3. ZlZA'NIA, Gron. Indian Rice. ( the Greek name of some similar plant.) - 8 Glumes 0; spikelets 1-flowered; paleae 2, herbaceous. Paleae subequal, awnless; stamens 6. Spikelets subulate; paleae unequal, linear, lower one with a straight awn; styles 2; caryopsis enveloped in the plicate paleae. - Stout, aquatic grasses. with a large panicle of both kind:; of flowers.
1 Z. aquatica L. Culm 1/2' in diameter, fistular, smooth, 6f high; lvs. lance-linear, 2 - 3f long, an inch wide, smooth, serrulate; panicle a foot or more long, pyramidal, the lower branches divaricate and sterile, the upper spicate and fertile; spikelets on clavate pedicels; awns long (18"), hispid; fr. slender, 3/4 long, blackish, very caducous, farinaceous. - Inundated shores of ponds and rivers, U. S. and Can. The fruit, which is very abundant, affords sustenance to wild geese, ducks, and other water fowls. Aug.
2 2. miliacea Michx. Culm erect, 6 - 10f high; lvs. very long, narrow, glaucous; panicle large, diffuse, pyramidal; glumes with short (1 - 3") awns; and 2 fls. intermixed; sty. 1; fr. ovate, glabrous. - Growing in water, Ohio to Ela. and La. Lvs. coriaceous, 2 - 3f long, 6 - 12' wide. Apr. - Aug.
3 Z. ? fluitans Michx. Culm long, slender, branching, floating in the water; lvs. lance-linear, flat, clustered, 1 - 2' long, 2 - -3" wide; "spike solitary, axillary, setaceous, about 4-flowered; paleae awnless; stig. 2, very long; fr. reni-form." - Water, S. Car. to Fla. and La (Hale, whose specimens are without Fls. or fruit.) (Hydrochloa, Palis. Hydropyrum, Kunth.)
4. AGROS'TIS, L. Bent Grass. (Gr. a field; growing in fields and pastures.) - Spikes 1-fiowered; glumes 2, subcqual, awnless, Usually longer than the flower; pales 2, thin, pointless, naked, the lower 3 - 5-veined, sometimes awned on the back, the upper often minute or wanting; grain free. - mostly, and caespitous, with slender culms and an open panicle.
§ Agrostis proper. Upper palea 1/2 to 2/3 as long as the lower. Fly. rather dense....
§ Trichodilm. Upper palea minute or wonting. Panicle thin. (*)
* Lower palea with a long exserted awn on the back.....
* Lower paleae awnless, or bearing a very short awn......
1 A. vulgaris With. Red Top Dew Grass. Herd's Grass of the S. States. Culm erect, 1 - 2f high; panicle purple, oblong, with short, spreading or divaricate, roughish branches; lvs. linear, with very short ligules (sometimes the upper one elongated); lower pale twice as large as the upper, and nearly as long as the lanceolate, acute glumes, mostly awnless. - U. S. and Can. A very valuable grass spread over hills, vales and meadows, forming a soft, dense turf. Variable. (A. polymorpha Huds. A. pumila L. A. hispida Willd.)
2 A. alba L. White Bent. English Bent. Bonnet Grass. Florin Grass. Culm decumbent, geniculate, rooting at the lower joints and sending out stolons; lvs. linear, smooth, those of the stolons erect and somewhat subulate; ligules long, membranous; panicle dense, narrow and contracted after flowering, greenish white or slightly purplish; lower pale 5-veined, rarely awned. - A common and valuable grass in old fields and drained swamps. It is quite variable in aspect. § Eur. (A. stolonifera L. A decumbens Muhl.)
β. stricta. Lower pale with an awn from its base twice longer than itself (A. stricta Willd.)
γ. dispar. Southern Bent. Larger (2 - 3f high) in all its parts; outer pale obtusely 3-toothed. Much valued in some parts of the S. States. (A. dispar Mx.? Kunth.)
3 A. canina L. Brown Bent. Dog's Bent. Culm rooting at the lower nodes, slender, somewhat branched, about 2f high; lvs. setaceous involute, the upper linear; panicle diffuse, ovoid, at length brownish, branches rough, diverging, dividing beyond their middle; glumes subequal, shorter than the lower pale which bears a long awn a little below the middle of the back; upper pale minute.- - Wet meadows, E. States, rare. § Eur.
β. alpina. Culms low, in small tufts, with contracted panicles, nearly smooth, purplish; awn twisted. - Mts., N. States. (A. Pickeringii Tuckm.)
4 A. arachnoides Ell. Culm erect, slender, 5 - 8' high; paniculate more than half its length; lvs. linear-setaceous, 1 - 3' long; panicle narrow, brandies capillar floriferous half their length; glumes green, ovate, acute, 1/2" long, equal; pale a little shorter, bearing on its back abort: the middle a contorted awn 5 or 6 times longer than itself, and as fine as a gossamer. - Car. to Ga, (Feay). The awns, frorn their fineness, can hardly bo seen without a lens. Apr.
5 A. scabra Willd. Rough Hair Grass. Thin Grass. Culms tufted, erect from a decumbent vase, very slender, 1 - 2f high; lvs. linear, 3 - 6' long, rough, the radical involute-setaceous; ligule oblong, obtuse; panicle large, with long, capillary, erect, or divergent, scabrous-hispid whorled branches, trichotomously divided near the end; spikelets in terminal clusters, at length purplish; glumes lance-linear, acuminate, scabrous-hispid on the keel. - Fields and pastures, U. S. and Brit. Am. Remarkable for its thin and airy panicles which are at length driven before the wind. Jn., Jl. (T. laxiflorum Mx. T. montanum Torr.)
β. oreophila. Culm 6 - 12' high, simple, panicle less diffuse; pale with a short, twisted awn at its back. - Mts. and rocky woods. (A. montana Tuckm.)
γ. perennans. Panicle pale green, branches shorter, floriferous more than half their length. - In damp shades. (T. scabrum Muhl. A. scabra. ed. 2d.)
6. A. elata Trin. Taller Thin Grass. Culm erect, rigid, thin, simple, rattier stout, 2 - '3f high, leafy; lvs. broadly (1 - 2") linear, scabrous, flat, 6 - 8' long, the sheaths scarcely smooth; panicle purple, contracted, with long, whorled, erect-spreading brandies dense-flowered half their length; glumes lanceolate, 1 1/2", the the upper a little longer than the 5-veined pale. - Swamps, N. Jer. to Ga., Ala. and Ky. (Jackson). - Jl., Aug. (T. elatum Ph. A. altissimum Tuckm.)