The growth of the old subventions and the development of the new resulted in an increase of the total subventions paid to charitable institutions from $153,827, in 1860, to $804,280, in 1873, or a gain of 423 per cent. The total expenditures of the state increased between the years 1861 and 1873 from $5,842,000 to $6,734,000, or a gain of 15 per cent. But the large military expenditures of the year 1861 bias these figures somewhat. If the war expenditures are eliminated from the total in each case, we find that the increase was from $3,483,000, in 1861, to $6,648,000, in 1873, or 91 per cent. Whichever set of totals is selected, the subventions to charitable agencies increased much more rapidly than the total of all state expenditures.

Comparison of the subvention to charities with that to educational institutions is also significant. The total of the grants in aid to common schools, to normal schools, for the support of the office of County Superintendent, to the Farmer's High School, and to the Schools of Design was, in 1860, $280,368. In 1873, it was $785,038. The increase was thus about 180 per cent, or much less than the increase in the subvention to charitable institutions. The grant to charities showed the greatest increase proportionately of any subvention during this period, as is shown by Table II in the Appendix.

The item of expenditure chiefly responsible, after 1865, for the growth of the subvention to charitable institutions, is the grant to Soldiers' Orphans' Schools. If we eliminate this grant from our calculations, we find that, from 1860 to 1873, the increase in the subvention to all other charitable institutions was about 120 per cent; and inspection of the table on page 121 shows that appropriations to hospitals for the care of the indigent sick and to the two institutions for the reformation of incorrigible children were chiefly responsible for this increase. The grants to the institutions for the training of the blind and the deaf mutes increased 45 per cent and 108 per cent, respectively, while the appropriations to houses of refuge increased 290 per cent.

The subvention to hospitals for the care of the indigent sick, originating in 1863, was increased steadily until, in 1873, it amounted to $90,000. Grants to institutions that cared for orphans, which amounted to only $4,400 in 1860, reached a maximum in 1865 and thereafter declined. The establishment of the Soldiers' Orphans' Schools provided for the greatest need and, therefore, smaller amounts were granted to other concerns. Of course, many of the institutions that cared for this special class of children were privately owned and privately managed.

Subventions For Charity, 1860 To 1873, Inclusive *1

Year End-

Total

Indigent Defectives

Neglected Children

The

Indigent

Sick

Adults in

Extreme

Indigence

AU Other

ing

Nov.

30

 

The Blind

Deaf-mutes

Feebleminded Children

The Insane

Orphans

Soldiers' Orphans2

Incorrigible Children

     

1860

$153,827 140,490 142,602 137,203 202,520 312,980 552,147 621,343 740,066 740,119 786,260 753,737 785,764 804,280

$23,375 24,750 24,750 24,750 24,750 26,583 45,250 31,166 38,500 33,000 31,500 23,250 73,250 48,559

$33,204 23,257 25,014 23,493 26,295 39,282 34,889 36,627 34,752 35,008 35,215 39,004 54,150 48,398

$25,248 16,483 15,167 14,633 16,000 16,000 22,333 20,000 15,000 19,813 28,585 14,850 19,028 19,950

$42,500 37,500 35,000 26,550 45,250 49,990 72,050 94,491 57,916

100,022 76,690 19,250 31,000 30,000

$ 4,500

7,000

5,500

7,750

21,000

21,500

14,500

13,500

5,000

16,875

14,775

18,400

9,750

2,500

 

$25,000 31,500 37,171 35,027 47,050 56,000 91,500 49,750 50,500 54,250 76,250 78,125 71,900 99,525

     

1861

       

1862

       

1863

 

$ 4,500 20,675 19,875 15,125 2,500 17,500 15,000 15,000 37,500 52,500 90,000

$ 500

1,500

8,750

6,500

13,750

10,000

750

 

1864

   

1865

$ 75,000 250,000 359,559 510,898 465,401 508,245 522,608 469,936 465,348

 

1866

 

1867

 

1868

 

1869

 

1870

 

1871

 

$ 750

1872 1873

2,000

2,250

     

1 From Reports of the Auditor General, 1860 to 1873.

2 As in noted on page 120 only a part of the payments for the support of soldiers' orphans is properly to be classed as subventions. 8 These subventions were made to privately owned hospitals.

4 These subventions were paid to homes for the aged and similar institutions.

The causes for the increase of charitable expenditures may be divided into those which affected all expenditures and those which produced a disproportionate augmentation of appropriations for charity. Among the causes operative to produce a general increase of appropriations were the growth of population, the extension of the sphere of state action, and the fall in the purchasing power of money due to the inflation of the currency by the green backs. *132

First among the special causes for the increase of expenditures for charity was the Civil War. *133 During the war thousands of men were made invalids by wounds or by the ravages of disease. In so far as these men were unable to maintain themselves they became public charges and the augmentation of the subvention for the indigent sick during the years 1863 to 1865 is largely due to the necessity of caring for them.

132 The rise in the cost of living was made an excuse for asking increased appropriations to charitable institutions. See Board of Public Charities, Report (1870), p. 129.

133 This was recognized and commented upon at the time. See the statement of Mr. Harry White, in the Senate, in 1869, Legislative Record (1869), p. 1366.