Herbs with bulbous or tuberous stems, parallel-veined, sessile leaves, flowers perfect, regular, generally largo and richly colored, perianth 6 (rarely 4)-parted, uniformly colored, free from the ovary, stamens 6 (rarely 4), perigynous; anthers introrse (extrorse in Uvularia), styles wholly or partly united, ovary superior, 2 or 3-celled. Fruit a capsule, loculicidal, or a pulpy berry. Seeds free or many, with fleshy albumen. Illustr. in figs. 58, 60, 63, 108, 171, 254, 259, 400, 454.

Genera 147, species 1200. chiefly natives of temperate regions. Tun flowers of most are beautiful, of many brilliant, and of some truly splendid.

Properties - The order abounds in a bitter, stimulant principle and also in mucilage. Some of the bulbous species yield a nutritious diet, as the Asparagus, Onion, Garlic. The well known active medicine, squills, is the bulb of Seilla maritima, of 8. Europe. The varions kinds of officinal aloes, arc the product of several species of Aloe. The powerful astringent. Dragon's blood, is the. concentrated juice of Dracaena Draco of the Canary Isles. (The Tribe Uvulariae is intermediate between Liliaceae and Melanthaceae, approaching the latter by its mostly extrose anthers, but best according with the former in its united styles, fruit, and in habit.)

FIG. 715. Smilacina boreiilis. 6

FIG. 715. Smilacina boreiilis. 6. A berry cut open, showing the 2 cells, etc.

Tribes And Genera

§ Plants bulbous at the base, or with a thick, woody caudex. (*)

* Perianth segments united, forming a tubular flower, (d)

* Perianth segments separate, not forming a tube, (†)

† Stem (or caudex) leafy, at least below, few or many-flowered, (b) † Stem (scape) sheathed at base, bearing a solitary flower, (a) † Stem (scape) sheathed at base, leafless, many-flowered, (c) § Plant with a rhizome, creeper, or fibrous roots. (**)

** Stamens declinate and curved-ascending. Flowers showy, (e) ** Stamens straight and equal in position, (††)

†† Perianth segments united to near the summit, (f) †† Perianth segments separate, not forming a tube. (X)

‡ Flowers in terminal, leafless clusters, small, whitish, (g) ‡ Flowers axillary, or terminal and subsolitary. - Leaves filiform, etc. (h)

- Leaves ovate, etc. (k)

(Tribe TULIPEae. Perianth 6-leaved. Fruit a capsule. Seed-coat soft and pale.)

a Flowers nodding...............................................................................................

Erythronium.

1

a Flowers erect...................................................................................................

TULIP.

2

b Nectary a linear groove at the base of each segment................................

LILIUM.

3

b Nectary a roundish cavity at the base of each segment..........................

FRITILLARIA.

4

b Nectary none. Flowers panicled, - large. Seeds many........................

YUOOA.

5

- small. Seeds 1 to 3.......................

NOLINA.

6

(Tribe ASPHODELEae. Fruit a capsule. Seed-coat crustaceous, black.)

c Flowers in racemes, blue or purple............................................................

SCILLA.

7

c Flowers in racemes or corymbs, yellow or white.......................................

Ornithogalum.

8

c Flowers in umbels, - white or roseate. Stamens straight..........................

ALLIUM.

9

- blue. Stamens declinate, curved............................

AGAPANTHUS.

10

d Perianth limb revolute, as long as the tube...............................

HYACINTHUS.

11

d Perianth limb spreading, much shorter than tube........................

MUSCARI.

12

e Perianth segments distinct. Base of the stamens valve-like........

ASPHODELUS.

13

e Perianth segments half-united. - Stamens perigynous....................

Hemerooallis.

14

- Stamens hypogynous.................

FUNKIA.

15

(Tribe CONVALLAEINEae. Rhizome. Fruit a berry. Seed-coat thin, pale.)

f Perianth tubular-oblong, greenish. Peduncles axillary....................................

POLYGONATUM.

16

f Perianth broad-campanulate, white. Raceme leafless....................................

CONVALLARIA.

17

g Scape leafless, bearing an umble. Berry 2-celled....................................

CLINTONIA.

