Trees or shrubs with a milky acrid or noxious juice, with largo deciduous stipules.

FowersOrder CXIV Artocarpaceae Artocarps 1682Order CXIV Artocarpaceae Artocarps 1683 or 8, collected into dense heads or amonts, naked or with a lobed calyx.

Ovary free, 1 (rarely 2)-celled, 1-ovuled, forming fleshy, aggregated fruit (sorosis or syconus, §580). Achenium with an erect or pendulous, albuminous seed. Figs. 36,

149, 450, 451.

Genera 81. species 240? generally natives of the tropics or at least of warm climates. They arc closely allied to the Nettleworts, differing chiefly in fruit, juice and habit.

Properties. - The juice is almost always deleterious, sometimes in a high degree. It contains caoutchouc. The celebrated Bolton Upas, the most deadly of all poisons, is the concrete juice of Antiaris toxicaria of the Indian Archipelago. Its poisonous property is said to be due to the presence of strychnia. Meanwhile the famous cow tree of S. America yields milk which is rich and wholesome. Gum lac is obtained abundantly from Ficas Indica. The renowned Banyan tree is Ficus religiosa. In this order are also found many excellent fruits, Figs are the fruit of Ficus Cariea. etc. Bread fruit is the compound fruit of Artocarpus; mulberries of Morus nigra, Fustic, a yellow dye, is the wood of M. tinctoria of S. America.

§ Flowers inside the excavated receptacle, both kinds together............

FICUS.

4

§ Flowers external, the 2 kinds separate, in two kinds of amenta. (*)

* Calyx none. Fertile flowers in a globular ament. Thorny..........................

MACLURA.

3

* Calyx 4-purtcd. Fertile anient globular. Style 1...................

BROUSSONETIA.

2

* Calyx 4-parted, lobes spreading. Fertile aments oblong. Styles 2..................

MORUS.

1

1. MO'RUS, Tourn. Mulberry. (Celtic mor, black; the color of the fruit.) Flowers monoecious or dioecious, theOrder CXIV Artocarpaceae Artocarps 1684 in loose catkins; the Order CXIV Artocarpaceae Artocarps 1685 in dense spike-like catkins; calyx 4-partcd; stamens 4; styles 2; achenium compressed, enclosed within the baccate calyx, the whole spike thus constituting a compound berry (sorosis.) - Trees with alternate, generally lobed lvs. Fls. inconspicuous.

I M. rubra L. Red Mulberry. Lvs. scabrous, pubescent beneath, rounded or subcordate at base, equally serrate, acuminate, ovate or (in the young trees) pal-mately and oddly lobed; fertile spikes cylindric; fir. dark red. - In N. Eng. a rare shrub 15 to 20f high. In the Mid. S. and W. States it attains the elevation of 40 - 60f, with a diameter of 1 to 2f. Roots yellow. Trunk covered with a grayish bark, much broken and furrowed. Wood fine-grained, stong and durable. Leaves 4 - 6' long, 2/3 as wide, entire or divided into lobes, thick, dark green. Flowers small. Fruit of a deep red color, with the aspect of a blackberry, com-posed of the entire catkin, made pulpy and sweet Apr., May.

2 M. alba L. White Mulberry. Lvs. glabrous, cordate and oblique at base, unequally serrate, either undivided or lobed; fr. whitish. - Cultivated for the sake of its leaves as the food of silk worms. A tree of humble growth. Leaves 2 - 1' Jong, 2/3 as wide, acute, petiolate. Flowers green, in small, roundish spikes or heads. Fruit of a yellowish-white, insipid, † China.

β. multicaulis. (Chinese Mulberry.) Lvs. large (4 - 7' long, ! as broad.) - Shrub.

3 M. nigra L. Black Mulberry. Lvs. scabrous, cordate, ovate or lobed, obtuse, unequally serrate; fertile spikes oval. - Cultivated for ornament and shade, in this as well as in many other countries. Fruit dark red or blackish, of an aromatic, acid flavor, † Persia.

2. BROUSSONE'TIA, L'Her. Paper Mulberry. (In honor of P. P. N. V. Broussonet, a distinguished French naturalist.) Flowers diœ-ceous;Order CXIV Artocarpaceae Artocarps 1686 anient cylindric; calyx 4-parted; Order CXIV Artocarpaceae Artocarps 1687 anient globous; receptacle cylindric-clavate, compound; calyx 3 to 4-toothed, tubular; ovaries becoming fleshy, clavate, prominent; style lateral; seed 1, covered by the calyx. - Trees from Japan.

B. papyrifera Vent. Lvs. of the younger tree roundish-ovate, acuminate, mostly undivided, of the adult tree 3-lobed; fr. hispid. - A fine hardy tree, occasionally cultivated. It is a low, bushy-headed tree, of rapid growth, with large, light green, downy leaves, and dark red fruit a little larger than peas, with long, purple hairs. The divided lvs. resemble those of the white mulberry.

3. MACLU'RA, Nutt. Osage Orange. (To William Maclure, Esq., of the U. S., a distinguished geologist.) FlowersOrder CXIV Artocarpaceae Artocarps 1688Order CXIV Artocarpaceae Artocarps 1689 , in aments. Calyx 0; ova. numerous, coalescing into a compound, globous.fruit, of 1-seeded, compressed, angular, cuneiform carpels; sty. 1, filiform, villous. - A lactescent tree, with deciduous, alternate, entire, exstipulate leaves and stout, axillary spines.

M. aurantiaca Nutt. - A beautiful tree, native on the banks of the Arkansas, Ac. Leaves 4 - 5' by 1 1/2 - 2 1/2, glabrous and shining above, strongly veined and paler beneath, on short petioles, ovate or ovate-oblong, margin obscurely denticulate, apex subacuminate, rather coriaceous. The fruit is about the size of an orange, golden yellow when ripe, suspended by an axillary peduncle amid the deep green, polished foliage. Extensively cultivated for hedges.

4. FI'CUS, Tourn. Fig. Banyan. (Gr.Order CXIV Artocarpaceae Artocarps 1690 Lat. ficus. Celtic figueren. Teutonic fiege. Anglo-Saxon Fic. English Fig.) Flowers monoecious, minute, fixed upon the inside of a fleshy, turbinate, closed receptacle; Order CXIV Artocarpaceae Artocarps 1691 calyx 3-parted; stamens 3; Order CXIV Artocarpaceae Artocarps 1692 calyx 5-parted; ovary 1; seed 1; fruit (syconus) composed of the enlarged, fleshy receptacles inclosing the numerous, dry, imbedded achenia.

F. Carica Willd. Common FIG. Lvs. cordate, 3 - 5-lobed, repand-dentate; lobes obtuse, scabrous above, pubescent beneath. - -Supposed to be a native of Caria, Asia, although cultivated for its fruit in all tropical climes. With us it is reared only in sheltered locations as a curiosity. The delicious fruit is well known. Leaves very variable in form.