Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, simple, straight-veined, with deciduous stipules. Flowers monoecious, the sterile in aments which are racemed or capitate.Order CXIX Cupultferae Mastworts 1762 Calyx scale-like or regular, with 5 to 20 stamens inserted at its base. Order CXIX Cupultferae Mastworts 1763 Calyx tube adherent to the ovary, the toothed limb crowning its summit. Ovary 2 to 3 to 6-celled, with sessile stigmas and 1 or 2 ovules in each cell. Fruit a 1-celled, 1-seeded nut, solitary or several together invested by an involucre which forms a scaly or cehinate cupule. Seed destitute of albumen, filled by the embryo with its large cotyledons. Illust. in figs. 6, 7, 8, 9, 71, 138, 139, 140, 202, 418, 438, 471, 472, 473, 474. 46. B.

Genera 8, species 265, constituting a large portion of the forests of the northern temperate regions, find of mountainous tracts within the tropics.

Properties. - The bark of the oak and other genera is well known for its astringent qualities. The edible fruit of the hazel-nut, chestnut, beech, etc, are too well known to require description. Cork is the bark of Quercus Suber. Nutt galls are produced from the petioles of Q. infectoria of Asia Minor, being caused by wounds mode by insects. But the timber is of the highest quality and value.

Genera

§ Sterile flowers in amenta, fertile, solitary, or few together. (*)

* Involucre of many scales, valveless, cup-like, partly enclosing the 1 nut...........

QUERCUS.

1

* Involucre of prickly seales, 4-valved, enclosing 2 or 3 nuts.................................

Castanea.

2

* Involucre of soft, prickly scales, 4-valved, enclosing 2 nuts.................................

FAGUS.

3

* Involucre of 2 or 3 large, lacerated, united scales, valveless, with 1 - 2 nuts........

CORYLUS.

4

§ Sterile flowers and fertile, both kinds in pendulous amenta. (*)

* Involucre scales in pairs, with their edges united, inflated.....................................

OSTRYA.

5

* Involucre scales in pairs, distinct, 3-lobed, becoming leaf-like............................

Carpinus.

6

1. QUER'CUS, L. Oak. (Celtic quer, fine, cuez, tree. The Celtic name is drys, hence druid.)Order CXIX Cupultferae Mastworts 1764 Fls. in loose aments; calyx mostly 5cleft; stamens 5 - 10. Order CXIX Cupultferae Mastworts 1765 Cupule cup-shaped, scaly; ovary 3-celled,

6-ovuled (Fig. 418), 2 of the cells and 5 of the ovules abortive; stigmas 3; nut (acorn) coriaceous, l-celled, 1-seeded, surrounded at the base by the enlarged, cup-shaped, scaly cupule. - A noble genus of trees, rarely shrubs. Aments axillary, pendulous, filiform, with the flowers separate, in one section, not maturing fruit until the second year (fruit biennial). Timber invaluable. Fig. 420.

§ Leaves mostly entire, the ends subequal, the petioles very short. FruitOrder CXIX Cupultferae Mastworts 1766 (*)

* Peduncle longer than the oblong acorn. Leaves evergreen.........................

No. 1

* Peduncle shorter than the acorn. - Leaves downy beneath...........................

Nos. 2, 3

- Leaves smooth both sides..........................

Nos. 4, 5

§ Leaves 3-lobed and dilated above, short-petioled, awnless when mature. Fr.Order CXIX Cupultferae Mastworts 1767 .........

Nos. 6, 7

§ Leaves 3 to 9-lobed or pinnatifld, broad, lobes setaceouly awned. FruitOrder CXIX Cupultferae Mastworts 1768 (*)

* Leaves at base cuneate, short-petioled, 8 or 5-lobed. Shrubs or small trees................

NOS. 8 - 10

* Leaves at base abrupt or truncate, mostly long-petioled, 7 to 9-lobed. (a)

a Nut one-third immeresed, in the saucer-shaped, fine-scaled cup...........................

Nos. 11, 12

a Nut near hall* immersed, in the hemispherical, coarse-scaled cup. (b)

b Leaves cinerous-downy beneath, acorn also downy.........................................

, No. 13

b Leaves (except when young) glabrous both sides............................................

Nos. 14 - 15.

§ Leaves 5 to 9-lobed. divisions obtuse, never bristle-awned. FruitOrder CXIX Cupultferae Mastworts 1769 , sessile............

Nos. 17 - 19

§ Leaves 13 to 25-toothed, downy beneath, teeth awnless. Acorn sweet, eatable.(c)

c Acorns large (1' long) pedunculate.........................................................

Nos. 20, 21

c Acorns small (8" long) nearly sessile......................................................

