Trees or shrubs with alternate, simple leaves and deciduous or persistent stipules. Flowers , both kinds in aments, one under each bract of the anient. Calyx none or cup-form and entire. Ovary 1 to 2 celled, with 2 short styles. Fruit a capsule, 2-valved, ∞-seeded. Seeds with a coma, and no albumen. Illust in figs. 47, a; 81, 93, 266, 267, 268, 269, 465.
Genera 2, species 220, chiefly natives of the northern temperate and frigid zones, one species. Salix arctica, extending farther north than any other known woody plant
Properties. - The bark is astringent and tonic, possessing the febrifugal properties of the sulphate of quinia. The wood is employed for various economical purposes. Several of the Willows and Poplars are much admired as shade trees.
1. SA' LIX, Tourn. Willow. Osier. (Celtic sal, near, and lis, water; alluding to their usual locality.) Aments cylindric, bracts imbricated, entire, 1-flowered, each with a nectariferous gland at base. Calyx
0; sta. 2 - 7. Calyx 0; ova. ovoid-lanceolate, acuminate; stig. 2, mostly bifid; caps. 1-celled, 2 valved, valves acuminate, finally revolute, at summit; seeds numerous, minute, comous. - Trees, shrubs and under-shrubs. Lvs. usually narrow and elongated, usually with conspicuous stipules. Aments terminal and lateral.
§ Aments sessile, expanding before the leaves in early sprihg. Stamens 2. Ovaries clothed with wool, silk or down. Shrubs or small trees. (*)
* Ovaries pedicellate. Leaves subentire, grayish-downy, rugous, margins subrey olute. Upland grayish shrubs. Aments small...........................
Nos. 1 - 3
* Ovaries pedicellate. Leaves serrulate, smooth and shining above, glaucous be neath. Aments large, very hairy. Shrubs 8 to 15 ...............................
Nos. 4 - 6
* Ovaries pedicellate. Leaves serrate, grayish-silky beneath, drying black
Aments with 2 or 3 bracts at base.......................................................
Nos. 7, 8
* Ovaries sessile. Leaves subentire, not drying black............................
Nos. 9, 10
§ Aments more or less pedunculate, expanding with the leaves in late spring. Ovaries mostly glabrous. (*).
* Ovaries clothed with silk or down and pedicellate. Stamens 2. (a)
a Leaves downy both sides. Ovary long-beaked. Shrub erect.............
a Leaves glabrous when mature. Shrubs low, mostly alpine, spreading...
Nos. 12 - 14
* Ovaries glabrous. Shrubs alpine, low, creeping or ascending...............
Nos. 15 - 17
* Ovaries glabrous. Shrubs erect, or trees, 3 to 60f high, (a)
a Ovaries pedicellate. Scales greenish-yellow, deciduous, (b)
b Stamens mostly 2, sometimes 3. Leaves glaucous beneath.........................
Nos. 18, 19
b Stamens mostly 5 (4 to 6) Leaves green on both sides...................
Nos. 20, 21
a Ovaries pedicellate. Scales dark or black, persistent, (b)
b Leaves cordate or at least truncate at the base, 4 to 15f high.......................
Nos. 22, 23
b Leaves acute or tapering at base. Shrubs 6 to 10f high.................
Nos. 24, 25
a Ovaries sessible. Stamens 2. Trees of the larges size........................
Nos. 26, 27
1 S. tristis Ait. Sage Willow. Lvs. linear-lanceolate or oblanceolate, cuneate at base, entire or remotely undulate-toothed, margin subrevolute, apex acute or obtusish; stip. minute, narrow-lanceolate, caducous; aments very small; scales orbicular-oblong, hairy at the margin; ova. with grayish, silky pubescence; sty. short. - Sandy or dry flelds, borders of woods, pastures, N. Eng. to Wis. and Car. A small, downy shrub, with a profusion of naked aments. Leaves at length numerous, often crowded and rosulate at the ends of the branches, 1 - 2' long, tapering from above the middle to a very short petiole, the margin often revolute, under surface glaucous, often pubescent. Varies with the twigs and the diminished lvs. grayish white.
