Plants herbaceous, generally grass-like, often leafless, with small, dry, green flowers. Perianth more or less glume-like, regular, 6-leaved, in 2 series (sepals and petals.) Stamens 6, rarely 3, hypogynous. Anthers 2-celled, introrse Style 1. Ovary 3-carpeled, 3 (or by the dissepiment not reaching the center l)-celled. Capsule 3-valved, with the dissepiments from the middle of the valves. Seeds few or many, with a fleshy albumen. Fig. 377.

Genera 15, species 200, chiefly natives of the cool parts of the earth. Properties unimportant.

Genera

Perianth yellow (greenish outside). Stigma 1. Capsule ∞-seeded............

Narthecium.

1

Perianth green or brownish. Stigmas 3. - Capsule 3-seeded............................................

LUZULA.

2

- Capsule ∞-seeded...........................................

JUNCUS.

3

1. NARTHE'CIUM, Mœhr. (Gr.Order CLI Juncaceae Rushes 2092 a rod or wand; in allusion to the slender inflorescence.) Perianth 6-parted, colored, spreading, persistent; stam. 6; filaments hairy; caps, prismatic, 3-celled; seeds

∞, ovate-oblong, appendaged at each extremity. -Order CLI Juncaceae Rushes 2093 Root fibrous.

Lvs. ensiform. Scape nearly naked. Fls. yellowish.

N. Americanum Ker. Los. radical, striate, narrow-ensiform; rac. lax, interrupted; pedicels with a bract at base, and a setaceous bracteole near the flower. - An interesting little plant, in pine barrens and sandy swamps of N. J. Also in Can. Scapes 8 to 12' high, terete, with 2 or 3 subulate bracts. Leaves numerous, much shorter than the scape. Pedicels 3 - 7" long. Perianth greenish externally, yellow within, about half as long as the yellowish, mature capsule. Aug.

2. LU'ZULA, DC. Wood Rush. (Italian lucciola, a glow-worm; from the dew glistening upon its flowers.) Perianth persistent, bibrac-teate at base; stamens 6; capsule 1-celled, 3-seeded; seeds fixed to the bottom. - Stem jointed, leafy. Lvs. grass-like, on entire sheaths. Fls. terminal, green or brownish.

§ Flowers separate, pedicellate, in umbels or paniculate cymes......................

Nos. 1, 2

§ Flowers aggregate, - in pedunculate heads forming an umbel or cyme.............................

Nos. 3, 4

- in sessile heads forming a nodding black spike..................................

No. 5

1 L. pilosa Willd. Lvs. pilous; umbel cymous, spreading, consisting of subequal l-flowered, simple pedicels; caps, obtuse, shorter than the sepals. - Common in woods and groves, N. S. and Can. St. 4 to 16' high. Radical lvs. numerous, 2 to 4' long, hnear-lanceolate, veined, fringed with long white hairs. Umbels 8 to 12-flowered, with a leafy bract. Pedicels 5 to 10" long, finally deflexed. Perianth brown, with 2 green bractlets. May.

2 L. parviflora Desv. St. elongated; lvs, lanee-linear, glabrous; corymb decompound; ped. elongated, the branches with 3 to 5 pedicellate fls.; sep. ovate, acuminate, longer than the oval-triangular, obtuse-mucrooate capsule. - White Hills, N. H. (Prof. Bosworth), Graylock Mt., Mass. (Chadbourne), etc. Stem 12 to 18' high. Radical lvs. 8 to 10' by 3 to 5", those of the stem much shorter, all very smooth. Panicle large, nodding, many-flowered. Capsule black. Jn. (L. melanocarpa Desv.)

3 L. campestris Willd. Field Rush. Lvs. hairy; spikes globular or ovate, some on long peduncles, some nearly sessile; sep. lanceolate, acuminate-awned, longer than the obtuse capsule; seeds with a conical appendage at base - In meadows, U. S. and Can. St. simple, straight, 3 to 12' high. Lvs. grass-like, 2 to 6' long, with tufts of cotton-like hairs. Heads in a sort of umbel, with an involucre of 2 or 3 short, unequal lvs. Perianth rust-colored, capsule at length brown. May.

