β. PUBESCENS. Lvs. pubescent beneath, glaucous, slightly clasping; st. 1 to 2f high; fls. as short as the peduncles. - Common in N. England. γ. giganteum. Tall, green and glabrous throughout; lvs. partly clasping; ped. 2 to 6-flowered. - In rich alluvion. St. 3 to 7f high. (P. caniculatum Ph.) δ. latifolium. Pubescent above; lvs. ovate-oblong, upper surface glabrous, base sessile or somewhat petioled. - Middle States. St. 2 to 4f high. (P. latifolium Muhl. P. hirtum. Ph.)
17. CONVALLA'RIA, L. Lily of the Valley. (Lat. convallis, a valley; the locality of some species.) Perianth campanulate, of 6 united segments, lobes of the limb recurved; stamens 6, included, perigvnous; ovary 3-celled, 1-styled, cells 4 to 6-ovuled; berry few-seeded. - Rhizome creeping, slender. Lvs. radical, and scape very smooth, low, bearing a secund raceme of white, drooping fls.
C. niajalis L. An elegant, sweet-scented plant, native of mountain woods, Va. to Ga., also of Europe, and is, or deserves to be, a frequent inhabitant of our gardens. Lvs. 2, seldom 3, ovate-elliptical. Scape 6' high, with the small, elegant flowers depending from its upper half in a single rank. May.
18. CLINTO'NIA, Raf. (In honor of Gov. De Witt Clinton, of N. Y.) Perianth campanulate, of 6 equal, distinct segments; stamens 6, hypc-gynous, anthers linear-oblong; ovary oblong, 2 (rarely 3)-celled; style elongated; berry (blue) 2-celled, cells 2 to 10-seeded. - Rhizome creeping. Lvs. all radical, few (2 to 5), broad. Scape naked, bearing an umbel.
1 C. borealis Raf. Northern Clintonia. Lvs. broad-oval-lanceolate; fls. 2 to 5 in the bractless umbel, cernuous; berry-cells many-seeded. - Mountainous or hilly wood, Can., N. Eng. to Car., W. to the Miss. Rhizome creeping to some extent. Lvs. 4 to 7' long, 1/3 as wide, petiolate, radical or nearly so, smooth and glossy, fringed with scattered hairs. Scape erect, round, 8 to 13' high, bearing at top a beautiful umbel of 3 to 6, yellowish-green, nodding fls. Perianth liliaceous, of 6 oblanceolate, erect-spreading segm. Berries of a rich amethystine blue. (Con-vallaria Poir.)
2 C. multiflora Beck. Lvs. oblong-lanceolate, pubescent beneath; umbel many (12 to 30)-flowered, bracted; fls. erect or spreading; berry cells 2-seedod. - Woods,
Chatauque Co., N. Y. (Torrey) to Car. along the Alleghanies. Lvs. 6 to 9' by 1 to 2', scarcely acuminate, striate. Scape 8 to 10' high, pubescent. Umbel corym-bous, with the fls. small (4 to 5" long), white, spotted with purple inside, odorous. Jn. (Convallaria umbellata Poir.)
19. SMILACI'NA, Desf. Solomon's Seal. (Lat. diminutive of smilax, but with no good reason.) Perianth of 6 equal, spreading segments united at the base; stamens 6, slender, perigynous, anthers short; ovary globous, 3-celled (rarely 2-celled), with 2 ovules in each cell; style short, thick; berry globous, pulpy, 1 to 3-seeded. - Rhizome creeping, thick or slender. St. leafy, bearing a terminal cluster of white fls.
§ Raceme simple. Stamens shorter than the perianth, Ovules one above the other...........
Nos. 2, 3
1 S. racemosa Desf. Clustered Solomon's Seal. St. recurved; lvs. oval, acuminate, subsessile; rac. compound. - Copses, common, Car. and U. S. Rhizome thick, sweetish to the taste. Stem 18' - 2f high, downy, always gracefully recurved at top. Lvs. 4 to 6' long, a third as wide, veined, sharply acuminate, minutely downy. Petioles 0 to 2" long. Fls. very many, small, white in all their parts, in an oval panicle of racemes. Berries red, dotted, subpellucid, as large as peas. Apr. - Jn. (Convallaria, L.)
2 S. stellata Desf. St. erect; lvs. many, lanceolate, acute, amplexicaul; fls. few, in a simple raceme. - Along rivers, Can. and Northern States, W. to the Miss. St. 10 to 20' high, round and smooth. Lvs. 8 to 10, glabrous, glaucous beneath, 4 to 6' by 9 to 12", tapering gradually to the apex. Fls. white, about 8, 4" diam. Segm. lance-oblong, obtuse, twice longer than the stamens. Berries nearly black. May, Jn. (Asteranthemum Kunth.)
3 S. trifoliata Desf Erect: lvs. 3 or 4, oval-lanceolate, tapering to both ends, amplexicaul; rac. terminal, simple. - A delicate little species in mountain-swamps, Can., N. Eng. (rare), W. to Wis. St. 3 to 5' high, pubescent, angular. Lvs. 2 to 3 1/2' long, a fifth to a third as wide, somewhat acuminate. Fls. 4 to 10, on pedicels 2 to 1" long, white, Segm. obtuse, finally reflexed. a third longer than the stamens. Ovary often but 2-celled, with 2 stigmas. Berry 2 or 3-seeded, dark red. May. (Convallaria, L. Asteranthemum Kunth.)
20. MAJAN'THEMUM, Mœnch. Two-leaved Solomons Seal. (Gr. Maia, a mountain nymph, a flower.) Perianth of 4 ovate, obtuse, spreading segments united at base; stamens 4; ovary 2-celled; otherwise as in Smilacina. - Rhizome creeping. St. bearing 2 or 3 lvs. Fls. in a simple terminal raceme.
M. bifolium DC. A small plant frequent upon the edges of woodlands, Can., N. Eng., W. to Wis. St, angular, about 6' high. Lvs. 2, rarely 3, about 2' long, 1/2 as wide, ovate, distinctly cordate, sessile, or the lowest on a petiole. Rac. erect, an inch long, consisting of 12 to 20 white fls. Berry small, round, and when mature pale red, speckled with deep purple. May.
21. ASPAR'AGUS, L. (The ancient Greek name.) Perianth 0-parted, segments erect, slight spreading above; stamens 6, perigynous; style very short; stigmas 3; berry 3-celled, cells 2-seeded. - Rts. fibrous, matted. Sts. with very narrow lvs. and small fls. A. officinalis L. St. herbaceous, unarmed, very branching, erect; lvs. setaceous, flexible, fasciculate. - Escaped from gardens and naturalized on rocky shores. St. 2 to 4f high. Lvs. filiform, 1/2 to 1 1/2' long, pale pea-green. Fls. axillary, solitary or in pairs. Berries globous, red. It is one of the oldest and most delicate culinary vegetables, was no less praised in ancient Rome, by Pliny, Cato and other writers, than at the present day. Diuretic, Jl. § Eur.