art of ...
-Burning Brick With Crude Oil Fuel. Continued
Not only is it cleaner than coal and calls for less labor, but it is actually cheaper as a fuel. A barrel and a half of crude oil is equal for furnace fuel to a ton of the best Illinois bituminous coa...
-Investigation Of A Mound Near Jefferson City, Mo
By A.S. LOGAN. Recently, a party consisting of engineers and employes of the Missouri River Improvement Commission began an exploration of one of the mounds, a work of a prehistoric race, situated on...
-Action Of Caustic Soda On Wood
By M.H. TAUSS. The researches of the author upon the action which water exerts upon wood at a high temperature have shown how much of the incrusting material can be removed without the aid of any rea...
-New Boron Compounds
An important paper is contributed by M. Moissan to the current number of the Comptes Rendus, describing two interesting new compounds containing boron, phosphorus, and iodine. A few months ago M. Mois...
-Boron Salts
A paper upon the sulphides of boron is communicated by M. Paul Sabatier to the September number of the Bulletin de la Societe Chimique. Nature gives the following: Hitherto only one compound of boron ...
-Natural Sulphide Of Gold
By T.W.T. ATHERTON. The existence of gold in the form of a natural sulphide in conjunction with pyrites has often been advanced theoretically as a possible occurrence, but up to the present time this...
-Some Means Of Purifying Water
There are several methods extant for the purpose of purifying and softening water, and in the following brief account some of the chief features of these methods are summarized. The Slack and Brownlow...
-A New Laboratory Process For Preparing Hydrobromic Acid
By G.S. NEWTH. This method is a synthetical one, and consists in passing a stream of hydrogen and bromine vapor over a spiral of platinum wire heated to bright redness by means of an electric current...
-Sapotin: A New Glucoside
By GUSTAVE MICHAUD. Achras Sapota, L., is a large tree scattered through the forests of Central America and the West Indies; its fruit is often seen upon the Creole dinner table. This fruit is a berr...
-Detection Of Peanut Oil In Olive Oil
Holde, after a careful trial of the various processes for detecting the above adulteration, gives the preference to Renard's, which he describes as follows: Ten grms. of the suspected oil, after bein...
-Hydroxylamine
Free hydroxylamine, NHOH, has been isolated by M. Lobry de Bruyn, and a preliminary account of its mode of preparation and properties is published by him in the current number of the Recueil des trava...









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