Herbs or shrubs, often climbing. Leaves reticulate-veined. Flowers dioecious, or monoecious. Perianth free from the ovary, 6-parted, regular. Stamens 6, in-' serted into the base of the segments. Anth. 1-celled (2-lameilate). Ovary 3-celled; I cells 1 or many-seeded. Style 1 or none. Stigmas 3. Berry roundish, few or many-seeded. Seeds orthotropous albuminous. Fig. 586.
SMILAX, L. Green Brier. Sarsaparilla. (Gr. a grater; from its prickly stems.) Flowers , perianth deciduous, of 6 similar, spreading, sepaloid segments; stamens 6, on the base of the segments and shorter than they ', anthers adnate; stamen 0, or sterile filaments; stigmas 3, sessile; berry globular, 1 to 3-celled, 1 to 6-seeded. - Herbs or shrubs, mostly climbing by stipular tendrils, often prickly. Lvs. entire, petiolate, palmately veined. Fls. green or yellowish, in axillary, stalked umbels. (In the elaboration of this genus we have been greatly aided by the accurate observations of Dr. Feay, of Savannah.)
§ Coprosmanthus. Herbaceous (unarmed). Leaves long-petioled. Flowers foetid. (*)
* Leaves glabrous on both sides. Stems climbing..............................................................
Nos. 14, 15
* Leaves downy or hispid on the veins beneath. Erect or climbing............
§ Smilax proper. Shrubby, armed or not. Leaves short-petioled, Seeds 1 to 8. (*)
* Plubescent, prostrate, unarmed. Leaves cordate, evergreen. South...................................
* Glabrous, climbing. Leaves acute at base. Peduncle shorter than petiole...................
Nos. 9, 10
* Glabrous, climbing. Leaves abrupt or cordate at base, (a)
a Leaves panduriform or somewhat contracted in the middle..........................................
Nos. 7, 8
a Leaves ovate or oblong, deciduous, (b)
b Plants unarmed..............................................................................
Nos. 5, 6
b Plants prickly. - Leaves glaucous, especially beneath...................
- Leaves green on both sides..................................
Nos. 1 - 3
1 S. rotundifolia L. Common Green Brier. St. terete or sub-4-sided, flex-uous, aculeate, ligneous, climbing; lvs. short-petiolate, roundish-ovate, 5 to 7-vcined, glabrous, round or subcordate at base; acuminate-cuspidate at apex; ped. many-flowered, little longer than the petioles; berries black, glaucous. - A strong, thorny vine, extending 10 to 40f in hedges and thickets, U. S. and Can. St. woody, smooth, except the scattered thorns which proceed from the wood. Branches 4-angled. Lvs. 2 to 3' by 1 1/2 to 3', cordate or tapering at base. Tendrils strong, from the wings of the petioles. Fls. small, greenish, in small, axillary umbels. Berries round, mostly 1-seeded. Mar. - Jn.
β. caduca. Smaller, with ovate, thin lvs. (S. caduca L.)
γ. quadrangularis. Branches 4-angled. (S. quadrangularis Muhl.)
2 S. hispida Muhl. St. terete, climbing, hispid below with weak, slender prickles, nearly unarmed above; branchlets quadrangular; lvs. glabrous, green both sides, ovate, subcordate, cuspidate, rough-edged, 5-veined, thin, deciduous; ped. twice as long as the petioles; berries black, 1 to 3-seeded. - Thickets, N. T. to Mich, and Can. Climbing 8 to 12f. Lvs. 2 to 3' long, rather broadly ovate. Ped. 1'or more in length. Umbels 4 to 6-flowered. Jn.
3 S. Walteri Ph. St. armed or unarmed, with angular branches; lvs. cordate-ovate, 3-veined (or 5-veined, the 2 outer inconspicuous), glabrous; ped. about as long as the petioles • berries of two forms, globular, and oblong-acuminate, red, 1 to 3-seeded. - Woods, in the low districts, Va. to Fla Straggling stems climbing in thickets. Lvs. deciduous, large (3 to 5' long), more or less cordate. Fls. fragrant. Apr. - Jn. (S. China Walt.)
4 S. glauca Walt. False Sarsaparilla. St. slightly 4-angled and aculeate above; lvs. ovate, cuspidate, 5-veined, edges smooth and entire, glaucous, especially beneath; ped. twice or more longer than the petiole; berries black, with a bloom, 1 - 3-seeded. - Thickets, L. Isl to Ga., W. to Ky. Root long, slender. St. stout, somewhat flexuous, armed with a few scattered, hooked prickles. Lvs. finally nearly orbicular, 2 to 3' diam., abruptly contracted at each end, with 3 strong veins and 2 lateral smaller ones. Petioles short, margined with 2 tendrils. Fl3. in small, thin umbels, yellowish-white. Mar. - Jn. (S. Sarsaparilla Ph., etc., nee L. S. spinulosa Torr.)
5 S. Pseudo-China L. St. terete, unarmed; cauline lvs. ovate, cordate, ramial ovate-oblong, all 5-veined, on short petioles; ped. flat, nearly as long as the leaves; berries black. ? - Sandy woods, N. J. to Car., W. to Ohio. Root large, tuberous. St. purplish-brown, very smooth, branching and climbing by tendrils which arise from the base of the petioles. Lvs. 2 to 4' by 1 to 2', slightly hispid on the veins beneath. Ped. 2 to 3' long. May, Jn.
