This section is from the "Practical Banking" book, by Albert S. Bolles.
For convenience, the tickets are frequently assorted, proximately into numerical order, before writing them up. The only advantage In this is that it facilitates searching for error, if any, in the next day's "Bookkeeper's proof." There are, on the other hand, some advantages in entering the tickets in the exact order in which they were received, because, sometimes, in the case of dispute, this enables us to find the names of the depositors who were standing near at the time the questioned deposit was made, and also enables us to ascertain, proximately, the hour of the day when said transaction took place. The receiving teller is required, by an inflexible rule, to turn over to the Treasurer, before three o'clock, all checks, drafts, or other cash items, not actually money or currency, so that the cash balance carried over night by the teller is bona fide cash, and available for payments. The liberty of holding checks over night, or memoranda, in place of cash, may very easily lead to a fictitious balance covering a real shortage. The checks received are entered in a special book, which gives the name of the bank, the name of the maker, the name of the depositor from whom received, and the amount. Shortly before three o'clock the janitor goes to the desks of the various tellers, and asks them for their checks and check lists. He counts the items received from each one, and brings them, with their contents, to the Treasurer, who receipts in the margin of the check-list book. Now the day's work is over, and it is the teller's duty to "balance his cash." His deposit book is fully written up and footed. His transactions with other departments of the bank have been noted by him as they occurred, and are vouched for by receipts taken and given. He therefore has all the elements of a balance, except the verification of the amount on hand. He counts, first, his packages of bills, assuming the contents of the packages in themselves to be correct; next his loose bills, and last his coin. He is now prepared to make up and prove his report to the Secretary. This contains three columns—"debits," "credits," and "cash on hand." (See form, page 169.)
In the debit column is entered, first, the amount in his hands at the beginning of the day; second the amount received from depositors, being the total of the deposit book. He also states, as a matter of statistics, the number of depositors, and also the number of accounts opened.
Then follow receipts from other sources, either from the treasurer or from the other tellers, but this is exceptional, for the receiving teller, as such, is constantly parting with his money inside of the bank, and has no occasion to receive from others. It might have been mentioned, that in our bank, more as a matter of convenience than otherwise, expense vouchers, unless paid by check, are paid by the receiving teller from his cash, after receiving the approval of the treasurer or secretary. It is considered that there is an economy of labor in thus relieving the receiving teller of part of his money, making so much less for the paying teller to recount.
On the credit side of the teller's report is, first, "amounts paid to depositors," but unless he has acted during the day as paying teller, the receiving teller will have nothing to record here. Next come amounts paid to the treasurer. This will embrace the checks turned over by him, the currency turned over to be deposited, expense vouchers paid on the approval of the treasurer or secretary. In the two former cases, he has a receipt on the margin of his check list. In the latter case, he holds the authorization on the voucher. Next come payments to other tellers. This is normally, of course, to the paying teller. The last item of credit, which is balance on hand, is not inserted until the cash has been counted. The results of the count are written in the last column under the heads "Packaged bills," "loose bills," "coin." Then the aggregate of these is placed opposite the words " actual cash on hand." Now this may not be the correct amount which should be on hand. If in excess, the cash is said to be "over," if deficient, it is said to be "short."
A line is provided for each of these contingencies, and if, after thorough search, the cash is "short," the amount of deficiency is entered on the proper line, and added to the actual cash on hand, the result being carried into the credit column, last line. If the cash be "over," the amount of excess is similarly entered, but subtracted. The amounts of the debit and credit columns should now be equal. This report, signed by the teller, is handed to the secretary, who extracts from it the information necessary for his books, which he will hereafter test, and marks it "examined and entered, secretary," and places it on file. The teller begins his report for the following morning, with the balance on hand, as corrected. During the following day, unless he succeeds in finding the error, he is required, in case of an "over," to charge himself by ticket, approved by the secretary, with the amount, placing it to the credit of an account called "excess account," from which it may ultimately be transferred to the credit of the rightful owner when ascertained. In case of a "short," he is charged in an account called his "deficiency account," and has ultimately to refund the amount to the bank.
Besides the daily report of all transactions, the teller makes a monthly report of his transactions with depositors alone, for more convenient examination by the auditing committee.
Form of Teller's Daily Report.
Union Savings Bank.—Second Teiler's Report, March 1, 1884. Dr. Cr. Statement of Cash.