§ Scalesor chaff of the heads entire...
.....................Nos. 1 - 3
§ Scalesor chaff of the heads tricuspidate.........
....Nos.4 - 7
1 IS. yuccaefolium Mx. Erect; lvs. broadly linear, parallel-veined, ciliate with remote soft spines; bracts tipped with spines, those of the involucels entire, shorter than the ovate-globous heads. - Ц Prairies and Pine barrens, W. and S. A remarkable plant appearing like one of the Endogenae. Very glaucous. St. simple. 1 to 5f high. Lvs. often 1 to 2f long, 1/2 to 11/2' wide. Heads pedunculate, 1/2 to 1' diam. Fls. white, inconspicuous. Jl., Aug. (This name, if allowable as Dr. Gray suggests, is more appropriate than E. aquaticum L. in part.)
2 E. prostratum Baldw? Sts. filiform, prostrate, rooting at the joints; lvs. (small) of two forms in the same cluster, some ovate, dentate, petiolate, others 3-cleft with lanceolate segments, middle segm. largest; heads on slender peduncles, axillary, small, ovate; involucre bracts 4 to 6, linear, rather longer than the head; scales entire, shorter than the fls. - Ц In wet places, Ga. and Fla. (Mettauer). St. 6 to 12' long, many from one root. Lvs. 4 to 7" long. Hds. 3" long, white, the fls. blue. Jn. - Oct. (E. gracile Ell)
ß. FOLIOSUM. Lvs. larger, all 3-cleft, irregularly toothed; bracts of the invol. leafy, twice longer than the oblong heads. - La. (Hale). (E. prostratum Nutt.)
3 E. Baldwinii Spreng. Sts. filiform, prostrate, clustered; lowest lvs. oblong, cuneate, petiolate, angular-toothed, lower stem lvs. 3-cleft, with lance-linear, cut-toothed segm., upper all linear or fiilform, clustered, obtuse, entire; ped. longer than the lvs.; hds. very small, globular; invol. not distinguishable from the entire, scales. - Tallahassee (Mettauer) to Apalachieola (Chapman). St. 10 to 20' long. Hds. 2" diam. (E. gracile Baldw.)
4 E. aromáticum Baldw. Lvs. pinnate segm. cuspidate, entire, cartilaginous along the margin, the 3 upper more distant and conspicuous; lfts. of the invol. about 5, 3-cleft; hds. globous, long-pedunculate; scales tricuspidate. - Ц In dry pino barrens, Fla. Sts. 9 to 18' long, assurgent, beset with the short (1) bristly, pinnate lvs. Hds. many, 6 to 8" diam. Aug.- Nov.
5 E. virgátum Lam. Lvs. oval or oblong, thin, abruptly petiolate, dentate-serrate, the upper cauline, subsessilo; invol. of 6 to 8 linear lvs., longer than the do-pressed, globous hds.; scales tricuspidate. - Ц Wet pine barrens, S. Car. to Fla. and La. St. 2 to 4f high, simple or cymously branched with slender, virgate branches. Hds. 5"diam. Fls. pale blue or white. Jl. - Sept. (E. ovalifolium Mx.)
6 E. Virginianum Lam. Lvs. linear-lanceolate, uncinately serrate, tapering to both ends; invol. of 7 to 8 linear lfts., longer than the hds., 3-cleft or spinous-den-tate; scales tricuspidate. - Ц Marshes, N. J (Rev. J. Holton) to Ohio and La. St hollow, 3 to 4f high, branched above. Lvs. 6 to 10' by 5 to 10", upper ones much smaller. Hds. numerous, less than 1' in length. Fls. palo blue, or nearly white. Jl, Aug. (E. aquaticum Mx.)
7 E. Mettaueri. Tall, simple, erect; lvs. linear, few, distinctly dent-serrate, consisting chiefly of the fistular, inflated, membranous midvein, jointed by transverse partitions within and narrowly winged by the lamina; bracts of the invol. 8 to 10, silvery above, longer than the head, with long, cuspidate teeth; scales tricuspidate.- Ц In wet places, Newport, Fla. (Mettauer.) The tallest of our species, often 6f high. Its characteristic, hollow-jointed lvs. are 12 to 20' long.- Allied to E. Virginianum Lam.
5. P0LYTAE'NIA, DC. (Gr. , many, , vittae.)Calyx limb 5-toothed ; petals with a long inflexed point; fruit oval, glabrous, lenticularly compressed on the back, with a thickened, corky margin; ribs obscure or obsolete; commissure with 4 to 6 vittae; seeds planoconvex. - A smooth herb, with bipinnately divided lvs. Invol. 0. In-volucel of setaceous bracts.
P. Nuttállii DC. Prairies and barrens, "W. States, etc. St. furrowed, scabrous or nearly smooth. Lower lvs. on long petioles, segm. incisely toothed, upper ones 3-cleft, lobes entire or with lateral teeth. Umbels terminal and opposite the lvs., about 2' broad. Fruit large (3" long) tumid and smooth, with a thick, corky pericarp, and the flavor of turpentine. May.
6. PASTINA'CA, Tourn. Parsnip. (Lat. pastus, food or repast; from the nutritive properties of the root.) Calyx limb 5-toothed; petals broad-lanceolate, with a long inflexed point; fruit much compressed, oval, with a broad margin; carpels with 5 nearly obsolete ribs ; intervals with single vittae;carpophore 2-parted; seeds flat.- ® Rt. fusiform. Invol. mostly 0; involucels 0 or few-leaved. Fls. yellow. (Includes our genera 8, 9, and 31, according to Benth. & Hook.)
P. sativa L. Lvs. pinnate, downy beneath, lfts. oblong, incisely toothed, the upper one 3-lobed. - Grows wild abundantly in fields, by fences, etc. The root is fusiform, large, sweet flavored, esculent, as every one knows, in its cultivated state, but in its wild state becomes hard, acrid and poisonous, and much dwindled in size. St. 3f high, erect, furrowed, smooth, branching. Umbels large, terminal. Fls. yellow, small. Fr. large, flat. Jl. § ‡
7. HERAC'LEUM, L. Cow Parsnip. (Named after the hero Hercules; it being a rank, robust plant.) Calyx limb of 5 small, acute teeth; petals obcordate, with the point inflexed, often radiant in the exterior flowers, and apparently deeply 2-cleft; fruit compressed, flat, with a broad, flat margin, and 3 obtuse, dorsal ribs to each carpel; intervals with single vittae ; seeds flat. - Stout herbs with large umbels. Invol. deciduous. Involucels many-leaved.
H. lanatum L. Lvs. ternate, petiolate, tomentous beneath, lfts. petioled, round-cordate, lobed; fr. orbicular. - Penn. to Lab., W. to Oregon. A large, coarse-looking plant in moist cultivated grounds. Sts. about 4f high, thick, furrowed,