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Money, Banking, And Finance | by Albert S. Bolles



Excellent books on the best methods of bank bookkeeping already exist, also other books on the theories and history of money and banking. In a well-organized course on banking this book should fill an intermediate place between those described; it is the pioneer of its kind. It is designed especially for three classes of students, or readers: those who intend to devote themselves to the business of banking; those who are thus engaged; and those who are studying the history and theories of banking.

TitleMoney, Banking, And Finance
AuthorAlbert S. Bolles
PublisherAmerican Book Company
Year1903
Copyright1903, Albert S. Bolles
AmazonAmerican Finance With Chapters On Money And Banking

By Albert S. Bolles, Ph.D., Ll.D.

Author Of "Practical Banking," "Banks And Their Depositors, "Bank Officers," And Lecturer Also In The University Of Pennsylvania And Haverford College

New York: Cincinnati: Chicago American Book Company

Copyright, 1903, by Albert S. Bolles. Entered at Stationers' Hall, London Bolles

To James G. Cannon Of New York

Who, Notwithstanding His Unwearied And Successful Attention To Business , Has Set A Noble Example To Other Bankers By His Deep And Intelligent Interest In The Education Of Hank Clerks

-Preface
Excellent books on the best methods of bank bookkeeping already exist, also other books on the theories and history of money and banking. In a well-organized course on banking this book should fill an...
-I. The Nature And Uses Of Money
1. Definitions Of Money As the business of banking relates to the keeping and use of money, it is needful to start with a clear idea of money itself. The definition that embodies the general intell...
-The Nature And Uses Of Money. Part 2
3. Coining Does Not Add To Their Value The transformation of metals into coins does not affect their value. This truth can not be too firmly grasped. Drop a ten-dollar gold piece accidentally into ...
-The Nature And Uses Of Money. Part 3
5. When Full Amount Of Coin Is Kept To Pay Substitutes And When Not Sometimes the full amount of coin represented by the notes in circulation is kept by the issuing authority to redeem them; more o...
-The Nature And Uses Of Money. Part 4
9. The Amount Needed Also Depends On The Rapidity Of Their Circulation Again, less money, including its substitutes, is needed than formerly because it circulates more rapidly. If with $100 in the ...
-The Nature And Uses Of Money. Part 5
11. The Kinds Of Money More Fully Described. Gold Coins Having defined money and its substitutes and shown their relation to each other, and also what quantity of money is needed to transact the my...
-The Nature And Uses Of Money. Part 6
15. Alloy And Weight Of Coins To render the gold and silver coins more durable they are hardened by adding a small quantity of copper, one tenth in weight. A gold dollar, which is the unit of value...
-II. Classification Of Banks
1. Definition Of Banker A banker has been defined as a dealer in capital, or, more properly, a dealer in money. He is an intermediate party between the borrower and the lender. This definition ap...
-Classification Of Banks. Continued
5. Banks Created By General Law These evils were at length largely remedied by the enactment of general laws providing for the establishing of banking institutions. These provide a cheap, easy, and...
-III. The Utility Of Banks
1. A Safe Place To Keep Money - A bank is a safer place to keep money than one's store or house. This was a stronger reason perhaps centuries ago for using a bank as a depository than it is to-day....
-IV. How A Bank Is Organized
1. Modes Of Raising The Capital Before a bank can be legally organized, there must be preliminary action to find out who will subscribe for the stock, act as trustees or directors, or do whatever ...
-How A Bank Is Organized. Part 2
2. A Subscriber Can Not Withdraw The question has been asked, why can not a subscriber withdraw his promise after the requisite number have subscribed, the same as before? Why should the signing or...
-How A Bank Is Organized. Part 3
6. Mode Of Forming A Savings Bank Such are the preliminary steps in organizing a national or state bank of discount and deposit, or trust company. The preliminary action in forming a savings bank i...
-How A Bank Is Organized. Part 4
9. Mode Of Organizing State Banks The requirements of the states for organizing state banks greatly differ, and it would take too much space to describe all that must be done to perfect the organiz...
-V. Shareholders
1. How Shareholders Must Pay For Their Stock Shareholders, especially of national banks, must pay money for their stock. They can, however, give a check on another bank, for this is deemed equivale...
-Shareholders. Part 2
7. Importance Of Making Correct Transfers The proper transfer of the shares of a bank or other corporation is a matter of great importance, as will soon appear. Suppose A has sold his shares to B a...