2 S. Muhlenberghiana Barratt. Lvs. oblanceolate, remotely serrate, glabrous above, pubescent and not rugous beneath; young branches smooth; stip. lunate, subdentate; aments precocious, diandrous; scales lanceolate, obtuse, villous; ova. pedicellate, lanceolate, silky; sty. long, bind; stig. 2-lobed. - A shrub in dry soils, N., Mid. and W. States, 4 - 8f high, with brown twigs. On the ends of these, cone-like excrescences are often produced by the punctures of insects. Aments, covered with very hairy scales, appearing before the leaves in April. (S. humilis Marshall? S. conifera Muhl.)
3 S. Candida Willd. White Willow. Lvs. lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, very long, obscurely serrulate at the summit, pubescent above, hoary-tomentous beneath, revolute on the margin; stip. lanceolate, as long as the petioles; aments cylindric; scales obovate, obtuse, very long, hairy; stig. 2-lobed. - A beautiful species in shady woods, Mid. and W. States. Stems 4 - -6f high. Leaves 8 - 12' by 1 - 2'. Catkins dense, white with dense wool. Styles and stigma3 dark red, 1/2 in length. Apr., May.
4 S. discolor Muhl. Branches pubescent when young, brownish or greenish; lvs. oblong or obovate-oblong, acute or rather acuminate, remotely serrulate-toothed, pubescent when young, glaucous beneath; stip. lunate, entire, or with obtuse teeth; aments oblong-cylindric, silky, erect; scales very hairy, oblanceolate, acute; ovaries on short pedicels, densely silky. - Shrub or small tree, 7 to 15f high, in wet places, N. Eng. to I11. and Car. Lvs. 2 to 5' long, finally glabrous, the stipules usually conspicuously toothed at base. Aments 1' to 18" in flower, the fertiie at length 2' or more. Sterile dense, silky white.
5 S. eriocephala Mx. Woolly-headed Swamp Willow. Branchlet3 very pubescent, brown or purplish; lvs. lanceolate-elliptic or oblong, cuneate at base, entire or remotely serrulate above, under surface glaucous or ferruginous, both surfaces pubescent when young, at length the upper surface green and nearly smooth; stip. semicordate, with sharp serratures, aments oval-oblong, densely villous; scales obovate, obtuse. - A small tree, putting forth its largo and exceedingly woolly catkins in Apr. Grows in swamps, N. Eng.
6 S. sensitiva Barratt. Frost or Tender Willow. Lvs. ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, cuueate and entire at base, finely serrate at the apex, and more distantly and strongly serrate towards the base, glabrous and rather thin; stip. sub-falcate, serrate; aments rather lax; scales rather lax, lightly clothed with grayish black hairs. - A small tree about 15f high, found in various parts of N. Eng., etc. The aments and twigs are frequently destroyed by frost at flowering time, being thinly protected with hairs. Lvs. smooth, 3 to 5' by 1 1/2 to 2'. Aments 1 1/2' long.
7 S. sericea Marsh. Gray Willow. Lvs. lanceolate, serrulate, acuminate, smooth above, silky beneath; stip. ovate-oblong, denticulate, deflected, deciduous; scales oblong, hairy, black at the tip, rather longer than the pedicel of the oblong, silky ovary; stig. sessile, obtuse. - A shrub 6 to 8f high, in inundated meadows, N. Eng. to Wis. and Va. Branches purplish, long and slender, very tough, except at the base, where they are very brittle. Lv3. 2 to 4' by 1/2 to 1'. Aments very abundant, 1/2' long. (S. grisea Willd.)
8 S. petiolaris Smith. Long-stalked Green Osier. Lvs. lanceolate, serrate, acuminate, smooth, glaucous beneath, silky at base, mostly inequilateral: stip. lunate, dentate; aments appearing before the leaves; scales lax, obovate, obtuse, hairy, black, shorter than the pedicel of the ovoid-acuminate, silky ovary; stigma 2-lobed, short-styled. - Low grounds, banks of streams, Conn, to I11. and S. Car.