6 S. sarsaparilla L. ? St. and quadrangular branchlets unarmed; lvs. oblong-ovate, thin, both sides green, 5-veined, cuspidate, rounded or subcordate at base; ped. flat, a little longer than the petioles; berries large, globular, mostly 1-seeded, bright pink-red when fully ripe. - River banks, N. J. ? to Ky. and La. (Mr. R. Green). Rt. with long, creeping rhizomes. Vines with tendrils. Lvs. large, 3 to 6' long, half as wide, deciduous. Ripe fruit persistent until Spring. Ped. 1 to 2' long. Apr. - Jl. - This is regarded in La. as the true medicinal Sarsaparilla.
7 S. tamnoides L. St. terete, branches and branchlets 4-angular, flexuous, aculeate; lvs. glabrous, ovate with the sides more or less concave, varying to hastate or panduriform, acuminate, spinulous-scabrous on the margin, truncate or subeor-date at base, 5 to 9-veined; ped. 2 to 3 times longer than petiole; berries spherical, black, 1-seeded. - Sandy woods, Iff. J. to I11. and the S. States, common, climbing 8 to 20f. Lvs. of various forms on different stems of the same root, shining-green both sides, tardily deciduous, or sometimes, in sheltered situations, persistent all winter. Mar., Apr. - Jn. (S. panduratus, hastata, Bonanox. Ph. et auct.)
8 S. maritima Feay. St. armed; branches angular, flexuous, unarmed; lvs. lanceolate, auriculate-hastate, coriaceous, 5-nerved at base, 3-nerved above, cuspidate, glabrous, edges smooth and even; ped. twice longer than the petiole, or shorter; berries large, 2 or 3-seeded, red before maturity, finally black. - Sandy bluffs of the salt-water rivers near the coast, Savannah and southward. Lvs. rarely somewhat ovate. Fls. very fragrant. Jn. (S. Beyrichii Kunth ? S. ovata Ph. The latter name, although the earliest, is utterly inappropriate.)
9 S. laurifolia L St. aculeate, terete, branches flexuous, unarmed; lvs. coria ceous, oval-lanceolate or oblong, varying to linear, 3 to 5-veined (the lateral veins marginal), cuspidate, acute at base, evergreen; petioles and ped. short, the latter sometimes panicled; berries black, 1-seeded. - N. J. to Ga. A vigorous, evergreen climber, ascending trees to a great height. St. with a few scattered prickles. Lvs. numerous, very thick and smooth, 2 to 4' long, often more abrupt at apex than base. Jn. - Aug.
10 S. lanceolata L. St. aculeate below, terete, branches and unarmed branch-lets subangular, lvs. membranous, lanceolate and lance-ovate, varying to ovate (in the plants), 5-veined, acuminate-cuspidate, narrowed at base to a short petiole which is twice longer than the very short peduncle; berries 1 to 3-seeded, red until ripe when they are also perfectly black. - Damp woods coastward, Va. to Fla. A stout vine, often 1' diam. and 40f high on trees. Lvs. 2 to 4' long, a third to two-thirds as wide, ped. 1 to 5" long, 10 to 20-flowered. Jn., Jl. (S. alba Ph). Closely related to No. 9.
11 S. pumila Wait Unarmed, low; branchlets terete, pubescent; lvs. ovate, cordate, acutish, 3 to 5-veined, shining above, soft pubescent beneath; ped. as long as the petiole; berries red, 1 to 3-seeded. - Shady rich soils, S. Car. to Fla. and La. Quite different in habit from our other species. St. 1 to 3f long, running along on the ground. Lvs. perennial, becoming firm, 2 or 3' long, varying from oblong-ovate to roundish-ovate, always cordate. Ped. 6 to 8" long, with small, white flowers and berries red when ripe. Oct. (S. pubera Mx.)
12 S. herbacea L. Carrion Flower St. herbaceous, terete, erect, simple, glabrous; Ira. pubescent beneath, crowded toward the summit, ovate, 5 to 7-veined, cuspidate, rounded or subcordate at base, on petioles a third as long; ped. not twice longer than the petioles; berries red, becoming bluish-black when fully ripe, 2 to 3-seeded. - Thickets and low grounds, Can. and U. S. St. 2 to 3f high, without tendrils. Lvs. 3 to 5' long, two-thirds as wide, more or less downy beneath. Ped. 2 to 3' long, with an umbel of 8 to 1G yellowish-green flowers of a sickening odor. Apr. - Jn.
13 S. lasioneuron Hook. St. terete, climbing, subsimple, unarmed; lvs. oblong, broadly-ovate, cordate, rounded and mucronate at apex, 7-veined, glaucous and hispid-pubescent on the veinlets beneath, glabrous and green above; ped. a little longer than the petiole, many-flowered; tendrils from the base of the petioles. - Thickets, Ind., I11., Wis. and Can. Sts. slender, several feet long. Ped. much shorter than the leaves, which are often 5' by 3', beautifully fringed on the veins beneath.
14 S. peduncularis Muhl. Tall Carrion Flower. St. herbaceous, angular, tall, striate, inclining or leaning, branched; leaves 7 to 9-veined, ovate, acuminate, glabrous, glaucous, especially beneath, rounded or subcordate at base, the lower subtriangular, petioles a third as long, bearing 2 filiform tendrils at base; ped. much longer than the leaves, ∞-flowered; berries red, at last blue 6-seeded. - Damp thickets and meadows, Can. and U. S. St. 3 to 6 to 8f long, its slender summit nodding or climbing. Lvs. 2 to 4' long. Ped. 5 to 6' long, 30 to 50-flowered, greenish, with a disgusting odor. May, Jn.
15 S. tamnifolia Mx. St. herbaceous, terete, climbing; lvs. long-petioled, 5-veined, glabrous, sublriangular-hastate, cordate, tapering to the obtuse apex, base lobes rounded, upper lvs. lanceolate; ped. longer than the petioles; (berries bluish-black, Dr. Gray). - N. J. to Car. (Michaux.) (S. tamnoides Ph.)