¶ 8. Pistillate spikes with enclosed or nearly enclosed peduncles. Perigyhia mostly inflated, beaked, angular-striate. Spikes often quite large, (r)

r Perigynium pubescent, brownish, abruptly beaked.........................

Nos. 98, 99

r Perigynium smooth, yellowish, with a short, recurved beak.............................

Nos. 100,101

r Perigynium smooth, inflated, with a long, straight beak, (s)

s Spikes very short, - Whole plant yellowish green...........................

Nos. 102 - 104

- Whole plant dark green or bright green......

Nos. 105,106

s Spikes oblong-cylindric, - very large, Perig. contc-rostrate........

Nos. l07 - 109

- middle size, very abruptly rostrate............

No. 110

¶ 9. Pistillate spikes with exserted peduncles. Perigynia 3-angled, scarce inflated, not much beaked, and (as well as the glumes) more or less colored, (t)

t Leaves lanceolate or lance-linear, 4 to 10' wide, (u)

u Perigynium acuminate with a recurved point........................................

Nos. 111 - 113

u Peritryn. acute or obtuse. - Lvs. lanceolate, shorter than culms............

Nos. 114. 115

- Lvs. lance-linear, long as culms.......

.Nos. 110, 117

Leaves linear or setaceous (1 to 2" wide or less), (v)

v Perigynia smooth and not rostrate, (w)

w Bracts all exceeding the - oblong, dense spikes.........................

.Nos. 118, 119

- slender, loose spikes..........................

Nos. 120, 121

w Bracts shorter than the spikes or culm, (x)

x Leaves setaceous and all radical. Glumes white.................

No. 122

x Leaves linear. - Spikes blackish. White Mts..........................

No. 123

- Spikes green. - Gl. (mostly) obtuse..................

Nos. 124, 123

- Spikes green. - Gl. (mostly) obtuse..

.Nos. 126, 127

- Glumes mucronate...

.Nos. 128,129

v Perigynia smooth (scabrous in No. 135), rostrate, (y)

y Bracts leafy, exceeding the stem and fruit................................

Nos. 130 - 132

y Bracts not exceeding the stem or fruit, (z)

z Spikes linear, slender quite loose-flowered.......................

Nos. 133, 134

z Spikes cylindrical, rather close, 3 in number.....................

.Nos. 135,136

z Spikes oblong, 6 to ∞ -fld. - Culm 4 to 6' high, very delicate....

No. 137

- Culm 1 to 2f high........

Nos. 138 - 140

v Perigynia hairy, - sterile spike linear, slender.......................................

Nos. 141,142

- sterile spike oval-oblong..........................................

Nos. 143,144

¶ 10. Pistillate spikes with peduncles (long or short), scarcely sheathed at all. (aa)

aa Spikes all erect. - Perigynia not rostrate or but slightly so............................

Nos, 145 - 147

- Perigynia rostrate, the orifice entire, or nearly so...

.Nos. 148, 140

- Perig. rostrate (few), spindle-shaped, 2-toothed....

No. 150

aa Spikes (the pistillate) soon mostly nodding, (bb)

bb Perigynia not rostrate. - Spikes ovoid, thick.............................

Nos. 151 - 153

- Spikes linear or cylindric....................

.Nos. 154, 155.

bb Perigynia rostrate, - the beak short scarcely 2-toothed...............

No. (161) 150

- the beak long and 2-parted..........................

Nos. 157 - 159

H. Staminate spikes usually 2 or more. Perigynia rostrate, (cc)

cc Perigynia clothed with wool, hairs or mealiness, (dd)

dd Perigynia long-beaked, hispid-pubescent, 2-cleft, green...................

No. 160

dd Perigynia short-beaked, - mealy glaucous, chocolate-colored...

No. 161

- densely woolly, greenish.............................

Nos. 162, 163

- hispid pubescent, brown.............................

