18 Q. macrocarpa Mx. (Fig. 140, 194.) Lvs. deeply and lyrately sinuate-lobed (most deeply in the middle), lobes obtuse and repand, upper dilated; acorn very large, cup very deep, composed of distinctly imbricated and hard-pointed scales, the upper filiform-pointed, forming a fringe; nut globular ovoid, more than half inclosed. - N. Eng. (rare) to Ill. and S. States. Tree 60 to 70f high, with rich, green foliage. Lvs. downy beneath, at length nearly smooth, 6 to 10 to 15' long, stalks not 1'. Acorns 12 to 15" long, sometimes nearly fringeless or nearly covered. May. (Q. lyrata Mx.) A beautiful tree, with valuable timber. (Also Q. olivaeformis Mx.)
19 Q. obtusiloba Mx. Iron Oak. Lvs. deeply sinuate, cuneiform at the base, pubescent beneath, lobes very obtuse, the 3 upper ones dilated, each 2-lobed; cup hemispherical; acorn oval. - The iron oak, called also post oak, box white oak, turkey oak, is common in the Mid., W. and S. States, rare in N. Eng. It is a tree of moderate size, with widely spreading and very crooked branches. The bark is grayish-white. Lvs. thick, strongly tomentous beneath, in 4 or 5 lobes, which are sometimes arranged so as to appear cuneiform or stellate. Acorns very sweet. Timber is fine graiued, strong, and durable. May. (Q. stellata Willd.)
20 Q. Prinus Willd. Swamp Chestnut Oak. Lvs. on long petioles, obovate, acute, pubescent beneath, with large, somewhat equal, obtuse or rounded teeth; acorn short-peduncled, large; cup tubercular, about half inclosing the ovoid nut - This oak is seldom met with in N. Eng., but abounds in the rest of the country-
It is a lofty tree, arising to the height of 50f, with its Undivided, straight and uniform trunk, and thence with its expansive top to the height of 80 to 90f. Acorns large and sweet. Ped. 3 to 6" long, acorn 12 to 15". The timber valuable. (Q. prinus palustris Mx.) β. monticola. Rock Chestnut Oak. Lvs. glaucous beneath; nut oblong-ovate, about a third covered by the cup. - In mountain woods.
21 Q. bicolor Willd. Swamp White Oak. Lvs. oblong-ovate, downy, white underneath, with large, irregular teeth above, somewhat sinuate-lobed in the middle, subentire below, on very short petioles; acorns on long peduncles, in pairs, cup hemispherical, with pointed scales, nut oblong-ovoid. - In low, swampy woods, U. S. It is a beautiful tree, attaining, in favorable situations, the height of 70f Foliage rich and luxuriant; lvs. smooth and green above, White-downy beneath, 6 to 7' by 2 1/2 to 4'. Ped. 1 to 2' long The trunk bark grayish-white, dividing into large flat scales. It affords excellent fuel and timber, (Q. prinus discolor Mx.)
22 Q. castanea Mulil. Chestnut Oak. Lvs. longpetioled, lance-oval or lance-obovate, acuminate dowhy and glaucousdioary beneath, with coarse, subequal, acute and submucronate teeth; acorn nearly sessile, cup hemispherical, covering about a third of the roundish-ovoid, light brown nut. - Mid., S. and W. States, in rocky or sandy soils. A large tree. 40 to 60f high, with a whitish, furrowed bark. Lvs. 4 to 6' long, more nearly resembling the chestnut leaf than any other oak. Acorns about 9" long, sweet-flavored. Used for rails and shingles.
23 Q. prinoides Willd. Dwarf Chestnut Oak. Shrub with lvs. on short petioles, obovate, acute at the base, glaucous beneath, with large, subequal, sin-uate teeth, callous at the tip; cup hemispherical, acorn ovate. - This is one of the most diminutive of all the oaks, never exceeding 3 to 4f in height, It is a native of the N. and Mid. Slates, in barren woods, but not common. The Mowers appear in May, followed by acorns of middle size, very sweet and very abundant
2. CASTA'NEA, Tourn. Chestnut. (Castanea was a city in Thes-saly, famed for the growth of chestnuts.) Flowers clustered in long, blender, cylindrie aments; calyx 5 to 6-parted; stamens 5 to 15. Flowers in 3s, inclosed in a 4-lobed involucre, which in fruit becomes coriaceous and beset with prickles; calyx 5 to 6-lobed, tube adherent to the 3 to 6-celled, 3 to 6-ovuled ovary; stamens 5 to 12, abortive; stigmas as many as the cells; fruit a 4-valved involucre enclosing 1 to 3 one-seeded nuts. - Trees and shrubs. Lvs. mostly deciduous, alternate, acuminate, expanding before the flowers.
1 C. vesca L. Lvs. oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, mucronatcly serrate, smooth both sides; nuts mostly 2 or 3 together. - Abundant in particular districts throughout the U. S. It is a lofty tree in woods, with a large, straight trunk. Lvs. 6 to 9' long, 1/4 as wide; teeth mucronate, with the prolonged, straight veins. Aments as long as the leaves, and so numerous as to impart their yellowish hue to the whole tree when in blossom. Nuts of a peculiar brown, villous above, enclosed in the enlarged cupule or burr Which is beset on all sides with strong, compound, acute spines. Timber coarse-grained, strong, clastic, light and very durable. July, fruit in Oct. - The nuts arc smaller but sweeter than those of the European Variety (the Spanish Chestnut).
2 C. pumila Michx. Chinquapin. Lvs. oblong, ovate or obovate, mucronate-ser-rate, hoary-tomontous beneath; nut solitary. - Sterile places, N. J., Penn. to Ga. and Tenn. Shrub 6 - 12f high, much branched. Leaves 3 - 5' by 1 1/2 - 2', smooth above, generally obtuse at base, acute at apex, margins mucronate, with the projecting, straight veinlets; petioles 6' long; under surface nearly white. Aments axillary, the lower staminate, 6 - 10" long, upper fertile, with remote, pistillate flowers. Involucre of fruit bristly and prickly, 4-lobed. Nut (by abortion) solitary, small, ovoid, sweet, Fl. Jn. Fr. Oct.
3. FA'GUS, Tourn. Beech. (Gr. the beech; it also signifies something eatable.) Flowers in a capitate anient suspended by a slender peduncle; calyx 6-cleft, campanulate; stamens 5 to 12.