§ Fls. awned. - Awns conspicuous, about equaling or exceeding the pales....................
- Awns much shorter than the lanceolate pales........................................
§ Fls. awnless. - Panicle contracted, with short, ascending branches............................
- Panicle very loose, with spreading or reflexed branches.....................
1 F. Myurus L. Culm 6 - 12' long, erect, geniculate near the base; lvs. 2 - 8' long, subulate, concave; stip. bifid or retuse; panicle slender, crowded; spikelets 4 - 6-flowered; glumes minute, equal; fls. subulate, hairy; lower pale with an awn twice its length; sta. 1; stig. plumous, white. - Sandy fields, Car. to Ga. Mar., Apr.
2 F. tenella Willd. Slender Fescue. Culm filiform, wiry, often growing in tufts and geniculate at base, 6 - 12'; lvs. erect, linear-setaceous, 2 - 3' long; sheaths subpubescent, with lacerated stipules; pan. simple, contracted, rather secund, branches alone or in pairs; spikelets 6 to 9-flowered, with subulate, subequal glumes, at length brownish; fls. subulate, their awns of about equal length. - Sandy fields, N. Eng to Ill. and S. States.
3 F. oviua L. Sheep's Fescue. Culm erect, ascending at base, 6 - 10'; lvs. very narrow, rough, radical ones very numerous, 2 - 4' long, cauline few, short, erect; pan. few-flowered, simple, contracted; spikelets ovale, about 4-flowered; pale lance-ovate. - A valuable grass for pasturage. Jn. § Eur.
β. vivipara. Glumes and pales changing to leafy tufts. - Mts.
4 F. duriuscula L. Hard Fescue. Culm smooth 12 - 18'; lvs. linear, very acute, a little scabrous; stipules membranaceous, lacerate; pan. oblong, spreading, inclining to one side, branches in pairs; spikekts nearly terete, 5 - 7-flowered; lower glurne smaller, upper one 3-veined; paleae unequal, lower with short awns. - . Fields and pastures. A fine grass, common, Car. to Can. June, July.
β. rubra. Spikelets 7 to 11-flowered; herbage often tinged with red. - Dry fields, eastward.
5 F. pratensis Huds. Meadow Fescue. Culm smooth, 3 - 4f high; lvs. lance-linear, smooth, rough-edged, a foot long, on smooth, loose sheaths; panicle sub-erect, branches short, in pairs, ascending; spikelets lance-ovate, acute, 6 to 9-flowered, 6 - 9" long, racemous on the branches; lower glume shorter; lower paleae acuminate or mucronate. - A fine grass, in meadows, U. S. and Can. Jn. §
6 F. elatior L. Tall Fescue Grass. St. smooth, 2 - 3f high; lvs. lance-linear, veined, smooth, rough-edged, about 8' long; sheaths veined, smooth with obsolete stipules; panicle branched, erect in flower, spreading, somewhat 1-sided, branches subsolitary, spikelets short, alternate somewhat secund, 2 to 5-flowered, about 3" long; pales smooth, chartaceous, barely acute. - Fields and meadows. Jn.,Jl.§
7 F. rigida Kunth. Culm decumbent, ascending 3 to 5'; lvs. much shorter, subulate, involute when dry; pan. subsimple, secund, an inch or two long, the branches alternate, appressed; spikelets lance-linear, 5 to 9-flowered; fls. acutish, terete, purplish. - In dry soils, Car., near the coast. Plant dwarf and rigid. Apr., May.
8 F. nutans Willd. Nodding Fescue. Culm erect, slender, smooth, with black nodes, about 3f high; lvs. narrow-linear, a foot long, veined; panicle slender, diffuse, at length nodding, and the slender branches deflexed; spikelets lance-ovate, 3 - 5-flowered; fls. smooth, awnless and nearly veinless. - Open woodlands, in most of the States. Juno. (F. Shortii Kunth., when the grass is stouter and the spikelets about 5-flowered.)
37. EATO'NIA, Raf. (Dedicated to Prof. Amos Eaton, the well-known author of the " Manual of Botany," which bears his name.) Spikelets mostly 2-flowered, numerous, paniculate, silvery; glumes 2, very dissimilar, the lower linear, 1-veined, upper broadly obovate, obtuse or abruptly pointed, 3-veined, with broad, scarious margins; pales obtusish, awnless, chartaceous, glabrous; caryopsis oblong. - Smooth and delicate grasses with simple, caespitous culms.
E. obtusata Gray. Culm erect, geniculate below, leafy, 1 to 2f; nodes pubescent, blackish, contracted; lvs. 3 to 6' by 2", scabrous, acuminate, shorter than the sheaths; stip. lacerate; pan. contracted, 3 to 5' long, 6 to 12" diam., dense, branches fascicled, short, appressed; spikelets 1 1/2" long, 2-flowered, tumid; lower glume about as long but very much narrower than the obovate, obtuse, puberu-lent upper one; pales scarious at summit, a little exserted. - Penn. (Jackson) to Wis. (Lapham), and S. States. Jn., Jl. (Aira, Mx. A. truncata Muhl. Kœ-leria Torr., and Ed. 1. R. paniculata Nutt. Reboulea, Kunth. E. purpuras -cens Raf.) 2 E. Pennsylvania Gray. Erect, tufted, minutely puberulent, usually about 2f high; lvs. flat, short, 1 to 3' by 2 1/2"; pan. slender, open, usually with diverging branches, and 5 to 10' long; spikelets rather loose, 1 1/2" long; upper glume abruptly short-pointed; pales acutish, exserted half their length. - Rocky woods and meadows, U. S. and Can., frequent but not abundant. The larger varieties are very elegant. Jn., Jl. (Aira mollis Muhl. Kœleria DC. Reboulea, Kunth., Gray.)
38. MEL'ICA, L. Melic Grass. (Lat. mel, honey.) Glumes 2, unequal, membranous, obtuse, 2 to 5-flowered; flowers a little longer than the glumes, the upper incomplete and more or less contorted; pales truncate, veiny, as well as the glumes; caryopsis free, not furrowed. - Lvs. flat. Spikelets pedicellate, in a subsimple panicle.
M. mutica Walt. Culm 3 - 4f high, glabrous; lvs. linear, flat, pubescent beneath; stip. lacerate; panicle glabrous, loose, few-flowered, erect or a little nodding, branches simple, solitary; spikelets 6 - 8" long; lower glume shorter, very smooth; paleae veined; upper fl. neuter, pedicellate, consisting of very short, roundish pales often twisted together. - Rich upland soil, Penn. to Wis, and S. States. Varies, with a panicle reduced to a mere raceme. Jn. (M. glabra Mx. M. speeiosa Muhl.)