-Shareholders. Part 3
11. Action Of Bank When Certificates Are Lost Sometimes a certificate is lost, and the owner requests a new one. The official to whom he applies should be strongly assured that the certificate is l...
-VI. Annual Meetings
1. An Annual Shareholders' Meeting Must Be Held During the first month of the year national banks are required to hold their annual shareholders' meeting. The state banks and trust companies also h...
-Annual Meetings. Continued
5. Who Act As President And Clerk At these meetings the president presides and the cashier serves as a clerk. 6. Who Can Vote One other point remains for consideration, who can vote at a ...
-VII. Bank Circulation
1. Superiority Of Bank To Individual Credit One of the functions of a national bank is to issue notes for general circulation; in other words, to use its credit as money. As state banks must pay a ...
-Bank Circulation. Part 2
4. Government Prints The Notes Having complied with the law in depositing registered bonds as the basis of its circulation, a bank has fulfilled its part. The government buys the paper on which the...
-Bank Circulation. Part 3
7. Redemption Of Notes Of A Failed Or Retired Bank When a bank fails or retires from business the government redeems its circulation with government notes. The bonds held by the bank are sold and a...
-VIII. Deposits And Depositors
1. Deposits Are General And Special One of the most important duties of a bank of discount and deposit is to receive and keep deposits. They are divided into two kinds, - general and special. Gener...
-Deposits And Depositors. Part 2
3. A Different Rule Of Liability Applies To Safe-Deposit Companies They must exercise the utmost care, because they are paid for performing the service. Rarely have losses been incurred by them, an...
-Deposits And Depositors. Part 3
7. How A Bank Can Make A Profit On Them The reader may wonder how, if all demand deposits are payable on demand, they can be converted into a great source of profit. The answer is, although they ar...
-Deposits And Depositors. Part 4
9. Minimum Limit Of Deposit As the cost of doing business is large, some banks have a rule expressing their expectation that depositors will keep an average deposit of at least $500 or $1,000. Some...
-Deposits And Depositors. Part 5
12. Reasons For And Against Paying Interest On Deposits Foreign banks pay interest on general deposits, and the practice is becoming more common to pay interest on them in this country. The reasons...
-Deposits And Depositors. Part 6
13. Certificates Of Deposit a. Are Special Deposits. Public deposits are in the nature of a special deposit on which banks usually pay interest. For such deposits, when made by individuals, banks g...
-Deposits And Depositors. Part 7
14. How An Account Is Opened With A Depositor In opening an account with a bank, the depositor is required to write his signature in a book kept for that purpose, or upon a card, for the especial u...
-Deposits And Depositors. Part 8
18. A Bank Should Not Receive A Deposit When It Is Insolvent Many of the states within a few years have passed laws forbidding banks to receive deposits when they are insolvent and making the offen...
-Deposits And Depositors. Part 9
20. When An Account Is Overdrawn When a depositor has overdrawn his account, any deposit that he may afterward make, whether checks, notes, or the like, belongs absolutely to the bank, to the exten...
-IX. Loans
1. Creation Of A Surplus As we have seen, the resources of a bank of discount and deposit are : first, the capital, which is contributed by the shareholders; second, the surplus, which is a portion...
-Loans. Part 2
2. Composition Of A Board Of Directors Lending is the work of the directors. It is the most important duty they have to perform. Let us begin by inquiring how a board is composed. The National Bank...
-Loans. Part 3
4. Attendance At Meetings Next may be considered the attendance of directors at the meetings of boards. In the large cities only a few banks have boards that largely attend with regularity. Bank di...
-Loans. Part 4
5. Difference Between Loans And Discounts In proceeding to describe how a bank lends money, it will be needful to look at the subject in several ways. Loans may be divided into discounts and purcha...
-Loans. Part 5
7. Authority Of The President To Lend The method of lending above described, applies to a bank in the city or the country in which the loans are made by the directors. In these days this method is ...
-Loans. Part 6
9. Mode Of Buying Paper Let us now turn to the purchasing of paper by banking institutions. This is done when they can not lend all their money to ordinary applicants. From whom is the paper obtain...
-11. Different Kinds Of Paper Discounted And Purchased
Let us now consider the kinds of notes or obligations that are discounted or purchased by a bank, and their duration and other points relating to them. a. Accommodation Paper. The first kind of note t...
