F. sylvatica L. (Figs. 438, 471 - 4 46, B.) Lvs. broadly ovate-lanceolate, ' briefly petiolate, obtuse at base, ciliate, with soft white hairs when young, at length nearly glabrous, with small, remote teeth, apex acuminate; buds laneeo-late-cylindric, imbricated with brown scales, developing both leaves and flowers; nuts ovoid triangular, obtuse-mucrouate. - A common forest tree, abundant in the U. S. and Can. The trunk is tall and straight in forests, 50 - 80f high, but lower and with an expansive head in open situations, always known by the light gray, unbroken bark. Leaves with very regular and straight veinlets, 4 - 6' long, 1/2 as wide, often persistent through the winter. Aments pubescent, peduncles 2' • long. Nut small, 2 together in the 4-lobed burr, oily, sweet and nutritious. Timber compact, fine-grained. May. (F. ferruginea Ait.) The Red Beech is now regarded only as a variety, with the wood softer, and of more easy cleavage, and perhaps a slight difference in foliage. There are several beautiful varieties in cultivation, with purple foliage, silver foliage, etc. See garden catalogues.
4. COR'YLUS, Tourn. Hazel-nut. (Gr. a bonnet; to which the cupule enwrapping the nut may well be compared.) Flowers in a cylindric ament; calyx of 2 scales united at base to the bract; stamens 8; anther 1-cellcd. Involucre of 2 to 3 scales, 1 to 2-flowered; calyx adherent to the 2-celled, 2-ovuled ovary; stigmas 2; nut ovoid, surrounded with the enlarged, coriaceous, lacerated involucre. - Shrubs. Aments and capitate fertile clusters subterminal, expanding before the lvs.
1 C. Americana Walt. Lvs. roundish, cordate, acuminate; invol. roundish, campanulate. much larger than the roundish nut, its border dilated and coarsely serrate. - Shrub 5 to 6f high, growing in thickets and borders of fields, U. S. Lvs. 3 to 6' long, § as wide. From the ends of the branches hang the long, pendulous aments of barren flowers in April. The nuts are remarkably distinguished by the large, bell-shaped invol. in which each one is enveloped. Ihey are a well-flavored fruit, though somewhat inferior to the European hazel or filbert.
2 C. rostrata Ait. Lvs. oblong-ovate, acuminate; stip. linear-lanceolate: invol. campanulate-tubular, longer than the nut, 2-parted, with dentate segments. - This species is found in the same localities as the former, is a rather smaller shrub, and chiefly differs from it in the involucre which is covered with short, stiff hairs, and contracted at the top into a long (1 to 1 1/2'), narrow neck, like a bottle. Nuts as in C. Americana. May.
3 C. Avellana L. Filbert. Lvs. roundish, cordate, acuminate; stip. ovate-oblong, obtuse; invol. scarcely exceeding the fruit. - Shrub 3 to 10f high, in gardens, etc. Lvs. nearly sessile, doubly serrate, 3 to 5' long. Sterile aments 3' long, the fertile clusters at their base. Nut larger than the native species, † Asia.
5. OS'TRY A, Michel. Hop Hornbeam. Iron-wood. Lever "Wood. (Gr. a scale; in allusion to the conspicuous sacs (not scales) of the fertile aments.) Flowers in a cylindric ament; calyx scale roundish-ovate, ciliate, 1-flowered; anthers 8 or more, conspicuously bearded at the summit. Flowers geminate, in a loose, imbricated ament; flowers enclosed each in an inflated, membranous sac which at length enlarged, contains the matured nut. - Small trees, flowering before leafing.
O. Virginica Willd. Lvs. ovate, acuminate, serrate; fertile ament oblong, pendulous; buds rather acute. - A small tree disseminated throughout the U. S., 25 - 30f in height. Its bark is remarkable for its fine, narrow, longitudinal divisions. Leaves about twice as long as wide. The fruit is similar in appearance to hops, suspended from the ends of the branches, consisting of membranous, imbricated sacs (cups?) containing each a flower. The wood is very white, hard and strong, much used for levers, etc Apr., May.
6. CARPI'NUS, L. Hornbeam. (Celtic car, wood, and pino, the head; alluding to its use in making yokes for cattle.) Flowers in a long, cylindric ament; cal. scale roundish, clliate; sta. 8 - 14, slightly bearded at summit. Flowers in a loose ament; scale large, oblong, 3-lobed, 1 - 3-flowered; cal. 6-toothed; stig. 2; nut long, ovoid, furrowed, 1-seeded. - Small trees. Scales of the aments persistent and becoming foliaceous.
C. Americana L. Lvs. oblong-ovate, acuminate, unequally serrate; scales of the fertile ament 3-parted, the middle segment much the largest, oblique, with a lateral tooth. - A small tree (12 - 20f high), common in woods throughout the U. S. The wood is very finegrained, compact and white, covered with a light gray or ashcolored bark. Leaves 2 - 4' long, 1/2 as wide, petiolate. From the ends of the branches hang the long, loose, pale green, leafy aments, consisting of alternate pairs of enlarged scales, with a dark-colored nut at the base of each. Apr., May.