4 J. setacens Rostkow. Scape filiform, striate; umbel lateral, subsimple, few-flowered; ped. compressed, several flowered; perianth segments very acute. - Swamps, Penn. to Fla., growing in tufts, about 2f high. Scapes weak and slender (not setaceous), sheathed at base with the shorter leaves. Panicle small, 20 to 30-flowered, bursting from the side of the scape some distance below the summit. Fls. in small heads, scarcely brownish. Jn., Jl.
5 J. maritimus Lam. Black Rush. Scapes numerous, tall, rigid, terete, sheathed at base; panicle decompound, far below the summit; fls. aggregated in roundish heads; sep. lanceolate, acuminate, longer than the roundish-obovate, mucronate capsule. - In brackish marshes, Va. to Fla. Scapes 2 to 5f high, forming dense tufts. Panicle 2 to 3' long, with numerous heads, and subtended by a shorter bract. Fls. dark brown. Jl. (J. acutus Ell., etc.)
6 J. scirpoides Lam. St. leafy, terete, stout; lvs. terete, slender, with frequent joints; panicle cymous, branches few, suberect, heads 5 to 20, green, about 20-flowered; sep. rigid, lance-acuminate, sharp; stam. 3, nearly as long; style much exserted; caps, taper-pointed, as long as the sepals; seeds oblong, merely acute at each end. - Can. and U. S., especially coastward, in wet places. St. 1 to 2f high, about 3-leaved below. Lvs. shorter than the stern. Heads 3 to 4" diam., finally straw-colored. May - Jl. (J. echinatus Ell.)
7 J. polycephalus Mx. St. few-leaved, terete, strict; lvs. terete-compressed, slender, strict, many-jointed; panicle decompound, loose; heads 5 to 15, globous, many-flowered; sep. subulate, acuminate, bristle-pointed, the 3 outer longer and wider, greenish, stam. 3, nearly as long; caps, oblong-triangular, abruptly acuminate, longer than the sepals, at length brownish; seeds oblong, with a white tail at each end. - Wet places, Can. and U. S. Sts. 12 to 30' high, rigid, but slender, the lvs. shorter. Heads 8 to 20-flowerod, 4" diam. May - Jl. (J. paradoxus Gray.)
8 J. debilis Gray. Sts. weak and slender, flattened; lvs. flattened, obscurely jointed; panicle de- or suprade-compound, loosely spreading; hds. few-flowered, straw-color; sep. lanceolate, acute, shorter than the oblong capsule; seeds oblong, acute at each end. - Common in wet places, Can. and U. S. Sts. 9 to 24' long, from fibrous roots. Heads about 5-flowered (in spec, from Wis., 1 to 3-flowered), fls. 2" long. Lvs. nearly filiform in the smaller plants. (J. subverti-cillatus Muhl. nee Wulf.)
9 J. acuminatus Mx St. slender, strict, terete; lvs. terete, many-jointed; panicle decompound, branches suberect; heads numerous, 3 to 5-flowered, chestnut brown, fls. erect; sep. strongly veined, lanceolate, acute and mucronate, much shorter than the oblong-triangular, abruptly pointed capsule; seeds tailed at both ends. - Very common in bogs, etc., Can. and U. S. Sts. 9 to 30' high, slender or rather stout, the slender lvs. much shorter, many-jointed. Capsules becoming deep brown or (in the Southern spec.) almost black.
10 J. Pondii. St. rather stout, terete; lvs. terete-compressed, jointed; panicle spreading, diffuse, decompound; heads numerous, globular, 5 to 12-flowered, chestnut colored; sep. equal, lance-acuminate, bristle-pointed, as long as the triangular-ovate, abruptly pointed capsule; stam. 3; seeds oval, merely acute at each end. - Wet places, Car. to Ga. (Feay, Pond,) and Ky. Sts. 1 to 2f high, with 1 or 2 short leaves. Heads 20 to 40, 3 to 4" diam., in a wide panicle. Mar. - Jn. (J. acuminatus Ell. nec Mx.)
11 J. megacephalus. St. stout, ascending at base; lvs. distinctly nodous, elongated, the upper usually exceeding the inflorescence; heads few, glomerate, or some pedunculate, rarely paniculate, large, 30 to 60-flowered, tawny; sep. subulate, bristle-pointed, scarcely shorter than the acuminate capsule; stam. 6; seeds acute. - Borders of streams and lakes, N. Y. to Wis., S. to Fla. St. 16' to 3 high. Heads 5 to 6" diam., globular, 1 to 5 to 12, clustered or panicled. Sepals with tawny awns, greenish at base. (J. nodosus, β. megacephaius Torr.)
12 J. nodosus L. St. erect, slender; lvs. slender or often filiform, distinctly nodous, the upper often exceeding the inflorescence; hds. few (1 to 5 to 9), in a simple cluster, tawny or brown, 5 to 20-flowered; sep. ovate-lanceolate, acuminate-awned, 3-veined, shorter than the rostrate capsule; stam. 6; seeds oval, acute. - . Sandy swamps and shores, Can. to Car. Sts. 12 to 18' high. Heads 3 to 6" diam. - Appears very different from the last. (J. Rostkovii E. Meyer.)
23 J. articulatus L. β. pelocarpus Gray. Stem erect, compressed, 1 to 3-leaved; lvs. terete-compressed, setaceous, obscurely nodous; pauicle spreading; heads 2 to 6-flowered; sep. oblong-lanceolate, the outer acute, the inner obtuse, scarcely as long as the triangular-oblong, bluntly mucronate capsule; stam. 6; seeds slightly apiculate. - N. Eng. to Mich, and Can., in wet places, not common. Sts. 9 to 18' high. Hds. chestnut colored. Anth. yellow. (J. pelacarpus E. Meyer.)
14 J. militaris Bigl. Bayonet Rush. St. stout, terete, sheathed at base, bearing below the middle a single terete, nodous, erect leaf which much exceeds the inflorescence; panicle erect, compound; hds. many, brown, 4 to 9-flowered; sep. lanceolate, acute, as long as the acuminate capsule. - Bogs coastward, Mass. to Ga. St 2 to 3f high. Leaf 15 to 30', overtopping the stem by six inches or more. Heads small Stamens mostly 6.
15 J. marginatus Rostkow. St. compressed; lvs. flat, smooth, gramineous; panicle, corymbous, simple, proliferous; hds. 2 to 9-flowered, tawny or chestnut-colored; bracteoles awned; sep. obtuse, soft, about as long as the obtuse capsule; stam. 3. - In low grounds, N. E. to Ga., W. to I11. Sts. 1 to 3f high. Radical lvs. numerous, sheathing, cauline 1 or 2. Panicle consisting of several globous, 3 to 6-flowered heads, both pedunculate and sessile, longer than the erect bracts at base. Sep. edged with dark purple, with a green keel. Jn. - Aug.