Herbs perennial, with fleshy roots, simple, entire, parallel veined leaves. Flowers very irregular, with an adherent, ringent perianth of 6 parts. Sepals 3, usually colored, odd one uppermost by the twisting of the ovary. Petals 3, usually colored, odd one lowest by the twisting of the ovary. Lip (labellum, the odd petal) diverse in form, often lobed, frequently spurred at base. Stamens 3, gynandrous (consolidated with the style), 2 of them or more, rarely 1 of them, abortive or obsolete, the pollen powdery, or coherent in waxy masses. Ovary inferior, 1-celled, with 3 parietal placentae and innumerable ovules. Fruit capsular, 3-valved. Seeds numerous and very minute. Must in Figs. 29, 37, b, 57, 85, 200, 327, 3G6.

Genera 394 species 3000? They arc among the most interesting and curions plants, almost always remarkable for the grotesque form of their tortuous roots and stems, and the fragrance, brilliancy and odd structure of the flowers.

The Orchids are natives of nearly every part of the world. In the tropics multitudes of them are epiphytes, growing on living trees or decaying timber.

This order is remarkable for those qualities only which please the eye. They not only excel in beauty and delicacy, but often closely imitate objects of the animal kingdom, as bees, flies, spiders, doves, swans, pelicans, etc, especially those of the tropical regions. Many of its species are cultivated for ornament, but few of them possess either active or useful properties. The salep of commerce is a nutritive, mucilaginous substance afforded by the roots of some Asiatic Orchis. The aromatic vanilla, used to flower chocolate, etc, is the fruit of the West Indian Vanilla claviculata.

Tribes And Genera

§ CYPRIPEDIEae. Anthers 2, fertile, the 3rd a petal-like appendage over the stigma. Lip a large, inflated spurless sack..................

CYPRIPEDIUM.

1

§ OPHRYDEae, Ac. Anther only 1, terminal or dorsal on the stigma. (*)

* Lip produced behind into a spur which is free from the ovary, (a)

a Anther erect, terminal; pollinia 2, granular, pedicellate and attached to as many glands on the stigma, Which glands are (b)

b concealed in a pouch (Flowers large, rose-colored, lip entire) in.....

ORCHIS.

2

b naked and close together (Flowers small, lip entire or toothed) in...................

Gymnadenia.

3

b naked and widely separated (Lip entire or lobed, or cleft or fringed.)

Platanthera.

4

a Anther bent over the end of the stigma like a lid. Pollinia 4...........................

TIPULARIA.

5

* Lip not produced into a spur behind, or the spur is adnate to the ovary, (c)

c Lip a large, inflated sack with 2 spur-like points below the apex.......................

CALYPSO.

6

c Lip not saccate. Plants brown, leafless, or with radical leaf, (d)

d Lip hooded, i. e., its margins involute. Pollinia 8. Fls. expanding.............

BLETIA.

7

d Lip concave, sessile, often with an adnate spur. Pollinia 4 ...................

CORALLORIHZRA.

8

d Lip concave, raised on a claw. Pollinia 4. Plant with 1 late leaf..................

Aplectrum.

9

c Lip not saccate. Plants green and with leaves, (e)

e Lip flat. Flowers obscure, in racemes nearly bractless. (f)

f Lip entire, dilated; Column minute. (Leaf 1)................................

MYCROSTYLIS.

10

f Lip sagittate or cordate. Column lengthened. Leaves 2.............

LIPPARIS.

11

f Lip 2-lobed or cleft at apex. Lvs. 2, cauline opposite......................

LISTERA.

12

e Lip channeled, recurved. Fls. whitish, in bracted spikes, (g)

g Sepals reflexed. Lip arched and recurved, 3-lobed........................

Cranichis.

13

g Sepals erect. - Lip ascending, embracing the column.......................

SPIRANTHES.

14

- Lip gibbous beneath, pointed at apex........................

GOODYERA.

15

e Lip bearded or 3-lobed. Stamen lid-like. Flowers showy, (h)

h Flowers several, puuple, with a bearded lip posterior......................

Calopogon.

16

h Flowers with the lip anterior (as in the order generally), (k)

k Column free from the lip, clavate. Fls. purplish..........................

POGONIA.

17

k Column adherent to the tip below. Fls. purple............................

Arethusa.

18

k Column adherent to the lip. Fls. yellow. On trees......................

EPIDENDRUM.

19

1. CYPRIPE'DIUM, L. Lady's Slipper. (Gr.Tribes And Genera 1960 Venus,

Tribes And Genera 1961 a slipper; from the slipper-like form of the lip.) The 2 lower sepals united into 1 segment, or rarely distinct; petals spreading; lip inflated, saccate, obtuse; column terminated by a petaloid lobe (barren stamen) and bearing a 2-celled anther under each wing. - Fls. large, very showy, distinguished for the large, inflated lower petal or lip; lvs. large, plaited, veined.

