Herbs with simple stems, tuberous roots and verticillate, net-veined leaves. Flowers terminal, 1 or few, perfect, mostly 3-parted. Calyx herbaceous, corolla more or less colored. Stamens 6 to 10. Ovary free, 3 to 5-celled, bearing in fruit a juicy, ∞-seeded pod. Figs. 356, 53, 88.
Genera A, species 30, in woodlands, temperate parts of Europe, Asia and N. America. The roots of some species are emetic.
§ Leaves one whorl. Sepals green, petals colored............................
§ Leaves two whorls. Sepals and petals a like greenish...................
1. TRIL'LIUM, Miller. Wake-robin. (Lat. trilix, triple; every part being in 3s.) Perianth deeply 6-parted, in 2 distinct series, outer of 3 sepals, inner of 3 colored petals; stamens 6, nearly equal, anthers longer than the filaments; stigmas sessile, distinct or approximate; berry 3-celled, cells many-seeded. - St. simple. Lvs. 3, whorled at the top of the stem, reticulate-palmate veined. Fls. solitary, terminal. Fr. purple
§ Flowers sessile, petals dark purple, erect......................................... .....................................
Nos. 1, 2
§ Flowers on a peduncle raised above the leaves. (*)
* Leaves petiolate, ovate, rounded at the base. Petals thin, delicate..................................
Nos. 3, 4
* Leaves sessile, rhomboida, nearly as broad as long. Petals thickish...............................
§ Flowers on a peduncle deflexed beneath the leaves. - Style scarcely any................................
Nos 7, 8
- Style 1, as long as stigmas.....
1 T. sessile L. Lvs. rhombic-ovate, or suborbicular, acute, sessile, spotted; fl. closely sessile, erect; sep. erect, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, acute; pet. linear-lanceolate, purple, a third longer than the sepals; anth. long, erect. - A email species, in fertile soils, Middle, Western and Southern States. Rhizoma horizontal, thick. Stem 6 - 12' high, slender. Leaves rather thick, 1 1/2 - 3' by 1 - 2 , smooth and entire, blotched with dark purple. Sep. 8 to 12" long, the petals narrower and much longer, dark purple. Apr. May. (T. discolor Wray.)
2 T. recurvatum Beck. Lvs. ovate or obovate, attenuated to a petiole, acute; fl. closely sessile; pet. lanceolate-ovate, very acute, attenuate at base, erect, as long as the recurved sepals. - A small Trillium quite distinct, although allied to the last, in shady woods, Wis. to La. Stem 8 - 10' high, rather thick. Leaves 2 - 2 1/2 by 1 1/2 - 2', with distinct, short petioles, not usually spotted. Petals purple, and with the green, reflexed sepals about 1' long. May.
3 T. nivale Riddell. Snowy Trillium. St. low; few. ovate or oval, rather obtuse, distinctly and abruptly petiolate; fl. short, pedunculate, erect; pet. spatulate-obovate, obtuse, white, one third longer than the calyx. - The smallest species hero described, in stony or dry fields, Ohio to Wis. Stem 2 - 4' high, from a thick.
tuberous root. Leaves 8 - 18" by 5 - 12", petioles 2 - 4", about equaling the peduncle. Sepals green, much narrower than the snowy petals which are about 8" by 4". Mar., Apr.
4 T. erythrocarpum Mx. Smiling Wake-robin. Lvs. ovate, acuminate, rounded at base, abruptly petioled; ped. erect; pet. lanceolate-ovate, recurved, twice as long as the sepals. - Can. to Ga. A beautiful flower, adorning our woods in May and June. Stem 8 - 12' high, with a whorl of 3 broad-ovate leaves at top. These are 3-veined, rounded at base, long acuminate, 3 - 4' long, 2/3 as wide, petiole 2 - 3" long. Flower nearly erect. Petals wavy at the edges, white, finely radiated with purple lines at base. The root is considered medicinal. (T. pictum Ph.)
β . clevelandicum. Sepals leaf-like, larger than the petals which are partly or , chiefly green. - Brunswick, Me. (Ricard). A metamorphosis.