.Nos. 164.165

cc Perigynia glabrous (or merely scabrous in No. 172). (ee)

ee Spikes (Order CLV Cyperaceae The Sedges Part 12 2171 ) on exserted peduncles. (ff)

ft' Glumes dark brownish purple. Bracts shorter than culm......

No. 166

ff Glumes greenish or tawny, or yellowish, (gg)

gg Perigymium tapering into very short beaks..................

.Nos. 167, 168

gg Perigynium long-beaked, horizontal or reilexed.....

Nos. 169, 176

gg Perigynium long-beaked, ascending. - Beak conical.

.Nos. 171,172

- Beak cylindrie

Nos. 173,174

ee Spikes (Order CLV Cyperaceae The Sedges Part 12 2172 ) on sheathed, or very short peduncles, or sessile, (hh)

hh Spikes cylindrical, length more than thrice diam. (kk)

kk Perigynium short-beaked or beakless. Bank aquatic;

Nos.175, 176

kk Perigynium decidedly beaked. - Glumes awned

Nos. 177,178

- Glumes lanceolate.

Nos. 179. 180

hh Spikes oblong or oval, turgid, length not thrice the diam. (nn)

nnOrder CLV Cyperaceae The Sedges Part 12 2173 Spikes 2 or 3 in number. - Beak cylindric.....................

Nos. 181. 182

- Beak conical..........................

No. 183

nnOrder CLV Cyperaceae The Sedges Part 12 2174 Spikes 1 or 2, - pedunculate. Beaks cylindric....

Nos. 184 185

- sessile, small. Beaks conical...............

No. 186

I. Stigmas 2. - Achenium double convex.

1 C. capitata L. Spike capitate or nearly globous,Order CLV Cyperaceae The Sedges Part 12 2175 at the summit; fr. (perigynium) roundish-ovate, close compressed, convex-concave, glabrous, acutish, longer than the ovate and rather obtuse glume; lvs. slender. - Heights of the White Mts. (Robbins).

2 C. gynocrates Wormesk.Order CLV Cyperaceae The Sedges Part 12 2176 Spike oblong, rather loose-flowered; perigynium suboval or oblong, tapering at base, veined, convex-terete, attenuate above into a terete, shortish, straight or subrecurved, bidentate beak, nearly horizontal in maturity, longer than the ovate and acute glume; culm slender, 4 to 6' high, with long slender leaves sheathing at base. Wayne Co., N. Y. (Sartwell), N. to Greenland. (C. Davalliana, 2d edit.)

3 C. exilis Dew. (Boott, Illust., No. 45.)Order CLV Cyperaceae The Sedges Part 12 2177 Spike terminal, ovate or oblong close flowered, stamiuate below, sometimes a single Order CLV Cyperaceae The Sedges Part 12 2178 spike or a single 3 spike i perig. ovate-lanceolate, convex above and slightly below, serrulate on the margin, ■minutely veined above, 2-toothed, diverging, some longer than the ovate-lanceolate glume; culm 12 to 20' high, stiffly erect, and lvs. setaceous. - Swamps, E. Mass. (Oakcs), Sandford Lake, N. Y. (Sartwell)'.

β. asdrogyna. One or more shortOrder CLV Cyperaceae The Sedges Part 12 2179 spikes below the terminal. - Manchester, N. Y. (Kneiskern).

4 C. sterilis Willd. (Boott, lllus.. No. 135.) Spike compound,Order CLV Cyperaceae The Sedges Part 12 2180 below, often dioecious; spikelets 4 - 6, ovate, subapproximate; perig. ovate, acuminate or sub-rostrate, bifid, compressed, triquetrous, scabrous on the margin, equaling the ovate, acutish glume; st. 2f high, erect and .stiff. Wet places, common. (C. stellulata β. sterilis Torn, Carey.)

5 C. bromoides Schk. Spikelets numerous, alternate,Order CLV Cyperaceae The Sedges Part 12 2181 below, sometimes all Order CLV Cyperaceae The Sedges Part 12 2182 ; perig. lanceolate, erect, acuminate, scabrous, nerved, bifid, twite longer than the ovate-lanceolate glume. - Common in small bogs, in wet places.

