108 C. lupuliformis Sartivell. (B. t. 150.) Terminal spike long cylindric, pedunculate, sometimes 1 or 2 short sessile one3 below it; spikes 3 to 5, large (2 to 3'), cylindric, (9" thick) near, subsessile, the lowest more or less remote on a long, exsert peduncle, all leafy bracted and subloose-flowered; perig. globous-ovate, inflated, long and large, terete, scabrous-rostrate, 2-horned, more than twice longer than the ovate, cuspidate glume; culm 2 to 3f, erect, large, stiff, surpassed by the leafy bracts as well as by the lanceolate, rough, bright, green leaves. - Borders of marshes, common. (C. lupulina, β. polystachya Torr.)
109 C. tentaculata Muhl. Spikes 2 - 4, oblong, cylindric, (24" by 6 or 7") bracteate, upper one sessile, the rest nearly sessile, densely flowered; perig. ovate, inflated, long-rostrate, bidentate, nerved, diverging, glabrous, twice longer than the ovate and small scabro-mucronate glume; st. 1 - 2f, often large, triquetrous; lvs. linear-lanceolate, longer than the stem. - In clusters in wet or marshy places; common.
110 C. stenolepis Torr. Spike short and small, rarely wanting; spikes 3 to 5, cylindric, obtuse, oblong or rarely short, highest sometimes androgynous, upper aggregated on the zigzag stem, lowest long-pedunculate, all very dense-flowered, erect and stiff, with long and leafy bracts; perig. oblong-obovate, inflated, tapering below, abruptly obtuse, long-beaked, bifurcate, a. little longer than the ovate linear, awned glume; culm 1 to 2f, erect, strong, smooth, striate, with flat, rather wide, rough-edged, bright green leaves. - Va. to I11., in marshes, rare, late-flowering.
111 C. plantaginea Lam. nec Muhl. (B. t. 88.) Spike erect, large, sub-clavate, with oblong and acute glumes; spikes 3 to 5, oblong, erect, remote, sparse-flowered, 2 upper nearly inclosed-pedunculate, the lower ones exsertly-pedunculate, with subulate bracts; perig. oblong, triquetrous-elliptic or cuneiform, tapering at either end, recurved at the apex, and entire at the orifice, longer than the ovate-cuspidate glume; st. 8 - 18' high, erect, triquetrous, with dark brown sheaths; lvs. radical, broad, (9 to 10"), ensiform, strongly 3-nerved. - Bright green. Hedges and open woods, common, and one of the first appearing species in the spring. (C. latifolia Wahl.)
112 C. Careyana Torr. (B. t. 89.) Spike erect, oblong, with oblong and obtuse glumes; spikes 2 or 3, ovate, loose and few-flowered, distant, upper subsessile, all leafy bracteate; perig. ovate, triquetrous, subinflated, nerved, acuminate, tapering at the base, smooth and glabrous, entire at the orifice, twice longer than the ovate, mucronate glume; st. 1 - 2f, erect, smooth, leafy towards the base; lvs. linear-lanceolate, 6" wide. - Pale green. Woods, Auburn, N. Y., (Carey) and Ohio (Sullivant). Closely related to C. plantaginea.
113 C. laxiflora Lam. nec. Schk. (B. t. 87.) Spikes 2 - 4, subflliform, erect, attenuate, sparse-flowered, remote with a 2-edged peduncle, leafy bracteate, upper one subsessile; perig. oval-triquetrous, tapering at both ends, short-rostrate, attenuate, glabrous, striate, excurved at the apex, a little longer than the oblong-mucron-ate or ovate-acute glume; st. 6 - 12', acutely triquetrous; lvs. radical, of medium (3 to 4') width. - Glaucous or light green. Woods and hedges, common. Variable. (C. anceps Willd, Am. auct.)
β. patulifolia Dew. (C. anceps. Schk., fig. 195.) Lvs. radical, broad, many-veined, narrower at the base; sheaths with long and leafy bracts; perig. longer-rostrate.
γ. angustifolia Dew. (Schk. fig. 128.) St. a foot high; lvs. narrow, striate, long; perig. short-rostrate and much recurved.
114 C. platyphylla Carey. (Boot. t. 90.) Spike with oblong, acute glumes; spikes 2 or 3, oblong, slender, few (3 to 6)-flowered, erect, not compact; perig.
ovate, triquetrous, acute, short-beaked, subrecurved, entire at the orifice, longer than the ovate, acute or cuspidate glume; culm 3 to 8', erect, triquetrous, slender, at length nearly prostrate, with sheathing, leafy bracts; lvs. radical, broad (7 to 10"), 3-veined, pale green. - Shades, N. States. Confounded with No., Ill or 113, β, until described by Carey in Sill Jour, and Gray's Manual.
115 C. zanthosperma Dew. (B. t. 86.) Spike cylindric, short, sessile, with oblong, obtuse glumes; spikes 3 to 6, oblong, cylindric. rather loose-flowered, leafy-bracted, suberect, subremote, the lowest sometimes recurved; perig. ovate, oblong, obtusish, minutely veined, slightly apiculate, yellow ochre color in maturity, twice or thrice longer than (or the lower equaling) the broadly ovate, acute or mucronate glume; culm 10 to 16', erect, smooth, and with the lanceolate, sheathing lvs. at length yellowish. - N. J. to Fla. and Tex. (C. flaceosperma Ed. 1.)
116 C. blanda Dew. Spikes 2 - 4, oblong, cylindric. subsparse-flowered, alternate, approximate, bracteale, highest subsessile, the lowest on a long, 2-edged peduncle; perig. obovate and scarcely attenuate below; subtriq. nerved, recurved at the apex, entire at the orifice, little longer than the ovate, scabro-mucronate glume; st. 8 - 12', triquetrous, leafy towards the base; lvs. long as the stem. - Pale green or glaucous. Meadows and dry, open woods, common. (C. conoidca Muhl. nee Schk., C. laxiflora β. Carey, Boott.)