5 T. grandifolium Salisb. Lvs. broadly rhomboid-ovate, subsessile, abruptly acuminate; ped. inclined; fl. suberect; petals mvch longer than the calyx, spatu-late-obovate, connivent at base. - Damp, rocky woods, Mid., S. and W. States, abundant. St. 8 to 12' high. Lvs. 3 to 5' diam. Fls. larger than in any of the preceding species. Petals 1 1/2 to 2' in length, broadest near the apex, with a short, abrupt acumination, white, varying to rose-colored. May.
6 T. erectuni L. Bath Flower. St. thick; lvs. rhomboidal, acuminate, sessile; ped. inclining; fl. nodding; petals ovate, acute, scarcely longer, but much broader than the sepals. - A conspicuous plant in woods, of fine appearance, but offensive odor. At the top of the stem, which is a foot high, is a whorl of 3 leaves which are 3-veined, 3 - 5' long, of equal width, and a single, nodding flower, on a nearly erect peduncle. Petals broad-ovate, an inch long, twice as wide as the sepals and of a dusky purple, greenish outside. May. (T. atropurpureum Curt.)
β . alba. Petals white or cream-color. - More common "West and South.
7 T. pendulum Muhl. St. slender; lvs. subsessile, roundish-rhomloidal, acuminate; ped. long, horizontal or deflexed, flower pendulous; petals lance-ovate, short-acuminate, flat, not recurved, nearly as small as the calyx; stig. as long as the anthers, revolute at end. - Woods, Mid., W. and S. States. A large species, with a smallish flower. St 10 to 15' high. Lvs. 3 to 5' diam., similarly pointed at each end. Ped. nearly twice the length of the flower, half the length of the leaves. Petals white. Apr. - Jn. (T. cernuum Torr. N. Y. Flo.) - Perhaps runs into T. erectuni, but is very distinct from the next.
8 T. cernuum L. Drooping Trillium. St. tall, slender; lvs. thin, ovate or elliptic-ovate, acuminate, petiolate; ped. decurved beneath the leaves, as long as the flower; petals lanceolate, channeled, undulate, recurved, longer and much wider than the recurved sepals; stam.recurved, much longer than the stigmas. - Damp woods, N. Eng. ? N. Y. to Ky. and the up country of Ga. St. 1 to 2f high. Lvs. 3 to 6' by 2 to 4', distinctly petioled. Ped. a third as long as the leaves. Petals near 2' long, delicate, white or roseate. Apr. - Jn.
9 T. stylosum. St. slender; lvs. elliptic-ovate, pointed at both ends, short-petio-late; ped. shorter than the flower, nodding and deliexed; petals lance-obovate, obtuse or short pointed, undulate, flat, spreading, much exceeding the oblong, acute sepals; ova. produced into a style which is as long as the stigmas; stain, elongated. - Woods, in the up country of N. Car. (Miss Carpenter) to Ga. (Mr. Jones). A small plant with a largo flower. St. 8 to 10' high. Lvs. 2 to 3' by 20 to 30". Petals roseate, 15 to 18" long. Apr. - Jn. (T. Catesbsei Ell.)
2. MEDE'OLA, Gronov. Indian Cucumber-root. (Named after the fabulous sorceress, Medea, for its supposed medicinal virtues.) Perianth deeply parted into 6 petaloid, revolute segments; stamens 6, with slender filaments; stigmas 3, divaricate, united at base; berry 3-celled; cells 3 to 6-seeded. Stem simple, arising from a white, tuberous rhizome (which is thought to resemble the cucumber in flavor) bearing 2 whorls of lvs. and 1 to 3 terminal fls.
M. Virginica L. None can but admire the symmetry of its form. St. erect, 1 to 2f high, invested with loose, cottony wool. Lower whorl near the middle of the stem, consisting of 6 to 8 wedge-lanceolate lvs. (3 to 4' by 9 to 12"); the other at. the top, of about 3 ovate, shorter loaves. Fls. in the upper whorl, 1, 2 or 3, pendulous, with greenish, revolute segments. The stigmas are very long, rerlexed, dark red. Jl.