3 E. brevibarbis Mx. Culm stout, 3 to 7f, erect, glabrous; lvs. broad-linear, smooth, except at the base; pan. large (1 to 2f), contracted, lance-oblong, the rac. more distinct from the fewer hairs; hairs of the invol. hardly as long as the larger (4') spikelet, 1/4 the length of the awn which is some twisted and its pale bifid. - Low grounds, S. States. Sept., Oct.
4 E. strictus Baldw. Culm 4 to 7f, strictly erect and glabrous; lvs. very long, narrower (3 to 5") than in the other species, rough-edged; pan. very strict, 1 to 2f long, branches erect, appressed; invol of hairs minute; awn straight, terminal on its deciduous pale. - Ga. to La. The whole panicle is reddish brown. Aug., Sept.
68. SACCHARUM, L. Sugar Cane. (Gr. Arabic, soukar,
Eng. sugar.) Spikelets all fertile, in pairs, one sessile, the other pedicellatc, 2-flowered, lower fl. neuter with a single pale, upper fl. perfect, of 2 pales; gl. subequal, awnless; pales thin and hyaline, awnless; stain. 1 to 3. - Gigantic, tropical Grasses with branching panicles. Spikelets cinctured at base with long silky hairs.
S. officinarum L. Culm solid with pith, closely jointed, 8 - 20f, erect, with many broad, flat, linear-lanceolate leaves; panicle 1 to 2f in length, composed of numerous long, filiform loosely erect-spreading racemes, richly clothed with the long white silky involucrate hairs. - Native in S. Asia. Among sugar plants this still holds the preeminence. Its delicious product, now the indispensable luxury of the world, was unknown to the ancients. It is propagated from cuttings of the rhizome, and seldom permitted to waste its sweetness in flowering.
69. ANDROPO'GON, L. Beard Grass. (Gr. a man's, beard.) Spikelets in pairs at each joint of a slender rachis, one on a plumous-bearded pedicel, incomplete, the other sessile, 2-flowered; lower flower of 1 empty pale; upper ; pales thin, hyaline, the lower of the tipped with an awn; glumes subeoriaceous; stamens 1 to 3; grain free. - . Coarse Grasses. Inflor. various.
§ Inflorescence in a naked (leafless) panicle. Sterile spikelet a mere pedicel.....................
§ Inflorescence In distinct spikes exserted from the sheaths, (a)
a Sterile spikelets nothing but barren pedicels. Spikes sheathed at base...........
Nos. 2, 3
a Sterile spikelets with glumes on the pedicels, (b)
b Spikes silvery white, in conjugate pairs...............................................
b Spikes digitate, 2 to 5, brownish...........................................................
Nos. 5, 6
b Spikes single, terminal, one on each branch.......................................
Nos. 7, 8
§ Inflorescence spicate, enclosed in the sheaths.................................................................
Nos. 9, 10
1 A. nutans L. Indian Grass. "Wood Grass. Culm simple, 3 to 6f, erect, with smooth sheaths and glaucous lvs.; pan. rather dense, oblong, slender, at length nodding; spikelets in pairs or 3s, apparently pedicellate, but the fertile is, in feet, sessile as in the other species, all tawny, the sterile reduced to mere pedicels in contact with the , clothed with short bristles; spikelet bristly-ciliate, with a ring of bristles at base, and tipped (the lower pale) with a contorted awn. - Sandy fields or woods. Can., N. Y. to Ga. and La. (A. avenaceus Mx. A. ciliatus E1l Sorghum, Gray.)
2 A. macrurus Mx. Culm 2 to 3f erect, much branched and bushy; lvs. long, linear, upper spathiform, lance-linear; racemes small, very numerous, fascicled at the upper joints forming a large leafy and silky panicle; spkl. minute, with a straight bristle-like awn, the neutral only a fine pedicel merely, with white, silky hairs half as long (3 - 4") as the awn; stam. 1. - Damp soils, S. States. Sept., Oct.
3 A. virginicus L. Culm tall (3 to 6f) compressed, more or less downy with scattered hairs as well as the long and narrow, carinate lvs.; upper half diffusely paniculate; spikes conjugate, soft, feather-like, hardly as long (8 to 12") as their bract; abort, fl. a mere capillary pedicel, longer than the fl. with thin silky white hairs half as long as the straight similar awn. - Dry soils, S. States, commoa Oct. (A. dissitiflorus Mx.)
β. vaginatus differs only in its fewer, shorter spikes and longer bracts which often much exceed them. (A. vagin. Ell.)
4 A. argenteu3 Ell. Culm purplish, slender, much branched, glabrous, branches mostly solitary, spikes conjugate, 1 to 1 1/2' long, exserted beyond the sheath; spkl. oppressed to the rachis; abortive fl. a minute, subulate glume on a thick ped. appressed to the , its fawn-white hairs copious, half the length of the roughish, brown awn. - Dry soils, S. States. The silvery hairs conceal the fls.
5 A. furcatus Muhl Forked Spike. St. semiterete above, 4 - 7f high; lvs. lance-linear, rough-edged, radical ones very long; spikes digitate or fasciculate, in 2s - 5s, 3 - 5' long, purple; spikelets appressed, abortive one on a plumous pedicel,
with 2 paleae, awnless, perfect one with 2 unequal glumes; lower palea bifid, awned between the divisions. - Meadows and low grounds, Can., N. Y. to Ga. and W. States. Aug. (A. ternarius Mx.)
6 A. tetrastychus Ell. Culm glabrous, 2 to 3f erect, with long, keeled, very hairy lvs. and sheaths; branches solitary, alternate, forming a contracted panicle; spikes usually in 4s, conjugate, terminal; gls. serrulate, longer than the hairs of the pedicel; perf. spkl. monandrous, and with a straight awn. - Damp pine barrens about Charleston (Elliott).
7 A. scoparius Michx. Broom Grass. St. slender, paniculate, 3f high, branched, one side furrowed, branches solitary or 2 or 3-fascicled, erect; lvs. lance-linear, somewhat hairy and glaucous; spikes simple, lateral and terminal, on long peduncles, 2 - 3 from each sheath, purple; spikelets remote, abortive one neuter, mostly subulate-awned, the hairs of its ped. as long as the spikelet. - In dry fields, forming tufts, U. S. and Can.