-11. Different Kinds Of Paper Discounted And Purchased. Continued
There is a very important reason for making short loans in New York City, which is the center, of banking in this country. Every national bank must keep a reserve in United States notes as a fund to a...
-12. Securities Taken For Loans
Lastly, let us consider the securities that are offered and taken for loans. First may be noticed bonds, stocks, and other collaterals. These are often taken for time loans as well as those on demand....
-X. The Law Relating To Commercial Paper
1. What Is Meant By Negotiable Paper Besides the legal principles that have been incidentally stated relating to checks, notes, and other instruments taken by banks, it is proposed to devote a chap...
-The Law Relating To Commercial Paper. Part 2
3. Notes, Bills Of Exchange, And Checks The three kinds of negotiable paper that are best known in the commercial world are promissory notes, bills of exchange, and bank checks. A promissory note m...
-The Law Relating To Commercial Paper. Part 3
4. No Particular Form Of Word, Necessary In writ-ing a negotiable note no particular words need be used but the most frequent words of negotiability are, to order or to bearer. Any words, howev...
-The Law Relating To Commercial Paper. Part 4
5. A Negotiable Note Should Not Be Sealed By the modern law a corporation which should attach its corporate seal to a promissory note, would not render the obligation non-negotiable. It might have ...
-The Law Relating To Commercial Paper. Part 5
9. Parties Passing from the form of a note to the parties, it may be remarked that in order to bind those who enter into such engagements they must be legally competent. Not every one is legally co...
-The Law Relating To Commercial Paper. Part 6
11. Notes Of Drunken And Insane Persons Next may considered the notes of drunken persons and persons of unsound mind. A person who gives his note and reieives money from a bank or individual not kn...
-The Law Relating To Commercial Paper. Part 7
14. Contract Implied By Endorsement By indorsing a note a new party is introduced and the instrument is endowed with new qualities. The promisor becomes immediately liable to the indorsee, and the ...
-The Law Relating To Commercial Paper. Part 8
17. Presentation Of Bills For Acceptance The holder of a bill of exchange may present it for acceptance and have it protested should the drawee decline to accept it. In some states presentment for ...
-The Law Relating To Commercial Paper. Part 9
20. A Demand Must Be Proved A demand, unless it is excused, or due diligence in trying to make a demand, must be proved in order to recover from the indorser. In an action against the maker this is...
-The Law Relating To Commercial Paper. Part 10
22. Protest A few words may be said concerning the protest. The object of this is to have proof of the presentment and demand for payment, and that the parties to the instrument were duly notified....
-The Law Relating To Commercial Paper. Part 11
24. Transfer Of Paper After Maturity Negotiable paper may be transferred by indorsement after maturity, but the rights of the parties are not the same as in other cases. The indorser simply conveys...
-The Law Relating To Commercial Paper. Part 12
26. Liability Of A Guarantor Sometimes the payment of a note is guaranteed by another. This is not the same thing as an indorsement. The chief characteristics of a guaranty will now be given. Fi...
-The Law Relating To Commercial Paper. Part 13
28. Payment Of Notes Made Payable To A Bank Lastly, may be considered the more important principles relating to the payment of notes that are payable at the bank where the maker keeps his deposit W...
-The Law Relating To Commercial Paper. Part 14
30. When A Bank Has A Lien On A Deposit A bank has a lien on the money of a depositor for all indebt-edness due from him. If he borrows money on his note, for example, and does not pay the same at ...
-XI. The Directors
1. How Chosen Having described the resources of a bank and how they are used, we will now proceed to describe the duties of the various officers, beginning with the directors These have been partly...
-The Directors. Part 2
4. How They Must Exercise Their Authority They must exercise their authority solely in the interest of the bank they represent. They have no authority, under any circumstances, to use their offici...
-The Directors. Part 3
6. Directors Can Act Only As A Board The acts of a director, or of all individually, are personal acts, and do not bind their bank. They may think separately just as they would if they were togethe...
-XII. The President
1. The President As Manager Banks are officered somewhat differently, depending chiefly on their size and business. All of them have a president, and many, a vice president; and some of them, two o...
-The President. Part 2
5. Usually A Trained Banker A bank president who thus becomes the real head is in most cases a trained banker. Usually he has served as vice president or cashier. Many an active bank president has ...
