4. SCHlZae'A Smith. (Gr. to cut, cleave; alluding to the many-cleft spikes.) Sporangia oval, radiate at top, sessile, bursting laterally; indusium continuous, formed of the inflexed margins of the leaflets which are contracted, spike-like, crowded at the/summit of the fertile frond.
S. pusilla Pursh. Frond simple, linear, tortuous; spikes few, crowded at the top of a long, slender stipe or scape. - A very delicate fern, found in the pine barrens, Quaker Bridge, N. J. (This is the only locality clearly known.) Fronds numerous, caespitous, 2 - 3' long, 1/2 - 1" wide. Fertile stipes several, 3 - 6' high, filiform, with a few short unilateral spikelets at top arranged in 2 rows. Capsules somewhat turbinate, in 2 rows on the inner side of each spikelet. August
5. OSMUN'DA, L. Flowering Fern. Sporangia globular, half 2-valved, roughened on the surface somewhat in lines, pedicellate and clustered on the lower surface of the frond or a portion of it, which is more or less contracted into the form of a panicle; spores green. - Tall, handsome Ferns. Veins forked, straight.
§ Frond bipinnate with distinct pinnae; the upper part contracted and fertile.....
§ Frond pinnate with pinnatifid pinnae, partially or separately fertile..........................................
Nos. 2, 3
1 O. regalis Mx. Fronds bipinnate, fructiferous at the summit; segments of the leaflets lance-oblong, distinct, serrulate, subsessile; raceme large, terminal, decompound. - A large and beautiful fern, in swamps and meadows. The fronds are 3 - 4f high, smooth in all their parts. Leaflets or pinnae opposite, remote, each with 6 - 9 pairs of leaves with an odd one. These are an inch or more long, \ as wide, obtuse, the petioles 0 - 1/2" long. Above, the frond is crowned with an ample bipinnate panicle of a deep fulvous hue, with innumerable, small, globular, 2-valved spore-cases covering the segments. Jn. (O. spectabilis Willd.)
2 O. cinnamomea L. Cinnamon Fern. Sterile frond pinnate, leaflets elongated, pinnatifld, segments ovate-oblong, obtuse, very entire; fertile frond bipinnate, leaflets all contracted, paniculate, subopposite, lanuginous as well as the stipe. - This is among the largest of our ferns, growing in swamps and low grounds. Fronds numerous, growing in clumps, 3 - 5f high, most of them barren, the stipe and rachis invested with a loose, cinnamon-colored wool. The fertile fronds resemble spikes, 1 - 2f long, an inch wide. Leaflets all fertile, erect, with the segments covered with fruit in the form of small, roundish capsules, appearing, under a microscope, half-2-cleft. June.
3 O. Claytoniana L. Interrupted Flowering Fern. Frond smooth throughout, pinnate with lance-linear pinnatifld lfts.; lobes obtuse, entire, the veinlets all once forked, some (2 to 7) of the intermediate leaflets fertile. - Common in low ground3. Fronds ample, 2 to 3f high, light green, interrupted near the middle by 2 to 4 pairs of fertile leaflets, which are so much metamorphosed as to resemble dense, compound racemes, densely covered with small reddish-brown sporangia.
Jn. (O. interrupta Mx.) As the sterile lfts. unfold latest, early specimens show the upper lfts. fertile. Rarely the lowest lfts. are all fertile.
6. ACROS'TICHUM, L. Golden Fern. (Gr. a point, a line or row; from the fruit dots and lines.) Sporanges scattered (not in sori), occupying the under surface of the whole or a part of the frond, - Fronds of various habit.
A. aureum L. Frond pinnate, pinna; alternate, oblong-lanceolate, entire, equilateral, cuneate at base, the upper bearing the fructification. - In deep swamps near the sea coast, Fla. (Pursh). Cultivated occasionally in the greenhouse. It is a noble Fern 3 to 5f high. Common in the W. Indies.
7. POLYPO'DIUM, L. Polypod. (Gr. many, feet; from the multitude of creeping rootstocks.) Sori roundish, scattered on various parts of the under surface of the frond, with no indusium (cover or involucre). - Ferns of various habit.
§ Marginaria (simply pinnate) reticulate-veined, clothed with scales.......
§ Polypodium. Frond with the veins forked, distinct, - simply pinnate.......
Nos. 3, 4
- ternate, bipinnatifid.........
1 P. incanum Ph. Fronds deeply pinnatifid; segments alternate, linear, very entire, obtuse, scaly beneath, the upper ones gradually smaller; stipe scaly, bearing the fertile segments near the apex; sori solitary and distinct. - A. parasitie fern, 3 - 6' high, growing on the inclined, moss-clad trunks of living trees, particularly of the huge Sycamore, and the Magnolias, in the clamp forests along rivers, W. States! and also Southern. The scales resemble the indusia of other Fernr-, but have no fruit under them. The veins are invisible.
2 P. vulgare L. Common Polypod. Frond deeply pinnatifid, smooth; segm. linear-oblong, obtuse, crenulate, the upper ones gradually smaller; sori large, distinct. - Rather common on shady rocks and in woods, forming tangled patches with their roots which are clothed with membranous scales. Fronds 6 to 12, divided into alternate segments nearly to the midvein. Stipe naked and smooth. Segments parallel, a little curved, about 1/4' wide. Fruit in large, golden dots in a double row, at length brownish. July. (P. Virginianum Willd.)
3 P. Phegopteris L. Beech Polypod. Frond bipinnatifid, triangular in outline, veins hairy, the lower pinnae deflexed but curving forward toward the apex; segments linear-oblong, obtuse, entire, ciliate, the lower adnate and decurrcnt; stipe retrorsely pubescent, rachis chaffy. - Shady woods, Can. to Wis. and N. States. Frond longer than wide (3 to 6' by 2 1/2 to 5). Sori small, about 4 on each segment. July.
4 P. hexagonopterum Mx. Triangular Polypod. Frond bipinnatifid, pinnae rather distant, the lowest deflexed; segments lanceolate, obtuse, ciliate, crenate or dentate, glandularly puberulent beneath, the lowest decurrent and forming a conspicuous wing to the rachis; stipe smooth. - Moist open woods; U. S. common South. Frond wide as long (5 to 8') triangular. Sori many on each segment. Jl. (P. Phegopteris β. ed. 2.)