Herbs chiefly weed-like and homely, more or less fleshy, with alternate, exstipu-late leaves. Bracts not scarious. Flowers minute, greenish, regular. Calyx imbricated in bud. Stamens perigynous, as many as, and opposite to the calyx lobes, or fewer. Ovary 2-styled, 1-celled, becoming a 1-seeded, thin utricle or caryopsis. Embryo coiled into a ring around the albumen or spiral without albumen. Pig. 435.

Genera 72, species 510, often maritime plants, more generally weeds, abounding in the temperate zones, in neglected and waste fields.

Properties. - Generally bland and innocent. Some are useful for food, as the Beet, Mangel-wurtzel. Orache, Spinach, etc. Others contain an essential oil, which renders them tonic, antispasmodic and anthelmintic; as Chenopodium botrys, C. ambrosioides, C. anthelminticum; the latter yields the officinal worm-seed oil. Salsoli, Salicornia and other sea-side species yield soda from their ashes in great abundance.

FIG. 67S.   1. Flower of Chenopodium album

FIG. 67S. - 1. Flower of Chenopodium album. 2. Calyx, etc, removed, showing the ovary and two (hypogynous) stamens. 3. Cross section of the seed, showing the coiled embryo. 4. Branch of Saicornia herbacea. 5. Two joints magnified. 6. Ovary of a flower. 7. Flower of Blitum eapitatum, with the fleshy calyx. S. Vertical section of the ovary. 9. Flower of Beta vulgaris.

Suborders, Tribes And Genera

§ SPIROLOBEae. Embryo a spiral coil. Leaves linear, fleshy. Stems continuous. (*)

* Tribe Salsoleae Emb. a conic spir. - Cal. winged on the back. (Lvs. spiny).......

Salsola.

11

* Trihe SUaeDEae. Emb. a flat spiral. - Cal. not append. Lvs.acutislh......................

CHENOPODINA.

10

§ CYCLOLOBEae. Embryo annular, - a ring. Leaves membranous, flat, or none. (*)

* Tr. Salicorn. Inflor. anomalous. Fls. imbedded. St. jointed, (leafless)......................

Salioornia.

9

* Tribe Spinacieae. Inflor. normal. Fls. of two sorts. St. continuous. Lvs. broad, (a)

a Fruit enclosed in a hardened calyx without bracts. Cultivated..........................

SPINACIA.

8

a Fruit naked (no calyx) between two united bracts. Leaves oval.........................

OBIONE.

7

a Fruit naked (no calyx) between two subdistinct bracts. Lvs. triangular.

Atriplex.

6

* Tribe CHENOPODIEae. Inflor. normal. Fls. perfect and alike. St. contin. Lvs. broad, (c)

c Seed vortical. Pericarp thin, smooth, mostly in a fleshy calyx.........................

BLITUM.

5

c Seed vertical. Pericarp thin, glandular, in a wrinkled calyx......

ROUBIEVA.

4

c Seed horizontal. Pericarp thin, in a plain, unbordered calyx.....

CHENOPODIUM.

3

c Seed horizontal. Pericarp thin, in a calyx bordered all around.......................

CYCLOLOMA.

2

c Seed horizontal. Pericarp thick and hard, calyx ribbed.........

BETA.

1

1. BE'TA, Tourn. Beet. (Celtic belt, red, the usual color of the Beet-root.) Calyx urceolate, 5-cleft, persistent, finally indurated at base; stamens 5, with no staminodia; ovary depressed, half inferior; stigmas 2; utricle with a thickish, hardened, depressed pericarp enclosed in the calyx; seed horizontal. - Herbs with fleshy roots, furrowed stems, alternate lvs. and greenish, spicate fls.

B. vulgaris L. Lvs. acute, glabrous, undulate or entire, green or purplish, the lower ovate-oblong, attenuate at base into a long petiole, upper subsessile, oblong; fls. greenish-white, in sessile glomerules of 2 to 4 forming slender spikes which are arranged in large, somewhat leafy panicles. -Suborders Tribes And Genera 1530 Fields and gardens, everywhere cultivated. Rt. mostly deep red. S. Eur. - This useful culinary, by long culture has run into many varieties, distinguished chiefly by the color and quality of the nutritious root.

