20 S. nigra Marshall. Black Willow. Lvs. lanceolate and lance-linear, attenuate at each end, serrulate, smooth and green on both sides, petiole and midvein abovetomentous; stip. dentate, caducous; aments erect, cylindrie, villous; scales oblong, very villous; fil. 3 to 6 (generally 5), bearded at base; ova. pedicellate, ovoid, smooth; sty. very short; stig. bifid. - A large shrub or small tree, 10 to 15 to 20f high, on the banks of streams, Can. to Fla. and Ark. Branches very brittle at base, pale yellow. The trunk has a blackish bark. Lvs. narrow, 4 to 8' long. Sterile aments 3' long.
β. falcata. Lvs. long and more or less falcate. (S. Purshiana Spr. S. falcata Ph.)
21 S. lucida Muhl. Shining Willow. Lvs. ovate-lanceolate long-pointed, rounded at base, smooth and shining; stip. oblong, serrate; stam. 3 to 5. mostly 5; scales lanceolate, obtuse, serrate and smooth at the tip, hairy at the base; ovaries lanceolate-subulate, smooth; style bifid; stigmas obtuse. - A small and beautiful tree, common in N. Eng., Middle States, Mich, and British Am. Trunk 12 - 15f high, 3 - 4' diam. Branches smooth, dark, shining green. Leaves broad and glossy, dark green above, tapering to a long point. May.
22 S. cordata Muhl. Lvs. oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, cordate at base, smooth; stip. large, roundish-ovate, finely serrate; stum, sometimes 3; scales lanceolate, woolly, black, twice shorter than the pedicel of the lanceolate, smooth ovary; sty. very short; stig. bifid. - An elegant shrub, 6 to 8f high, in swamps throughout the Mid. States. Branches green and smooth, with light-green lvs. an inch wide and 3' long. Aments an inch long, accompanying the leaves in Apr. and May. (S. Torreyana Barratt.)
23 S. rigida Muhl. Stiff-leaved Willow. Lvs. oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, subcordate, rigid, smooth, coarsely serrate, the lowest serratures elongated, petioles villous; stip. very large, reniform-ovate, obtuse, glandular-serrate; aments triandrous; scales lanceolate, woolly, black, a third shorter than the pedicel of the lanceolate, smooth ovary; sty. very short: stig. 2-parted. - A small tree, 10 to 15f high, growing in swamps. Branches green, red towards the end, the younger ones pubescent. Much used in basket-making. Apr., May.
24 S. myricoides Muhl. Gale-leaved Willow. Lvs. oblong-lanceolate, acute, with 2 glands at base, obtusely serrate, smooth, glaucous beneath, stip. ovate, acute, glandular-serrate: aments villous, black; ova. on long pedicels, glabrous; sty. bifid; stig. bifid. - Swamps, N. Eng. to Va. A small shrub, with green branches, the branehlets purple, smooth. Lvs. at length thick and coriaceous, the serratures each tipped with a gland. Apr.
25 S. angustata Ph. Lvs. lanceolate, acute, very long, gradually attenuated an base, very glabrous, serrulate, nearly the same color both sides; stip. semi-cordate; aments erect, somewhat glabrous; ova. pedicellate, ovoid, glabrous sty. bifid; stig.
2-lobed. - Banks of streams from the Conn. to the Miss. An excellent osier, with very long and slender twigs, long and narrow leaves.
26 S. vitellina L. Yellow Willow. Golden Osier. Lvs. lanceolate, acuminate, with thickened serratures, smooth above, paler and somewhat silky beneath; stip. 0; aments cylindric; scales ovate-lanceolate, pubescent outside; ova. sessile, ovate-lanceolate, smooth; stig. subsessile, 2-lobed. - This willow was probably introduced, but is now very common by roadsides, etc. It is a tree of moderate height, with shining yellow branches. May.
β. cerulea. Lvs. with a bluish hue, nearly or quite smooth beneath. - On river banks.
27 S. Babylonica L. Weeping Willow. (Fig. 47, a). Branches pendulous: lvs. linear-lanceolate, acuminate, smooth, glaucous beneath; stip. roundish, oblique, acuminate; ova. sessile, ovate, smooth. - A large tree of rapid growth and of a most graceful and elegant form, cultivated until nearly naturalized. Only the $ plant has yet been recognized in the U. S. § Eur. - β. annularis, the curled willow, with the leaves regularly recurved into rings or coils, is a cultivated variety. - The long, slender branchlets very naturally indicate the English name of the tree and give it a place in the church-yard to "weep" over the remains of the departed. The Latin name was happily suggested to Linnaeus by the 137th Psaim:
" By the rivers of Babylon there we sat down; Yen, we wept, when we remembered Zion. We hanged our harps upon the willows in the midst thereof."
2. POP'ULUS, Tourn. Poplar. Aspen. (Lat. popuhes, the people; being often planted along the public ways.) Aments cylindric; bracts lacerately fringed; calyx an oblique, disk-like cup, its margin entire;
Stamens 8 to 30. Ova. superior; style very short, bifid; stigma large, 2-lobed; capsule 2-valved, 2-celled. - Trees of large dimensions. Wood soft and light. Buds varnished with a fragrant resin. Lvs. broad, petioles long, often compressed vertically, and glandular. Aments lateral, expanding before the lvs.
* Branchlets winged or angular. Leaves ovate-cordate, acuminate........................
* Branchlets winged. - Leaves ovate-orbicular, short acuminate..........................
- Leaves ovate-orbicular, obtuse or acute............................
- Leaves ovate, acuminate. Stamens 20 to 50?..................
Nos. 6, 7
- Leaves deltoid, acuminate, smooth...................................
No. 8, 9
- Leaves lobe, white-tomentous beneath.............................
1 P. angulata Ait Water Poplar, Western Cotton Tree. Branches acutely angular or winged; lvs. ovate-deltoid, subcordatc, uncinate-serrate, acuminate, glabrous, younger ones broadly cordate, - A tree of noble dimensions, growing along the rivers of the S. and W. States. Trunk 40 to 80f high, 1 to 3f diam., bearing a broad summit, with coarse branches and branchlets. Lvs. on adult trees 2 to 3' long, about the same width, truncate at base, on younger shoots they are 2 or 3 times larger, with a cordate base. Petioles longer than the lvs. Branchlets remarkably thick, greenish, spotted with white, striate. Buds short-ovoid, green, not coated with resin. Timber not valuable. Mar., Apr.
2 P. monilfera Ait. Neck-lace Poplar. Cotton-wood. Branchlets angular, becoming terete; lvs. broadly deltoid-ovate, acuminate, serrate-dentate, smooth, teeth incurved, ciliate, base nearly entire and subcordate; scales of the ament lacerate-fringed, not hairy; stigmas 3 or 4, very large. - A large tree, GO to 80f high, in woods along rivers and lakes, Western Vt. to I11. and La. Trunk cylindric, straight, 1 to 3f diam. Lvs. 2 to 4' long, conspicuously acuminate, nearly as wide as long, on petioles of nearly equal length. Fertile aments recurved or pendulous, at length 4 to 8' long and the capsules remote. Buds varnished as in the other species. Apr. (P. laevigata Willd.)