-The President. Part 3
8. Types Of Presidents There are two types of bank presidents, - the conservative and the adventurous. The conservative president seeks to lend only on the best security; he feels deeply that he is...
-The President. Part 4
11. Bank's Liability For The Conduct Of Its President Questions occasionally arise when a president has done wrong whether the bank is responsible for his act. The general answer to this question i...
-XIII. The Cashier
1. The Cashier Must Give A Bond The duties and authority of a cashier have been clearly determined by practice and legal decision, and few questions now arise in the courts concerning them. First o...
-The Cashier. Continued
5. Duties a. Must keep Record of Directors' Meetings. One of the specific duties of the cashier is to keep the record of the meetings of directors. Of this he always acts as the secretary. The cert...
-XIV. The Paying Teller
Next in rank to the cashier, unless there is an assistant cashier, is the paying teller, who receives a larger salary than any of the other tellers. He is in the direct line of promotion, and often su...
-The Paying Teller. Part 2
3. Arrangement Of Money To facilitate the payment of notes the money drawer is divided into sections which contain notes of different denominations. A package of fives contains $250; a package of t...
-The Paying Teller. Part 3
7. Every Check Should Be Dated If, however, this has been omitted, the holder may supply it. Sometimes a check is post dated; when it is, payment should not be made in advance. One reason for post ...
-The Paying Teller. Part 4
11. When A Check Is Due A check is not considered due until payment is demanded, and in this regard differs from a bill of exchange or a note, which is payable on a particular day. Consequently, th...
-The Paying Teller. Part 5
14. Rules To Guide Paying Tellers In paying checks the paying teller must think of at least three things: first, is the signature and body of the check genuine; second, is the account of the drawer...
-The Paying Teller. Part 6
16. Deposit Must Be Sufficient The next inquiry relates to the sufficiency of the drawer's deposit. How can a paying teller keep watch of the accounts of all the depositors? For this purpose deposi...
-The Paying Teller. Part 7
18. Teller Should Pay The Right Person The presenter should be the rightful person to receive the money. English bankers laugh at our method of identification. Their system is wholly different. The...
-The Paying Teller. Part 8
21. Payment When Maker Is Dead When the maker of a check is dead, the paying teller should not pay it, though if he does so ignorantly, the bank is not responsible. The usual rule, except where it ...
-The Paying Teller. Part 9
26. Due Bills Instead Of Certification Some banks, especially in Philadelphia, refuse to certify checks, but give due bills in place of them. A depositor wishes to have his check certified to use i...
-The Paying Teller. Part 10
28. Pass Books A depositor should present his pass book at regular intervals and have his checks entered and his account balanced. As soon as it is returned to him, he should at the earliest opport...
-The Paying Teller. Part 11
29. Payment Of Depositors' Notes Another duty of the bank is to pay the notes of depositors that reach the bank on or before the day of their maturity. The rule is not uniform ; in some states the ...
-XV. The Receiving Teller
1. Deposit Tickets Deposits consist of various kinds of money, checks, and documents representing money. The depositor is required to state the details of his deposit on a slip prepared for that pu...
-The Receiving Teller. Part 2
4. Examination Of Signatures The receiving teller should examine the signatures,. indorsements, dates, and other features of checks, the same as the paying teller. Depositors who are perfectly hone...
-The Receiving Teller. Part 3
8. Light Weight Coin In receiving coin, and especially gold coin, tellers are sometimes neglectful concerning its weight. The law permits an amount for loss by natural abrasion. This amount in gold...
-XVI. The Note Teller
1. Kinds Of Notes In His Custody In the larger banks there is a note teller who receives the letters and money for all promissory notes liquidated at the bank. Of these there are two kinds, - notes...
-XVII. The Discount Clerk
The duties of a discount clerk in some banks, especially smaller ones, are united with those of the note teller. 1. Discounts A discount is a loan in which the interest, calculated on the fa...
-XVIII. The Bookkeeper
It is not intended in this chapter to describe fully the methods of bookkeeping, as excellent books exist on the subject in general, and also on bank bookkeeping. 1. Tendency To Lessen Records ...
-The Bookkeeper. Continued
4. Stock Book There are several other books kept by a bank for its own more especial use-. First is the stock book in which is kept a record of all the shareholders, the number of shares held by ea...
-XIX. Collections
1. Arrangements For Collections Bank collections may be divided into three classes: first, checks on home banks that are paid through the clearing house, or in the smaller places by direct exchange...
