This section is from the book "Business Finance", by William Henry Lough. Also available from Amazon: Business Finance, A Practical Study of Financial Management in Private Business Concerns.
Another immediate cause of technical insolvency, which is quite frequent among railroad corporations, is inability to meet maturing obligations by reason of market conditions. A company may be reasonably sound and well able to carry its load of indebtedness and yet may find itself in no position, at a given period when market conditions are unfavorable, to refund maturing bonds or to put out a new issue. This situation will very seldom arise with a corporation that enjoys really high credit, but it may easily arise with those that enjoy only fair to medium credit. The fact that an obligation falls due at an inconvenient time may be regarded as in one sense an accidental misfortune, though in another sense the corporation, if it had always been well handled, would probably not find itself in difficulties wholly by reason of an unreceptive market. Though there are other causes for technical insolvencies, the three that have been named - deficiency of working capital, depletion of cash in order to pay dividends, and maturity of bonds or notes under unfavorable market conditions - may be picked out as those which are most usual.