6 A. excelsa DC. Norway Spruce. Branches pendulous; lvs. elongated, somewhat 2-ranked; cones long, cylindrical, pendulous; scales broad, with a slightly projecting and 2-toothed apex. - Parks and shrubberies. A tall stately evergreen with dense and dark green foliage. Lvs. about 1' long, crowded. Cones very showy, and elegant, 5 to 8' long, more than 1' diam. - It grows luxuriantly, and is a finer tree than any of our native species, † N. Eur.

3. LA'RIX, Tourn. Larch. Tamarack. Aments scattered all over the branches, bud-like;Order CXXVII Coniferae Conifers Part 3 1848 anthers 2-celled, cells opening lengthwise, with simple pollen grains; Order CXXVII Coniferae Conifers Part 3 1849 cones erect, oval or roundish, scales colored, persistent; seeds with a proper wing. - Lvs. deciduous, acerous, soft, scattered, and in axillary, many-leaved fascicles.

1 L. Americana Mx. Lvs. filiform, very slender; cones ovoid, inclining upwards oven when the branches are pendulous; scales few, thin and inflexed on the margin; bracts elliptical, often hollowed at the sides, abruptly acuminate with a slender point. - A beautiful tree, often seen in shrubberies, and thinly interspersed in forests, Can. to Penn. and Wis. It is remarkably distinguished from the pines by its deciduous leaves, the branches being bare nearly half the year. The tree arises 80 - 100f, with a straight and slender trunk and horizontal branches. Leaves 1 - 2' long, collected in bunches of 12 - 20 on the sides of the branches. Cones deep purple, 6 to 10" long. Wood most valuable being very heavy, strong and durable. Apr., May.

β. pendula. Branches slender and drooping. - A beautiful variety. (P. pen-dula Ait.)

2 L. Europaea DC. White Larch. Lvs. flattish, filiform-linear; cones oblong, scales slightly reflexed on the margin. - Rarely cultivated. Tree much resembling No. 1, of more rapid growth, 60 to 80f high. Lvs. 1 to 2' long, cones about 1'. † Eur.

4. THU'JA, Tourn. Arbor Vitae. (Gr.Order CXXVII Coniferae Conifers Part 3 1850 to sacrifice; the wood is fragrant in burning and was used in sacrifice.) Flowers 8 . -

In an imbricated ament; anther cells 4 on each scale-like connectile;

Order CXXVII Coniferae Conifers Part 3 1851

Order CXXVII Coniferae Conifers Part 3 1852 flowers in a cone, scales few, each bearing 2 erect ovules at the base inside; seed winged; integument membranous; cotyledons 2. - Trees or shrubs. Lvs. evergreen, scale-like, imbricate and appressed to the ancipital branch lets.

1 T. occidentalis L. Branchlets spreading; lvs. imbricate in 4 rows, rhomboid-ovate, tuberculate on the back; cones oblong, the inner scales truncated and gibbous below the lip. - This tree is often called white cedar, and from its resemblance might easily be mistaken for the Cupressusthyoides. It abounds in the northern U. S. and Can. on the rocky borders of streams and lakes, and in swamps. It has a crooked trunk, rapidly diminishing in size upwards, throwing out branches from base to summit. The evergreen foliage consists of branchlets much more flat and broad than those of the White Cedar. Cones terminal, consisting of a few long, loose scales. Wood very light, soft and durable. May.

2 T. orientalis L. Branches erect; lvs. slightly furrowed in the middle, cones erect, roundish or obovoid; scales acute, recurved or spreading at the points. - Cultivated shrubs or small trees much branched. The flattened, fan-shaped ramifications vertical, not horizontal as in the other, † China.

5. CUPRES'SUS, Tourn. Cypress. (From the Isle of Cyprus, where the Cypress is very abundant.) Flowers 8 . -Order CXXVII Coniferae Conifers Part 3 1853 in an ovoid anient; anthers 4, sessile at the base of the peltate scales; Order CXXVII Coniferae Conifers Part 3 1854 in a strobile (cone); scales peltate, bearing 4 to 8, erect (orthotropous) ovulus at base inside; seed angular, compressed; integuments membranous; cotyledons 2 or 3. - Trees with evergreen, flat, squamous, imbricated lvs. Fertile aments becoming- indurated cones.

C thyoides Mx. White Cedar. Branchlets compressed; lvs. imbricate in 4 rows, ovate, tuberculate at base; cones spherical. - N. Eng. (from Winchendon Mass.) to Ga. W. to O. It usually occurs in swamps, which it densely and exclusively occupies. Height 40 - 60f. The leaves consist of short, minute, evergreen scales, covering the finely divided branchlets, in 4 imbricated rows, and each one furnished with a minute gland or tubercle on the back. The wood is white, fine-grained, and wonderfully light, soft, and durable. Used in the manufacture of shingles, pails, fences, etc. Posts made of this cedar it is said will last 50 years. May.

6. TAXO'DIUM, Richard. Bald Cypress. (Gr.Order CXXVII Coniferae Conifers Part 3 1855 the yew, Order CXXVII Coniferae Conifers Part 3 1856 form; from the resemblance of the foliage.) Flowers 8 . - Order CXXVII Coniferae Conifers Part 3 1857

Aments in terminal, panicled spikes; stamens few, scale-like, peltate, bearing 2 to 5 anther cells.Order CXXVII Coniferae Conifers Part 3 1858 Cones sessile in pairs, roundish, placed below the sterile; scales numerous, bearing 2 ovules at the base, becoming thick, angular, peltate 2-seeded in fruit; cotylendos C to 9. - Trees with deciduous, linear lvs. arranged in 2 rows.

T. distychum Rich. Lvs. distychous; flat, deciduous with the slender branchlets. - One of the largest trees of the forest, native of N. J. to Mex. It grows in wet soils, forming what is called the cypress or cedar swamps of the S. States. The trunk arises to the height of 125f, with a circumference of 25 to 40f, above the conical base, usually of smaller dimensions. The enormous roots produce large, conical excrescences covered with bark but leafless, 1 to 3f high. Tl:e head is wide-spread and often depressed. Foliage light green and open. Cones 1' diam., composed of the indurated, combined scales. Timber light, fine-grained and durable, †