24. MYLOCA'RIUM, Willd. Buckwheat Tree. (Gr. a mill, a kernel, a fanciful name.) Calyx 5-toothed, minute ; petals 5, obovate, obtuse; stamens 10, very short; pistil with winged angles; capsule corky, 2 or 3-winged, 3-celled, with 3 subulate seeds.-An evergreen shrub, with branches irregularly whorled, elliptical lvs., and terminal rac. of white, fragrant fls.
M. liguatrinum Willd.-Borders of swamps, Ga, and Fla. A perfectly smooth, elegant shrub, 4 to 8f high. Lvs. thick, rather acute, entire, flat, veinless, sessile, 1' to 18" long. Fruit drupe-like, pendulous, 2, rarely 3 of the angles produced into corky wings, suggesting the idea of buckwheat Apr., May.
Suborder IV. PYROLEae. The Wintergreen Tribe.
25. PYR'OLA, Salisb. Wintergreen. (Lat. diminutive of Pyrus, as the leaves (of P. elliptica) resemble those of the pear tree.) Calyx 5-parted ; petals 5, equal; stamens 10, anthers large, pendulous, fixed by the apex, 2-horned at base, opening by 2 pores at top; style thick as if sheathed; stigmas 5, appearing as rays or tubercles ; capsule 5-celled, 5-valved, opening at the angles, many-seeded.-Low, scarcely suffiruticous, evergreen herbs. Lvs. radical or nearly so, entire. Scapes mostly racemous, from a decumbent stem or rhizome. (Fig. 345.)
§ Stamens and style straight. Stigmas peltate, 5-rayed...........................
§ Stamens ascending. Style declined and curved. Stigma 5-tubercled. (a)
a Leaves dull (not shining). Petals greenish-white.................................
a Leaves thick and shining. Flowers white or rose-colored...........................
1 P. secunda L. Lvs. broadly ovate, acute, subserrate, longer than the petiole ; rac. secund; cor. oblong.-In dry woods, Can. and Nor. States. Plant 5 to 8' high, bearing one or two fascicles of leaves near the base. Lvs. acute at each end, with appressed-pointed serratures, appearing crenate. Pod. scape-like, bearing a 1-sided cluster of 10 to 15 greenish-white fls. Petals oblong, shorter than the style. Jn., Jl.
2 P. minor L. Lvs. roundish-ovate, coriaceous, repand-crenulate; petioles dilated at base, shorter than the laminae; rac. subspicate; bract equaling or exceeding the very short pedicels; cal. lobes short, subacute; sty. included in the globular corolla.-In woods, White Mts., N. H., and Brit. Am. Scape angular, 6 to 9' high. Lvs. mucronulate at apex. Cor. white, slightly tinged with purple. Jl.
3 P. chlorantha Swartz. Lvs. orbicular, crenulate, half as long as the narrow petiole ; rac. few-flowered ; segm. of the cal. very short, obtuse ; pet. oblong; pores of the anth. conspicuously tubular; stig. projecting beyond the sheath.-In woods, Can. and N. States, common. Lvs. smaller than in either of the following, often perfectly orbicular, but more frequently inclining to ovate, 1/2 to 1' diam., smooth, shining, coriaceous, petioles 1 to 2' long. Scapes erect, angular, 8 to 12' high, bearing a long open raceme. Fls. nodding, large, petals greenish white Jn., Jl.
4 P. elliptica Nutt. Lvs. elliptical, membranous, obscurely dentate, longer than the petioles; scape mostly naked; cal. small, with ovate, obtuse segments,pores of the anth. scarcely tubular.-In woods, Can. and N. States to Wis. Lvs. 1 to 2' long, more than half as wide, mostly acute, subentire, thin, smooth and light green. Scape 5 to 9' high, slender, seldom bracteate, bearing short racemes. Fls. nodding, very fragrant; pedicels longer than the bracts, but only half as long as the declinate, recurved style. Pet. white. Jl.
5 P. rotundifolia L. Lvs. orbicular-ovate, entire or orenulate, shorter than the dilated petiole; scape 3-angled; segm. of cal. ovate, pores of anth. distinctly tubular ; sty. clavate, the 5 stigmas projecting and often distinct.-Common in woods, (Jan. to Car., W. to Wis. Lvs. all radical, round or inclining to ovate, nearly 2' diam., smooth and shining, with conspicuous, reticulate veins, petioles margined, as long as, and sometimes longer than the blade. Scape 6 to 12 high, bracteate at base and in the middle. Fls. drooping, large, fragrant, white, in an oblong, terminal raceme. Jn.. Jl.
β. uliginosa. Lvs. rather dull, petioles much longer than the blade; fls. smaller.-Swamps, Galen, N. Y. (Sartwell), etc. (P. uliginosa Torr. & Gr.)
6 P. asarifolia Mx. Lvs. reniform-orbicular, coriaceous, entire or crenulate, shorter than the dilated petiole; scape angular, furrowed; rac. lax, many-flowered ; segm. of cil. triangular-lanceolate; anth. not produced into tubes; sty. produced beyond the sheath.-In old woods, Can. and N. States. Lvs. all radical, 1 1/4 to 1 3/4 diam., smooth and shining, conspicuously cordate at base, longer than, but not twice as long as the margined petioles. Scape 5 to 10' high, purplish, bracteate at base and near the middle, racemous one half its length. Fls. nodding, remote, large, deeply tinged with purple in. all their parts. Sty. about the same length and curvature as the pedicels. Jn.
26. MONE'SES, Salisb. (Gr. one, delight; i. e., one pretty flower.) Calyx 5-parted; cor. 5-parted, rotate; sta. 10, regular,
2-spurred at base, opening by 2 tubular pores at apex; sty. rigid ; stig. peltate, radiately 5-cleft or lobed ; caps. 5-valved, 5-celled, many-seeded. - Low, simple, smooth. Lvs. at top of the stem roundish, crenulate, petiolate, veiny. Peduncle terminal, one-flowered, longer than the stamens. Fls. white.
M. grandiflora Salisb. Woods, among mosses, Bradford, Vt., Keene, N. H.
• .(Bigelow), Dexter, Jeff. Co., N. Y. (Vasey), Brit. Am. Root creeping. Stem ascending, very short. Leaves 7-9" diam. Scape or peduncle about 3' high, slender, with a bract near the middle. Flower 9" diam. June. (Pyrola uniflora L.)
27. CHIMAPH'ILA, Ph. Pipsissiwa. (Gr. winter, to love; equivalent to the English name Winter green.) Calyx 5-partcd; petals 5, spreading; stamens 10 ; filaments dilated in the middle ; anth. cells produced into tubes, opening by a 2-lipped pore at apex; Style very short, thick ; capsule 5-celled, opening from the summit; seeds œ. -Small, suffruticous, evergreen plants, with the habit of Pyrola. Lvs. Routine, serrate, evergreen, opposite or irregularly verticillate. Fls. terminal. (Fig. 45.)