β. bulbosa. Bulbous; lvs. narrowly linear; sep. shorter than the globular, dark brown capsules. - Lookout Mt, Tenn. St. 6' high. With the other, but flowers earlier.

4 L. arcuata E. Meyer. Lvs, linear, channeled, glabrous; heads few, 3 to 5-flowered, on unequal, filiform, often recurved pedicels; bracts ciliate; sepals acute, reddish-brown, about equaling the roundish-elliptical capsule; seeds not appen-daged, - White Mts., N. H. (not common) and Arc. Am.

5 T. spicata DC. Lvs. linear, hairy at the base; spike cernuous, composed of several sessile globular heads; sep. acuminate-awned, about equal in length to the subglobous short-pointed, black capsule. White Hills, N. H. (Prof. Bosworth). St 8 to 10' high, slender, simple. Lvs. 2 to 3' long, a line wide, smooth except at the base. Spike an inch long, appearing greyish black when mature. Seeds oval, with a small, oblique appendage. Jl.

3. JUN'CUS, L. Rush. (Lat. jungo, to join; because ropes were anciently made of these plants.) Perianth 6-sepalcd, glume-like, persistent; stamens 6, rarely 3; capsule mostly 3-celled; seeds numerous, attached to the inner edge of the dissepiments. - St. simple, leafy or leafless, with terete, flat or channeled lvs., entire sheaths and small, bibracteate, greenish fls.

§ Cyme or panicle lateral, bursting from the side of the scape above the middle. (a)

a Leaves none. Flowers separate, mostly hexandrous, greenish..................................

Nos.1 - 3

a Leaves few, radical, jointless. Flowers capitate, 6-androus, brownish.......

Nos. 4, 5

§ Cyme or panicle terminal on the stem or scape. Leaves present (b)

b Flowers capitate, few or many in each head (c)

c Leaves jointed (nodous) with internal, transverse partitions, (d)

d Stamens 3. - Heads green or pale straw-colord................................

- Heads brown or chestnut colored..................................

Nos. 9,10

d Stamens 6. Heads tawny or brown, - 10 to 60 - flowered................

Nos. 11, 12

- 2 to 9 - flowered.....................

Nos. 13, 14

c Leaves not jointed - Heads many, brown. Sepals obtuse. Stamens 3..........

No. 15

- Heads few or man v. green. Sepals awned...........

No. 16

- Heads mostly but one. Sepals acute. Stamens 6

Nos. 17.18

b Flowers separate, not in heads, mostly secund. Stamens 6. (e)

e Stems leafy, panicle diffuse, many-flowered.....................................

Nos. 19, 20

e Stems naked, except at base, scape-like............................................................

Nos. 21-23

1 J. Balticus Willd. Baltic Rush. Rhizome creeping, prostrate, rooting; scapes numerous, sheathed at base, opaque terete, rigid, slender, pungently acute; panicle near the summit, small; fls, separate, brown; sep. subequal, ovate-lanceolate, very* acute, equaling the elliptical, mucronate capsule. - Sandy shores, Me. to Wis. and Can. Scape leafless, 1 to 3f high, hard, tough, closely arranged along the scaly rootstock, the sheaths 3" to 3' long. Panicle 2 to 5' below the apex of the scape, 1' long Fls. 20 to 40, reddish brown.

2 J. effusus L. Soft Rush. Bull-rush. Scape straight, not rigid; panicle lateral, loose, decompound, sometimes dense; fls. separate: sep, green, tapfer-pointed, as long as the obovate, obtuse capsules. - Very common in ditches and moist lands, forming tufts, Can. and U. S. Scape solid, with a spongy pith, soft, striate, 2 to 3." high, bearing a loose, spreading panicle which protrudes from a fissure opening in the side of the stem about half way up. Fls. small, green, numerous, with 3 white anthers and yellowish seeds. Jn., Jl.

3 J. filiformis L. (not Mx.) Rhizome creeping, leafless, scape slender, filiform minutely striate, flaccid; panicle subsimple, lateral, near the middle of the scape; fls. separate; sep. pale, nearly equal, lanceolate, a little longer than the pale, shining, obovate, mucronate capsule. Borders of lakes, N. States and Can. Scape 1 to 2f high, with a few brown sheaths at base. Fls., some pedicellate, some sessile. Jl