13 P. trivialis L. Rough Meadow Grass. Culm sometimes stoloniferous at base, roughish backwards, 2 - 3f; lvs. lance-linear, acute, rough-edged, lower ones very long, cauline as long as the roughish sheaths, with long, acuminate ligules; panicle diffuse, expanding, scabrous, branches 4 - 5 together in half-whorls; spikelets oblong-ovate, 2 - 3-flowered. - N. States. June, July.
14 P. pratensis L. Spear Grass. June Grass. Culm terete, smooth, 1 - 2f; lvs. carinate, linear, abruptly acute, radical ones very long and numerous, cauline shorter than the veined, smooth sheaths; lig. short, truncate; pan. diffuse, branches 3 - 5 together in half-whorls; spikelets ovate, acute, with about 4, acute flowers; glumes lanceolate, rather acuminate. - An excellent grass both for hay and pasturage, very abundant. Apr. (South) May (West) Jn. (North)
41. BRIZOPY'RUM, Link. (Briza, wheat.) Spikelets ∞-flowered, compressed, crowded in a spikelike panicle; glumes herbaceous, unequal; pales awnless, subcoriaceous, lower compressed, but hot carinate, faintly many-veined, acute. - Lvs. mostly involute, smooth and rigid.
1 B. spicatum Hook. Culm branched at base, erect 1 to 2f; cauline lvs. numerous, 3 to 6' long; sheaths longer than the joints, close, upper ones hairy at throat; spike-like pan. oval, yellowish, consisting of short, fasciculate branches with sessile spikelets; spkl. oblong, 5 to 9-flowered; fls. triandrous. - Salt marshes. N. Y. to Car. Jl. (Uniola ed. 2. Poa Michauxii Kunth.)
42. GLYCE'RIA, Brown. Manna Grass. (Gr. sweet, on account of the sweet taste of the grains.) Spikelets many-flowered, teretish or turgid, rachis jointed; glumes subequal, pointless; pales awnless, webless, herbaceous, the lower usually 7-veincd, rounded on the back (not carinate); stigmas doubly plumous; ovary smooth, grain free. - Smooth grasses from creeping rhizomes in wet places, with simple panicles. Sheaths mostly fistular (not split).
§ Salt marsh Grasses. Lower pale 5-veined. Stigmas sessile, simply plumed......
§ In fresh swamps, etc. Lower pale 7-veined. Stigmas doubly plumous. (a)
a Spikelets linear-lanceolate, in a very simple panicle..................................................
a Spikelets linear-oblong, in compound, spreading panicles........................................
a Spikelets ovate, short, turgid, - in slender, appressed panicles.................................
- in an open, recurved panicle......................................
1 G. fluitans Brown. Culm compressed or ancipitous, ascending at base, 3 - 5f; lvs. lance-linear, smooth beneath, about a foot long; sheaths veined, smooth, with a very large stipule; panicle secund, long, slender, slightly branched; spikelets 8 to 10" long, linear, appressed, 7 to 12-flowered; fls. obtuse; lower pale 7-veined, denticulate. - Swales, etc. Can., N. States to La. Jn, Jl (Festuca fluitans, L.)
2 G. acutiflora Torr. Culm somewhat compressed, 1 - 2f; lvs. narrow, attenuated above, half as long as the stem; panicle simple, long, raceme-like, appressed; spikelets linear, 9 to 12 ' long, 4 - 6-flowered; distant fls. very slender, acute, in distinctly veined. - Inundated meadows, N. Eng., N. Y. June. (Festuca bre-vifolia Muhl.)
3 G. aquatica Smith. Culm stout, leafy, 4 to 5f; lvs. broad-linear, flat, thin; pan. erect, diffuse, branches at length spreading, flexuous, 3 to 5 together, in half whoris; spikelets linear-oblong, purple, 2 to 3" with 6 to 8 ovate-obtuse flowers. - Wet meadows, N. States and Can. A large and handsome grass, cultivated for hay in Eur. (Poa, L.)
4 G. pallida Trin. Culm weak decumbent, ascending 1 to 2 1/2f; lvs. flat, linear, 10 to 16' long, glaucous beneath; stip. elongated; pan. loose, few-flowered, branches capillary, spreading; spikelets 3", oblong-linear, 5 to 9-flowered; lower glume 3-veined; lower palea 5-veined, 5-toothed at the apex when old. - Swamps, Can. to Va. and West? June, July. (Poa dentata Torr.)
5 G. nervata Trin. Culm smooth, 3 to 4f; lvs. lance-linear, striate, rough above, about a foot long, on striate, roughish sheaths; lig. lacerate; pan. large, loose, diffuse, equal, branches weak, pendulous in fruit, long and capillary, in 2s or 3s; spikelets ovate-oblong, containing about 5, obtuse, conspicuously 7-veined flowers. - A valuable grass in wet meadows, N. Eng. to Ill. Jn. (Poa, Willd.)
6 G. elongata Trin. Culm round, erect, smooth, 3f; lvs. narrow-linear, smooth, 8 to 15' long; sheaths striate, smooth; lig. very short; pan. (8 to 10') elongated, raceme-like, nodding, branches solitary or in 2s, appressed; spikelets ovate-obtuse, tumid, containing about 3 obtuse, 5-veined flowers. - Wet meadows, N. Eng. to Penn. and Ill. Jl. (Poa, Torr.)
7 G. obtusa Trin, Culm smooth, firm, 2 to 3f; lvs. dark green, linear, often surpassing the culm, and with the sheaths smooth; pan. dense, ovate, many-flowered, 3 to 4', erect; spikelets ovate, acute, tumid, thick, containing 5 to 7, smooth, ovate, obtuse flowers; lower pale obscurely 7-veined. - Swamps, N. Eng. to Penn. Aug., Sept. (Poa, Muhl.)
8 G. canadensis Torr. Culm round, smooth, erect, 3 to 4f; lvs. broad-linear, rough, glaucous, on smooth sheaths; lig. lacerate, ovate-obtuse; pan. large, 6 to 8' long, branches flexuous, in half whorls, much spreading or pendulous in fruit; spikelets short, ovate, tumid, 6 to 8-flowered; glumes much shorter than the lower flower; upper pale very obtuse, lower about 7-veined; stam. 2. - A large grass, in shady grounds, N States, Can. Jl, Aug. (Poa, Torr.)
9 G. maritima Wahl. Culm somewhat geniculate, round, about a foot high; lvs. somewhat glaucous, rough-edged, involute; pan. erect, dense, brandies in pairs, scabrous; spikelets terete, linear, purplish, about 5-flowered; fls. obtuse, indistinctly 5-veined. - Salt marshes, Mass. Jn. (Poa, Huds.)