Nos. 22, 23

L Q. virens Ait. Live Oak. Lvs. coriaceous, elliptic-oblong, obtuse, downy and paler beneath; cup turbinate; nut oblong-obovoid, on a slender peduncle. -

- In the maritime or low districts of the S. States. Tree 40 to 50, rarely 70f high, of slow growth. Branches widely spreading. Bark blackish and thick. Wood very heavy, close-grained, yellowish. Lvs. 18" to 3' long, short petioled, the old ones cinerous-green, revolute-edged. Peduncle about 1' long, acorn 9" by 6", maturing the second year. May. - The timber is in great demand for ship building and is fast disappearing.

2 Q. cinera Ph. Upland Willow Oak. Lvs. coriaceous, tardily deciduous, lanceolate-oblong, entire, apex acutish, mucronate, margin revolute, white-downy beneath, attenuate at base; cup subsessile, saucer-shaped, nut subglobous. - Sandy or pine barrens, Va. to Fla. A shrub or small tree, 4 to 20f high, trunk not exceeding 4 to 6' diam. Lvs. partly persistent, 1' to 30" long, resembling those of the live oak, but mucronate, and on the shrubby stocks often toothed. May.

β. sericea. Dwarf; lvs. silky; tomentous beneath, 1 to 3' long, deciduous. - • South, in pine barrens. (Q. sericea Ait. Q. pumila Mx.)

3 Q. imbricaria Mx. Laurel Oak. Shingle Oak. (Fig. 138.) Lvs. deciduous, lance-oblong, acute at each end, briefly petiolate, very entire, shining-glabrous above, subpubescent beneath (but not hoary), mucronate at apex; acorn subglobous, in a shallow cup; scale3 of the cup broad-ovate. - A beautiful tree, very abundant in the W. States, also common along rivers, Penn. to Ga. Trunk 40 - 50f high, 1 - 2f diam., with a smooth unbroken bark, and a largo head of coarse, irregular branches. The leaves are dark green, thick and firm in texture, 3 - 5' by 1 - 1 1/2', forming a dense, heavy foliage. June. - The timber makes miserable shingles. In Indiana it is called Jack-Oak.

4 Q. Phellos L. Willow Oak. Lvs. deciduous, linear-lanceolate, tapering to each end, very entire, glabrous, mucronate at apex; acorn subglobous, in a shallow cup. - A tree 30 to 60f high, borders of swamps, N. J. to Fla. and W. States. Trunk straight, 10 to 20' diam., covered with a smooth, thick bark. The leaves which bear considerable resemblance to those of the willow, are of a light green color, dentate when young, 3 to 5' in length. Acorns 6" diam. May. - The timber is of little value.

β. maritima. Low, shrubby; lvs. evergreen. - Sea coast, Va. to Fla. A few feet high.

5 Q. laurifolia Mx. Swamp Laurel Oak. Lvs. oblanceolate or lance-obovate, acute, mucronate, entire, or some of them with 2 lateral teeth above, glabrous both aides, base abruptly ending in a very short petiole; cup saucer-shaped, nut depressed-ovoid. - Damp woods, and often planted for shade, S. Car. to Fla. A tree with handsome, dense foliage, partly evergreen, 30 to 50f high. Bark blackish, rough. Lvs. 2 to 3' long, coriaceous, green both sides, shining above, often appearing tricuspidate. Ped. 1 1/2" long. Acorn as broad as long, cup 6" across. May.

β. obtusa. Lvs. obtuse, not mucronate, sessile. - Ga. (Pond). Fruit the same.

6 Q. aquatica Mx. Water Oak. Lvs. wedge-obovate, entire, or mostly dilated and obscurely 3-lobed above, not mucronate, glabrous both sides, gradually attenuated to a very short petiole; cup subsessile, very shallow, nut globular. - Swamps, Md. to Fla., also planted for shade. It is a handsome, round-headed tree, with very dense foliage of a bright, shining green. Lvs. 2 to 3' long, 1 to 2' wide above, coriaceous, but mostly deciduous, very variable, but always cuneate. Cup 6" across, 1" deep. Apr., May.

7 Q. nigra L. Barren Oak. Black Jack. Iron Oak. Lvs. coriaceous, cuneiform, obtuse or subcordate at base, mostly 3-lobed at apex, lobes subequal, entire or toothed, setaceous-mucronate when young, smooth and shining above, rust-downy beneath; villous in the axils of the veins; cup turbinate, half covering the globular nut; scales of the cup obtuse,scarious. - A small, gnarled tree, with dark, massy foliage, in sandy soils, N. J. to Ill. and S. States. Trunk 20 to 30f high, with a thick, black, broken bark. The leaves are very firm in texture, 3 to 1 to 8' by 2 to 5', broadest above, the middle lobe narrowest. Petioles 3 to 6" long. May. - The wood is very valuable for fuel. (Q. ferruginea Mx.)