2 S. glauca Beauv. Bottle Grass. Culm 2 - 3f; lvs. lance-linear, carinate, rough, hairy at base; sheaths striate, smooth; ligules setous; spike cylindric, yellowish-green, 2 - 4' long, nearly simple; invol. of 6 - 10 fascicled, scabrous bristles much longer than the spikelets; fertile pale, transversely rugous. - Fields and roadsides, N. Eng. to Ohio. Jl., Aug.
β. purpurascens. Sheaths and spikelets pilous, awns purple.
3 S. corrugata Schul. Culm terete, 2 to 3f; lvs. linear, 8 to 12' by 3 to 4", very scabrous, as well as the sheaths; ligules setous; pan. terete, dense, spike-like, 3 to 6' long, compounded of many oppressed spikes, each of many spikelets; bristles as many as spkls. (one at the base of each) and 3 or 4 times as long; caryopsis and its pales strongly corrugated (Elliott). - Savannah (Baldwin).
4 S. viridis Beauv. Wild Timothy. Culm smooth, 2 - 3f; lvs. lanceolate, flat, minutely serrulate; sheaths striate, hairy on the margin, and with a setous stipule; spike 1 to 3' long, cylindric, compound, terminal, green; involucre of 4 - 16 fasciculate bristles, much longer than the spikelets; paleae of the perfect flower longitudinally striate, punctate, and minutely corrugated under a lens. - Common in cultivated grounds, Northern States. July, Aug.
5 S. Italica Kunth. Culm somewhat compressed, about 4 to 6f high; lvs. lanceolate, 1 - 2f long, an inch wide; sheaths roughish, pilous at the throat; spike compound, interrupted at the base, nodding, 6 - 8' long sometimes 12 to 18' long and 1' thick (Feay); spikelets conglomerate; invol. of 2 or more bristles, several times longer than the flower; fertile fl. polished, shining, 1/2" long. - Ditches, Mid. and S. States. July.
6 S. Germanica Beauv. Millet. Bengal Grass. Culm 2 - 4f high, simple, . leafy; lvs. lance-linear, flat, acuminate, serrulate on the margin; sheaths striate, close, pubescent; stip. bearded; spike compressed, yellowish, oblong-cylindric; rachis densely hirsute; involucrate bristles 4 - 8, as long as, or longer than the spikelets, yellowish; glumes unequal, ovate; palea 1" long, obscurely 3-veined, dull with minute corrugations. - In fields, often cultivated. § (S. Italica β. Kunth.)
21. CENCHRUS L. Burr Grass. (Gr. the ancient name of the millet.) Flowers racemous or spicate; involucre burr-form, laciniate, echinate, persistent, and becoming hard in fruit, including 1 - 3 spikelets; glumes 2, 2-flowered, outer smaller; flowers dissimlar, the lower sterile, the upper perfect; scales 0; branching; spikelets sessile.
1 C. tribuloides L. St. 1 - 2f long, erect or procumbent and geniculate at base; lvs. lance-linear, conduplicate, gradually acuminate, 3 - 6' by 2 - 3"; sheaths open, about as long as the colored joints; spike with the burr-like involucres approximate; invol. cartilaginous, beset externally with many sharp, retrorsely hispid spines as long as itself and containing 2 - 3 spikelets; glumes acuminate-mucronate, about 3" long, producing but 1 caryopsis. - Sandy alluvion, N. J. to Can. and Wis. The adhesive burrs are annoying.
22. PHAL'ARIS L. Canary Grass. (Gr. white crested, as are the flowers.) Spikelets 1 (theoretically 3)-flowered; glumes 2, sub-equal, carinate; paleae 2, coriaceous, awnless, shorter than the glumes, coating the caryopsis, each with an external, accessory palea or abortive rudiment at base. Grasses with flat lvs. contracted, often spikelike panicles.
1 P. arundinacea L. Culm erect, sparingly branched or simple, 2 - 5f high; lvs. spreading, lance-linear, veined, rough-edged, on smooth, striate sheaths; pan. very dense, elliptic-oblong, somewhat secund, 3 - 6' long, glumes 3-veined, whitish, scabrous; rudiments pilous. - Common in ditches and swamps, Can. to Car. and Ky. A large, showy grass, but not valuable. July, Aug. (P. Americana Torr. nec Ell.)
β. picta is the well-known striped or ribbon grass, with beautifully variegated leaves longitudinally striped in endless diversity, †
2 P. Canariensis L. Canary Grass. Culm erect, or geniculate at the lower joints, round, striate, leafy; If or more high; lvs. lance-linear; panicles spicate, ovoid, erect; 1 to 2' long; glumes whitish, with green veins; winged on the keel; rudiments smooth. - Fields and pastures, not common. The glumes are curiously marked with white and green. The fruit is the chief food of Canary birds. Jl § Isle Fortunatus.
23. ANTHOXAN'THUM, L. Sweet-scented Vernal Grass. (Gr. a flower, yellow; from the color of its spikes.) Spikelets 3-flowered, the central one , the 2 lateral ones neuter, each consisting of one bearded palea; glumes 2, unequal, the upper one larger, inclosing the flowers; palae of the 2, short, awnless; stamens 2. A. odoratum L. Slender, erect, 10 - 18'; lvs. short, striate, pale green; pan.
spicate, oblong-ovoid; spikelets pubescent, on short peduncles; pales of the lateral fls. linear-oblong, ciliate on the margin, one of them with a bent awn from near the base, the other with a straight awn from the back near the summit. - An early-flowering, deliciously fragrant grass, in most of the States and Can. May, Jn. § Eur.