18

g Stem leafy, bearing a cluster. - Flowers 6-parted.......................................

SMILACINA.

19

- Flowers 4-parted.....................................

Majanthemum.

20

h Stems branching. Flowers small, axillary. Berry red...................

ASPARAGUS.

21

(Tribe UVULABIEae. Boot fibrous. Anthers mostly innate and opening outwards.)

k Filaments flat, as long as the sagittate anthers. Berry many-seeded...............

STREPTOPHUS.

22

k Filaments filiform, much longer than the anthers. Berry 3 to 6-seeded............

Prosartes.

23

k Filaments shorter than the long, linear anthers. Capsule 6 to ∞ -seeded...........

UVULARIA.

24

1. ERYTHRO'NIUM, L. (Gr.Tribes And Genera 2026 red; the color of some species.) Perianth campanulate, segments recurved, the 3 inner ones (petals) usually with a callous tooth attached to each side at base, and a groove in the middle; style long; capsule somewhat stipulate, seeds ovate. - Tribes And Genera 2027 Leaves 2, subradical. Scape 1-flowered. Fls. nodding, liliaceous.

1 E. Americanum Smith. Yellow Erythronium Scape naked; lvs. spotted, lanceolate and involute at the point; segments yellow, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, inner ones bidentate near the base; sty. clavate; stig. undivided. - A beautiful little plant, among the earliest of our vernal flowers, found in rich, open grounds, or in thin woods, U. S. and Can. The bulb is deep in the ground. Scape slender, 3 - 4' high. The 2 leaves are of equal length (5'), one of them nearly twice as wide as the other, both clouded with brown spots. Flower drooping, yellow, revolute in the sunshine. May. (E. Dens-canis Mx.)

2 E. albidum Nutt. White Erythronium. Scape naked; lvs. elliptic-lanceolate; segments of white, linear-lanceolate, rather obtuse, inner ones without dentures at base, subunguiculate; stig. 3-cleft, lobes reflexed. - About the size of the last, in wet meadows, near Albany, N. Y. (Storrs) to Wis. (Lapham). Leaves without an acumination, tapering to the base, of equal length including the petiole (4 - 5'), one of them twice as wide as the other. Scape a little longer than the leaves, bearing a single, white, nodding flower. Segments 1 1/4' long. April, May.

3 E. bracteatum Bw. Scape bracted; lvs. lanceolate, very unequal; segm. greenish-yellow. - An alpine species, found in Vt., Boott. It is a smaller plant, distinguishable by the inequality of the leaves, one of which is 3 or 4 times as large as the other. Scape shorter than the leaves, with a narrow, lanceolate bract, 11' long, a little below the flower. Flower greenish-yellow. Segments about 9" long, gibbous at base. Jn.

2. TU'LIPA, Tourn. Tulip. (Persian thouliban, a turban; alluding to the form of these magnificent flowers.) Perianth campanulate; stamens short, subulate; anthers broad-linear, deeply emarginate at base; style very short; stigma thick; capsule oblong, triangular. -Tribes And Genera 2028 Herbs acaulescent, with coated bulbs, sessile lvs., and a simple scape bearing a solitary, erect flower.

T. Gesneriana L. Scape 1-flowered, smooth; lvs. ovate-lanceolate; fls. erect, segments obtuse, smooth. - Named for Gesner, a Zurich botanist. Its varieties are endless, and may be produced by first planting the seed in a rich soil, then transplanting the bulbs into a poorer sod. Thus at length the flowers become broken or variegated with colors in that exquisite manner so much admired. More than 700 varieties are described in florists' catalogues. Apr., May, Jn. † From Persia.

3. LIL'IUM, L. Lily. (Gr.Tribes And Genera 2029 Celtic li, white; one species is the emblem of purity.) Perianth campanulate, segments spreading above or recurved, each with a longitudinal honey groove within, from the middle to the base; stamens shorter than the style, anthers versatile; capsule subtriangular, the valves connected with latticed hairs; seeds 2-rowed in each cell. - Tribes And Genera 2030 . Herbs with bulbous and leafy stems. Lvs. sessile, alternate or verticillate. Fls. terminal, large and showy.