-Collections. Part 2
3. Depositor's Ownership But there is a line in collecting checks simply for collection beyond which the depositor's control of them ceases. So long as the process of collection is incomplete, the ...
-Collections. Part 3
6. Entering Checks After a bank has received checks they are assorted for the purpose of sending them to their respective correspondents for collection. The next step is to enter them in the ledger...
-Collections. Part 4
9. Collections By Outside Banks As banks, even in the large cities, do not have correspondent banks or bankers at every place in this country, what course do they take when receiving checks for col...
-XX. How The Reserve Is Kept
1. Reserve In National Banks One other topic remains for consideration. National banks must keep a reserve in government notes proportioned to their deposits. For this purpose the banks are divided...
-How The Reserve Is Kept. Continued
6. Computation By A Reserve Bank Some additional figuring is needful to determine the amount of reserve that must be held by a reserve bank which is not in a central reserve city, unless it keeps i...
-XXI. The Creation And Utility Of Savings Banks
1. How Savings Banks Are Created The chief differences between banks of deposit and discount and savings banks have been already described. Many a savings bank is created by special legislative ena...
-The Creation And Utility Of Savings Banks. Continued
6. Simplicity Of Business There is another difference between a savings bank and bank of deposit and discount worth mentioning. The business of the former is much simpler because it receives for th...
-XXII. The Depositors
1. Nationality Of Depositors As already explained, the depositors belong chiefly to the working classes and, in the larger cities especially, many of them are foreigners. The number, too, in some o...
-The Depositors. Part 2
6. A Deposit Can Be Assigned Though wings can not be given to a pass book, even by a rule providing for its transfer by a depositor to the order of another, a depositor may make a valid assignment ...
-The Depositors. Part 3
10. Identification Of course, the treasurer or paying teller must assure himself that he is paying to the proper person, and this is often a question of no small difficulty. To aid in identificatio...
-XXIII. The Law Relating To The Payment Of Deposits
1. Regulations For Paying Deposits In paying savings-bank depositors numerous questions have arisen, and the answers to the more important will now be given. Savings banks make rules or by-laws for...
-The Law Relating To The Payment Of Deposits. Part 2
5. Withdrawing By Written Order And Pass Book Another rule provides that a depositor may withdraw his deposit by sending through another person a written order and his pass book. Unless a savings b...
-The Law Relating To The Payment Of Deposits. Part 3
8. Proper Authority A bank should be careful to pay only on adequate authority, and the fact that the presenter of a book is the depositor's husband should not incline the bank to depart more readi...
-The Law Relating To The Payment Of Deposits. Part 4
10. Lost Book A depositor not infrequently loses his book; and then he demands another. ' His duty to give notice of its loss is imperative, and founded on the soundest reasons. Every savings bank ...
-The Law Relating To The Payment Of Deposits. Part 5
11. Payment Of Gift Deposits Two rules have been set up relating to donees. By one of these a gift by the depositor of his book and actual delivery constitutes a good gift; by the other rule someth...
-The Law Relating To The Payment Of Deposits. Part 6
13. Payment To Trustees We now come to the payment of deposits made by trustees. They die, and the beneficiaries claim them; to whom shall the bank pay, the administrator or executor of the deposit...
-XXIV. Savings Rank Loans
1. Deposits Not Loaned On Personal Credit Having described how deposits are received and paid, let us next inquire how a savings bank loans its funds. First of all, a savings bank can lend nothing ...
-XXV. Officers
1. Trustees The officers of a savings bank are somewhat different from those in a bank of discount. Begin-ning with the trustees, these, as we have seen, are the projectors of the institution. They...
-Officers. Continued
4. Directors -Many banks are so organized that most of their work is committed to a board of directors consisting of seven or more of the trustees. The by-laws carefully define their duties, unless...
-XXVI. The Secretary
1. Bank Correspondent Many of the larger banks have besides a treasurer a secretary. In these his principal duty is that of an accounting officer. His duties may be divided into three branches :...
-XXVII. Bank Examinations And Reports
1. National Banks There are several kinds of bank examinations and reports; and we may begin with the requirements of the national and state governments. The national government has the most elabor...
-Bank Examinations And Reports. Continued
5. Deceptiveness Of Reports That the statements thus prepared for the Controller are often false and mislead him has been again and again proved. In truth, if a bank sets out to deceive him, it suc...
