§ Panicle expanding. Glumes some shorter than the paleae. Rudiment none....................
Nos. 1, 2
§ Panicle contracted. Gl. some longer than paleae. Rudiment plumous. (*)
* Glumes 2-3" long. Palea short-awned - above the middle............................
- below the middle...........................
Nos. 4, 5
* Glumes 5-7" long. Palea scarcely awned near the tip....................................
1 C, brevipilis Torr. Culm terete, slender, 3 - 4f high; lvs. broad-linear, the sheaths glabrous; ligule hairy; panicle pyramidal, loose, with the diffuse, capillary branches solitary or in pairs; glumes unequal, bearded at base, ovate, acute, 1-veined, shorter than the equal, obtuse, awnless pales; pappus or hairs very short, not half the length of the paleae - In sandy swamps, N. J. (Torrey). (A. Epi-goios Mulil.)
2 C. longifolia Hook. Culm 2 - 4f high, stout; lvs. rigid, involute-filiform, tapering to a long point; panicle pyramidal; glumes unequal, lanceolate, the upper as long as the equal pales; pappus-like hairs copious, more than half the length of the pales. - Sandy shores of the great Lakes, N. Mich, and C. W.
3 C. coarctata Torr. Glaucous; culm erect, 2 - 4f high; lvs. linear-lanceolate, scabrous, with the veins and keel white; sheaths striate; stip. oblong, obtuse; panicle condensed and spike-form, the branches rigidly erect, short and aggregated; glumes acuminate, lanceolate, lower 1-veined, upper 3-veined, lower pale 5-veined, bifid at the apex, with a short, straight awn just above the middle of the back. - Bogs, Mass. to Minn, and S. States? July, August. (Agrostis glauca Muhl. Arundo stricta Spr.)
4 C. purpurascens Brown. Panicle spicate, purplish, 3 - 6' long, half the length of the culm; glumes scabrous; paleae 2, the lower scabrous, toothed at the apex, awned upon the back below the middle; abortive rudiment plumous, twice longer than the hairs at its base, and twice shorter than the pales. - White Mts., N. H. (Tuckerman), Rocky Mts. (Richardson). - Rare and unimportant. (C. Pickeringii Gr. C. sylvatica Trin.)
5 C. confinis Nutt. Culm 2 - 5f high, erect simple; lvs. 2 - 3" wide, smooth; panicle 4 - 8' long, slender, contracted, branches short, appressed, 4 or 5 together; glumes oblong-lanceolate, 2 1/2" long, rough on the keel and sides, barely acute; paleae nearly equal, acute, oblong, as long as the glumes, lower one rough, 3-veined, notched at tip, with a short awn inserted below the middle, nearly as long as the flower; hairs 2/3 the length of the pales. - Penn. and Penn Yan, N. Y. (Sartwell). Aug. (C. inexpansa Gr.)
6 C. Canadensis Beauv. Reed Grass. Blue Joint. Culm smooth, erect, rigid, 3 - 5f high; lvs. linear-lanceolate, striate, with smooth, veined sheaths; panicle erect, rather loose, oblong, the branches capillary, aggregated in 4s and 5s; glumes very acute, smoothish, much longer than the paleae; lower paleae bifid at the apex, with a hair-like awn arising from below the middle of the back; hairs as long as the pales. - Wet grounds, N. Eng. W. to Mich, and Can. Makes good hay, common. Aug. (C. Mexieana Nutt. C. agrostoides Ph. Arundo Mx.)
7 C. arenaria Roth. Mat Grass. Sand Reed. Rt. creeping extensively; culm erect, rigid. 2 - 4f high; lvs. involute, If by 1/2', smooth and glaucous, pun-gently acute; sheaths smooth; stip. oblong; panicle dense, with erect, appressed branches, 6 - 10' long, and an inch thick; spikelets compressed, greenish-white; lower palea3 longer than the upper. - On sandy lake shores and sea coasts, Can. to N. J. Of great value in confining loose, sandy beaches. Aug. (Ammo-phila, Host. Psamma, Palis. Arundo, L.)
10. ALOPECU'RUS, L. Fox-Tail Grass. (Gr. fox, tail.) Spikelets 1-flowered; glumes subequal, connate, distinct, flat-carinate; lower pale flat-carinate, generally equaling the glumes, awned on the back below the middle; upper pale wanting; styles often connate, stigmas plumous, elongated. - Panicle contracted into a cylindric, dense spike.
1 A. pratensis L. Culm erect, smooth, leafy, about 2f high, bearing an erect, dense, many-flowered, cylindric, obtuse, compound spike, about 2' long; lvs. flat, smooth, the upper shorter than its swelling sheath; stipules ovate; glumes ciliate, connate below the middle, as long as the pale; awn twisted, scabrous, nearly thrice the length of the flower. - Fields and pastures, Northern States. An excellent grass. Jn., Jl. §.
2 A. geniculatus L. Bent Fox-tail. Culm ascending, geniculate below, sparingly branched, 1 - 2f high; spike cylindrical, about 2' long; lvs. linear, 3 - 6 long, the upper equaling or exceeding the smooth, flat, acute, slightly inflated sheath; stipules oblong, entire; glumes slightly connate at base, hairy outside: paleae truncate, smooth, half as long as the geniculate awn.- - Wet meadows, N. Eng., Mid. States and Brit. Am. Jn. §
3 A. aristulatus Mx. Wild Water Fox-tail. Glaucous; culm decumbent at base, bent at the joints, ascending 1 to 2f; lvs. linear, flat, gradually acute; glumes subequal, pubescent, obtuse, shorter than the obtuse pale, which bears on the middle of its back a short awn scarcely exceeding its apex; anth. oblong, yellow. - Native in Ohio to Minn. (Lapham) and Ill. Jn. - Aug. (A. geniculars, β. Ed. 2d.)
11. PHLEUM, L. Cat-tail Grass. (Gr. ; used by the ancients probably for a different plant.) Glumes 2, equal, carinate, much longer than the pales, rostrate or mucronate; pales 2, included in the glumes, truncate, awnless. - Compound spikes cylindric, very dense.
1 P. pratense L. Timothy or Herd's Grass. Culm erect, simple, terete, smooth, 2 - 4f high: lvs. linear-lanceolate, flat, glaucous, roughish; sheaths striate, smooth; stip. obtuse, lacerated; gls. cuspidate, in a dense, long, cylindric, green spike; anth. purple; stig. white. - This is probably the most valuable of all grasses. It is extensively cultivated in N. Eng., Mid. and W. States, but it falis further South. Jn., Jl. § Eur.