The second end - accumulation for a special purpose like a musical education or a voyage to foreign countries - needs no comment.
As to the third end of Savings - the provision of an income from investments when one is no longer earned - that calls for more than ten per cent of any ordinary income. Each family or individual must calculate and plan for the best methods. In Chapter XV some suggestions are made as to the types of investment suited to different types of individual or family. It should be the rule in the Savings item that besides the sum set aside from the yearly income, all interest on money already saved should be turned back into the Savings account. Where savings have been invested in a house the family should if possible pay regular rent to itself and invest the money. If this is not done, the house is likely to prove no saving, as far as future income goes. Money saved for the first purpose - the emergency - may be available for the second purpose, where the emergency does not arise or does not prove serious. Savings for the two purposes are not kept physically separate, of course, but unless the distinction as to the two needs is kept clear, a family that has saved a little money by careful planning and some deprivations is apt to be discouraged when it is all swallowed up in one siege of typhoid fever. Every family should expect emergencies and plan philosophically for them; then if they do not come, so much the better. There is no question that saving becomes easier as the savings account grows. The interest in a growing savings account is a natural and almost a universal interest. In former days it often led to a love of money for its own sake and so to the miser's joy in his hoard. But in modern times there is little danger that the ordinary human being will grow to care more for money than for all the opportunities that money makes possible.
The first obligation in planning expenditure is to insure physical and mental health for the family; and for the latter a certain amount of recreation is essential. The second obligation is to the general good - to give one's share. The third obligation is to the future - to make due provision for it in the form of savings. After these three obligations are met, the family choice decides the rest. There may be instances where the second obligation has to yield to the third, but normally they go hand in hand to make for happiness and good citizenship.
In recording Savings it is frequently advisable to have several cards. Savings-Insurance and Savings-Bonds may well be kept apart. When any part of savings is so invested that money must be paid out, it is almost necessary to keep a separate card for that item. For example, if the family owns some real estate, there will be taxes and perhaps other charges. The card for Savings-Hollis St. Lots may show expense only, to be considered as Savings and added to the Assets list by adding this year's payments to last year's valuation of the lots in question. If the family builds a house on one lot, to rent, the heading becomes Savings-176 Hollis St., and the card shows the income as well as the outgo. All such records are naturally kept in some form by the business man, but if the family, or such members of it as are old enough to use the records, are to know where they stand, the figures should appear there.
Service. The wages of employees in the household and payment for extra services outside are chargeable here, except where a specific heading claims the item. Laundry, for example, records the wages paid a laundress, but if she spends half her day only on the laundry and the other half on cleaning, the charge should be divided. The chauffeur, or, if he is also houseman, the due part of his cost, is charged to Automobile. Fees to porters are part of Transportation (or perhaps Recreation or Vacation). The cost of cutting the grass or caring for the garden are Care of House-Outside, although when the garden produces food, the charge must be made to Food-Vegetable Garden. For any work of cleaning in the house it is simpler to use the heading Service. If one wishes to know the total that has been paid during the year in wages and fees, this can easily be obtained from the different headings. If it is advisable to keep a current record it is better to enter all charges as Service, marking with a * or some other device all items that are also charged elsewhere. By keeping the starred items in a column of their own, it is easy to keep the account straight.
For regular employees - what we used in unregenerate days to call servants - there is gradually being established an industrial basis. Instead of the old idea that the maid's time belongs entirely to the housekeeper who employs her, and who generously gives her an afternoon off and a number of free evenings, it is recognized that the employee's time is her own except as she contracts to sell a certain fixed amount of it to her employer. During this definite schedule of hours she works continuously, and at least in the city where this is possible, she does not live in the house or eat her meals there as part of her payment, but goes out for them, as a stenographer or factory worker would do. Sometimes she has a room in the house, as part payment, but this is a matter of choice. In such cases the money wage is of course higher than under the old arrangement, but there seems to be general agreement among those who have tried the method whole heartedly that the money cost to the household is not greater than before. In reckoning the cost of a regular employee on the old basis, one must add to wages the cost of food, of at least light for the bedroom, of wear and tear, and if the room is not a superfluity, of rent. These costs are not separated in the budget, but they should be considered, and at the end of the year it would "be well to add them in lump sums to the "Service" total, so that the question of cost of service is clear.