-XXVIII. Clearing Houses
1. How Banks Receive Checks A bank clearing house is one of the most noteworthy of all modern business inventions, as an economizer of time, effort, and money. It is an institution for exchanging a...
-Clearing Houses. Part 2
4. Membership A room or building is prepared where the representatives of the various banks belonging to the association meet daily to exchange checks. Not every bank can be a member, only those wh...
-Clearing Houses. Part 3
7. Organization And Expense The organization of a clearing house is simple. It may own a building; if so, the money therefor is subscribed by the members. Primarily the fund for sustaining a cleari...
-Clearing Houses. Part 4
11. Clearing Each settling clerk, after giving the statement above described to the manager of the clearing house, takes his place at the desk belonging to his bank. At a given signal the messenger...
-Clearing Houses. Part 5
12. Payment Of Balances The banks have strict rules concerning the payment of these balances. They must be paid before a specified time and in specified funds. In some places banks have a deposit o...
-XXIX. Loan And Trust Companies
1. Original Design The original design of loan and trust companies was to insure lives and grant annuities; the business of holding trusts was a secondary consideration. As they had money to lend, ...
-Loan And Trust Companies. Part 2
6. Business As Trustees These are the chief differences between trust companies and discount banks as banking associations. Let us now describe their work as the executors of confidences or trusts....
-Loan And Trust Companies. Part 3
7. Executor Of Estates A trust company acts as an executor of estates. This trust is nearly the same as that already mentioned. The chief difference is, the company is appointed by the executor him...
-XXX. The Closing Of Banks
1. Voluntary Retirement Banks come to an end in two ways: by voluntary retirement and by involuntary retirement or failure. Not infrequently the business of a bank dries up, its officers grow old, ...
-XXXI. Private Banking
1. Magnitude Of The Business Private banks arc not so conspicuous as public banks because their capital is not so large and their business is more contracted. Nevertheless, in the large cities espe...
-XXXII. Bank Finance
1. Nature Of Bank Finance Many banks, and especially private bankers, engage in finance operations which are quite distinct from those described in the foregoing pages. These pertain to the raising...
-Bank Finance. Part 2
7. Advances A third way in which banks and bankers finance loans is to act as agents or brokers in selling the securities, receiving a commission therefor, but also making advances before selling t...
-Bank Finance. Part 3
9. Determining Interest In like manner, too, the question of interest the bond is to bear is important. Some investors prefer to pay more for a bond, a premium, or sum above par, and receive a high...
-Bank Finance. Part 4
12. Guarantees Another feature is attached to some of these mortgages. In some cases the companies guarantee the payment of the principal and interest. Invest-ors have often been deluded, for as no...
-Bank Finance. Part 5
14. Receivers Very often receivers are appointed by a court on the application of creditors, and they, either alone or with the assistance of bankers, devise and secure the adoption of a plan of re...
-Bank Finance. Part 6
18. Reducing Liabilities It may be asked what is gained by a reorganization? Suppose it be a railroad. In one sense its failure is due to an excessive capitalization; in other words, the receipts a...
-Bank Finance. Part 7
21. Division Of Bonds The capital consists generally of three parts: first, bonds, which lie at the bottom and are a first lien on all the united property for their payment. In other words, should ...
-XXXIII. Railway Finance
1. Mortgage Bonds We have already seen how banks become interested in some of the financial operations of railway companies; they also participate in others, especially in negotiating loans for the...
-Railway Finance. Part 2
4. Value Of Bonds The value of such bonds depends on the worth of the security on which they rest. Usually the first mortgage bonds of railroads are amply secured, especially of the older railroads...
-Railway Finance. Part 3
10. Objections To Collateral Trust Bonds The chief objection to a collateral trust bond is that the securities too often fluctuate so much in value as to impair the lender's security. Of course, th...
-Railway Finance. Part 4
13. Services Of Bankers To raise money on these various kinds of obligations, the aid of bankers is often sought. They have money of their own, and are intrusted with the money of others. They have...
-Appendix. Short Form Of Statement Of A Firm Asking Credit
To the Fourth National Bank, of the City of New York. Firm Name....................... Business............. . . . Address.................................... For the purpose of procuring cre...
-Appendix. Short Form Of Statement Of A Firm Asking Credit. Continued
Full Form To the........................Bank of........................ Corporate or Firm Name.......................................... Location ............................................ ...









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