β. cicla. Scarcity. Root cylindraceous, rather slender, whitish; lvs. somewhat rough or hispid, with very thick veins; fls. 3 together.

γ. rapa. Turnip Beet. Root short and thick, sweet and juicy, white or red.

§. Mangel-wurtzel. Root very large, mostly white. Cultivated for stock.

2. CYCLOLO'MA, Moquin. (Gr.Suborders Tribes And Genera 1531 a circle, Suborders Tribes And Genera 1532 border; referring to the appendage of the calyx.) Calyx urceolate, 5-cleft, lobes strongly keeled, persistent, finally appendaged outside with a circular, membranous, horizontal border or crown; stamens 5; styles 3; utricle depressed, enclosed in the transversely winged calyx. - Suborders Tribes And Genera 1533 Herbs with furrowed stems, alternate, petiolate, lobed lvs., and a spreading panicle of small sessile fls.

C. platyplryllum Moq. Sandy banks of the Miss.. Ill. (opposite St. Louis) and westward. St wide-branched, ascending 1 to 2f from a prostrate base, white-downy above. Lvs. 2' long more or less, oblong-lanceolate, petiolate, sinuate-toothed or lobed, lobes sharply mucronate. Fls. less than 1" long, 1 to 3-glom-erate. Panicle leafless. Crown scarious. Seed black. Jl., Aug.

3. CHENOPO'DIUM, Tourn. (Gr.Suborders Tribes And Genera 1534 a goose, Suborders Tribes And Genera 1535 foot; from the resemblance of the leaves.) Calyx bractless, 5-cleft, lobes often keeled, never appendaged, more or less enclosing the fruit; stamens 5; styles 2; utricle depressed, membranous, seed mostly horizontal, lenticular. - Herbs often glaucous or glandular, with alternate, often rhombic leaves, and the minute fls. glomerate in panicled spikes.

§ Plants smooth, never glandular, ill-scented. Embryo a complete ring (*).

* Herbage green, rarely purplish, not glaucous or mealy (a).

a Leaves entire, ovate-oblong, on slender petioles..........................................................

No. 1

a Leaves toothed or lobed, petiolate..............................................................................

Nos. 2 - 4

* Herbage glaucous or whitish, covered with mealiness.....................................................

Nos. 5 - 7

§ Plants elandular-puberulent, green, aromatic. Embryo a half ring (b).

b Flowers glomerate, axillary, in spike-like racemes.......................................................

Nos. 8, 9

b Flowers cymous, innumerable, in long, raceme-like panicles......................................

No. 10

1 C. polyspermum L. Procumbent or suberect, branched from the base; lvs. petiolate, divaricate, ovate or oblong, obtuse or acute, thin, entire, glabrous, bright-green; rac. strict, spike-like, leafless; seed shining, margin acute; fruit partly inclosed. -Suborders Tribes And Genera 1536 Gardens, waste grounds, rare. (C. acutifolium Sm.) Plant smooth, pale green or purplish, If or more high. Calyx minute, lobes obtuse, at length spreading and the fruit naked. § Eur.

2 C. bybridum L. Erect, much branched; lvs. petiolate (ample), broad, subcor-date, acuminate, deeply sinuate-angled, thin, glabrous, bright green, the terminal lobe longest, all acuminate, upper deltoid; rac. diffusely panicled, loose, leafless; seed rugous, dull; fr. partly inclosed. -Suborders Tribes And Genera 1537 A strong-scented, rigid herb, 2 to 4f high, in waste grounds, N. Eng. to Ky., common. St. furrowed. Lvs. partly palmate-veined, 3 to 5' by 2 to 4', petiole 1 to 2'. Fls. sessile, greenish. Jl. §Eur.

3 C. murale L. Ascending, sulcate-angled, branched; lvs. petiolate, ascending, ovate-rhombic, acute at base, unequally and acutely toothed, thin, shining, bright green; rac. divaricate, subcorymbous, rather loose and leafless; seed dull, rugous, acute-edged, very flat; fr. almost inclosed. -Suborders Tribes And Genera 1538 Fields, gardens, north and south, rare. St. 12 to 18' high. Lvs. 2 to 3' by 1' to 18", subtripliveined, petiole 1'. Fls. mealy. Stam. exserted. Aug. § Eur.