6 C siccata Dew. (Boott, Illust., No. 50.) Spikelets numerous,Order CLV Cyperaceae The Sedges Part 12 2183 above, often wholly Order CLV Cyperaceae The Sedges Part 12 2184 , ovate, close or approximate; perig. ovate, lanceolate, acuminate, compressed, nerved, bifid, scabrous on the margin, equaling the ovate, lanceolate glume. - Sandy plains, Westfield, Mass. (Davis); Ipswich, Mass. (Oakes); widely spread over the country, but not abundant, W. to I11.

7 C. Sartwellii Dew. Spikelets 12 - 20, ovate, sesxiile, compact, bracteate, lower •ones especially fructiferous; upper oftenOrder CLV Cyperaceae The Sedges Part 12 2185 at apex, sometimes wholly Order CLV Cyperaceae The Sedges Part 12 2186 ; perig. urate, lanceolate, convexo-concave, subidate, slightly 2-toothed, margined and scabrous on the edge, a little longer than the ovate and acute glume; lvs. flat, linear, shorter than the stem. - Junius, Seneca Co., N. Y. (Sartwell).

'8. C. distycha Huds. Spikelets many, 2-roived or compressed into a flattened, compound, loose spike; spikelets oblong-ovate, close, alternate, often branched below and the lowest sometimes remote, upper and lower oftenOrder CLV Cyperaceae The Sedges Part 12 2187 , and the intermediate wholly Order CLV Cyperaceae The Sedges Part 12 2188 , or from the middle wholly Order CLV Cyperaceae The Sedges Part 12 2189 upwards; perig. ovale, narrow-rostrate, margin serrulate, narrow, equaling the ovate, acute glume: culm erect, leafy below. - Wis. (Lapham), I11. (Vasey), Mich. (Cooley), N. to Arc. Am. (C. intermedia Good.)

9. C. decomposita Muhl. (Boott, Illust., 53.) Spike decompound or paniculate; spikelets very many, ovate, alternate; perig. ovate, convex on both sides, triangular, acutish or short rostrate, short, brownish, glabrous, larger than the ovate, acuminate, whitish glume; st. 18 - 30' high. - Found in swamps, Michigan, and in Yate3 Co., N. York (Sartwell).

10 C prairea Dew. Spike below branched; spikelets ovate, sessile, 5 to 7 on a branch; perig. ovate-lanceolate, convex both sides, scabrous on the margin, slightly bind, smaller than the ovate-lanceolate glume; st. 2 - 3f high, leafy towards the base. - Abundant in the prairies of Michigan, and sparingly found in N. England and N. Y. Resembles C. paniculata L., which has a much broader ovate glume shorter than the perigynium and is far more paniculate, and for which this has been taken. From No. 24 it is far separated by its panicle, and the color and shape of its fruit.

11 C. cephalophora Willd. Spikelets ovate, densely aggregated into an ovate head (1 1/2' long), bractcate, about 5; perig. ovate, acuminate, compressed, bifid, scabrous on the margin, with a short, ovate, and scabro-cuspidate glume, which equals it: si 8 - 10' high. - Borders of fields and woods, common, but not abundant.

12 C. Muhlenbergii Schk. Spikelets alternate, obtuse, approximate into an orate-oblong head, 3/4 long, with a long bract at the lower one; perig. ovate, convex above, very smooth, nerved, bifid, scabrous on the margin, some diverging, a little shorter than the ovate and muronat glume; st. 12 - 18' high. - I* fields, not very common, readily distinguished from the three preceding and following.

13 C. stenophylla Wahl. Spikes 3 to 5, aggregated into a roundish head; perig. ovate, roundish-ventricous, subplano-convex, vained, scabrous or serrulate on the margin, bidentate, about equaling the ovate, acute glume; culm 3 to 6' high, smooth, with long, narrow leaves. - III. to Nebraska and Brit. Am.