Never speak of the real or supposed faults of character of a director in the social circle, nor bear tales or remarks from one director to another. Whatever your preferences, likes, and dislikes—and you will probably have both—your conduct should be uniformly respectful to all. Whenever your opinion is asked, or given, without solicitation, state your views modestly, and in a conversational tone of voice. Should the "Board" differ from you in judgment, and decide contrary to your convictions, betray no feeling, but promptly and cheerfully execute their vote.

Frequent communications with the directors, relative to the general concerns of the bank and to your own particular duties, will be of essential service: since they will thus obtain a knowledge of details, and you will have the benefit of their reflections and suggestions. "Conference," says the wise Lord Bacon, " maketh a ready man."

Your style of living is a matter of momentous consequence; and possibly, the hinge on which your final destiny will turn. Not only live within your income, but so regulate your expenses that, unavoidable misfortunes or sickness excepted, you shall be sure to save at least a quarter part of your salary, as a fund for old ager unless, indeed, your patrimonial estate be ample for such a purpose.* But, whatever be your receipts or expectations from other sources, do not allow your expenditures to exceed your personal earnings. Be this the great economic maxim of your life.

Economy is the parent of honesty, of freedom, and of mental ease and quiet. Poverty can never enter your abode, if content with satisfying your real wants; while you will never enjoy independence, if you live in accordance with the world's caprice. If you possess an inordinate craving for great wealth, or a desire to indulge in luxuries and amusements such as men of fortune alone can afford, you have mistaken your profession, and should abandon it. For your life, if you remain in it, will be a perpetual struggle against your natural inclinations; and the danger is, that, finally yielding to them, you will involve yourself in irretrievable woe.

The road to disgrace is short. Persons who have traced the footsteps of more than one unhappy bank officer that has trodden it, have found that extravagance and defalcation were but a few strides apart*

* I designed to say a word in the text on the subject of salaries. As a general rule, the compensation to bank officers is too small. According to a return to Parliament, in 1832, the number of persons employed in the Bank of England and its branches, was nine hundred and forty, who (to average the salaries) received only 225, or about eleven hundred dollars each, per annum. Since several who filled the higher posts were paid very much larger sums, it is evident that a considerable part of this numerous corps could not have received more than a moiety of the above average. Yet, as at the same time there were one hundred and ninety-three on the pension list who enjoyed annually (on the average) 161, or about eight hundred dollars each, the faithful officers of that institution who were then in actual service, could hope for relief in their declining years. In the United States, the system of pensions is not, perhaps, practicable or desirable. But since marriage, a flock of little ones, the owning of a house unincumbered "with mortgage, and a choice collection of books, are all Virtue's sentinels, directors ought always to have reference to the support of a family in fixing the compensation of their executive officers. Indeed, such officers, like capable and faithful men in other pursuits, should be allowed to provide something for old age. It is fair, I suppose, to assume that the expense of the executive department, as a common thing, is not far from one per cent. on the capital stock, or, in the proportion of one thousand dollars salary to one hundred thousand dollars capital. If this be so, it is manifest, at a glance, that a large part of the bank officers in the United States ( as gentlemen are now compelled to live both in city and country) are required to consult the maxims of "Poor Richard" every day in order to secure a moderate competence. The interests of stockholders are not promoted in the long run, by low salaries, for low salaries not infrequently, as experience shows, induce speculations in stocks, and other irregularities, which terminate in defalcation. As a class, bank officers are not so well paid as officers of railroads and manufacturing establishments, while their duties are quite as responsible.

The great English banker, Thellusson, who, at one time, was partner with Mr. Neckar, the celebrated French financier, left three sons, and a fortune of three and a half millions of dollars, which estate, he said, he acquired by "industry and honesty." In his will he remarks : "It is my earnest wish and desire that my sons avoid ostentation, vanity, and pompous show," etc. The three, it may be added, became members of the House of Commons, and the eldest, a peer of the realm.

A sensual man is disqualified, by his very physical organization, for any office in the executive department of a bank, and ought no more to be there than in a pulpit. I make the remark considerately—for good reasons—and not to round out a period. And should this essay meet the eye of the father of a son ready, by age and education, to enter upon some employment, I venture to counsel that, if banking be thought of, the moral qualities and the strength of the appetites, as developed in early life, are the first things to be considered. The youth who, in childhood, stole slyly to the closet for his mother's sweetmeats, who was never content at table with the share of niceties allotted to him, who shirked his known tasks, and imposed their performance upon a younger and more dutiful brother, and who, as years wore on, evinced a disposition to rely upon others, and to earn nothing for himself, but yet who showed a determined purpose to feed on the best, and to dress in the finest—such a youth, though as quick at figures as Colburn himself, should never be placed in a bank.