§ Sepals 2, the lower compound of 2 united either wholly or near the tip. (*)

* Stem leafy. - Flowers 1 to 3, mostly but 1, yellow.........................................

Nos. 1, 2

- Flowers solitary or several, white or rose - colored..................

Nos. 3, 4

* Stem a leafless scape, 2-leaved at base. Flower rose - colored...................

No. 5

§ Sepals, the 2 lower entirely distinct..................................................................

No. 6

1 C. pubescens Swartz. Large Yellow Ladies Slipper. St. leafy, lvs. broad-lanceolate, acuminate; sepals lanceolate; lip shorter than the linear, twisted petals, compressed laterally, convex both above and below; sterile stamen triangular, acute; plant pubescent. - Woods and meadows, Can. to Wis., S. to Ga. Sts. usually several from the same root, If or more high. Lvs. 3 to 6' by 2 to 3, many-veined, clasping at base. Flower mostly solitary. Segm. 4, greenish with purple stripes and spots, the lower bifid, composed of 2 united sepals, the lateral 2 to 3' by 3", wavy and twisted. Lip moccasin-shaped, bright-yellow, spotted inside, with a roundish aperture. May, Jn.

2 C. parviflorum Salish. Smaller Yellow Ladies' Slipper, St. leafy; lvs. lanceolate-acuminate; sep. ovate or lance-ovate; lip shorter than the petals, compressed from above and beneath; sterile stamen triangular, acute; plant pubescent. - In low woods and prairies, Can. to Wis. and Ga. (Miss Wyman). More common westward. Plant 8 to 12' high, rarely taller, very leafy. Flower a third smaller than in No. 1. Petal3 1 to 18", twisted or not. Upper sep. broadest. Lip evidently flattened on the upper side, convex laterally, dull yellow. May, Jn.

3 C candidum Willd. St. leafy; lvs. oblong-lanceolate, acute; fl. terminal, solitary; sep. elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate, lower scarcely bifid at apex; petal lance-linear, longer than the laterally compressed white lip; sterile stamens lanceolate, obtuse. - Border of woods, prairies, Penn. to Ind. (Plummer), Wis. and Can. St about If high, simple. Lvs. 3 to 6' by 1 1/2', sheathing the stem. Ovary pedicellate. Lip 1' in length. Petals and sepals nearly 2'. May. - Well distinguished by its sterile stamens as by its color.

4 C. spectabile Sw. St. leafy; lvs. ovate-lanceolate, acuminate; lobe of the column elliptic-cordate, obtuse; sep. broad-ovate, obtuse; lip longer than the petals, cleft before. - A tall, superb species, found in swamps, Can. to Ky. and Car. Stem thick, 2 feet or more high, hairy. Leaves 6 - 10' by 2 - 4', veined, plaited, hairy. Flowers 2 - 3 on each plant, very large. Lip white, striped with purple, 2' long, 1 1/2 broad; upper segment largest, lower one smaller, composed of 2 sepals completely united. Jl.

5 C. acaule Ait. Scape leafless, 1-flowered; lvs. 2, radical, elliptic-oblong, rather acute; lobe of the column roundish-rhomboidal, acuminate, deflexed; pet. lanceolate; lip longer than the petals, cleft before. - A beautiful plant, in dark woods, Car. to Arc. Am. Leaves large, plaited and downy. Scape 10 - 14' high, with a single lanceolate bract at the base of the large, solitary flower. Sepals 1/2 long, the two lower completely united into a broad lanceolate one beneath the lip. Petals lateral, wavy. Lip 2' by 1', purple, forming the most showy part of the flower. May, Jn. (C. humile Sw. ?)

6 C. arietimim Ait. Ram's Head. St. leafy; lvs. elliptical, striate-veined; Sep. 3, distinct (the 2 lower not united), linear-lanceolate, the upper oblong-ovate, acuminate; 2 lateral pet. linear; lip as long as the petal, saccate, obconic. - In damp woods, Can., Me., Vt. (Dr. Phelps) to N. Y. and Wis.? Stems usually clustered, flexuous, 8 - 12' high, lower part sheathed. Leaves 3 - 5, 2 - 3' by 1/2 - 1', sessile, amplexicaul. Flower mostly solitary, with a leafy bract at base. Segments about equal in length, the upper one as broad as the other 4 together. The singular form of the lip readily suggests the name of this curious plant. May.

2. OR'CHIS, L. (Gr.Tribes And Genera 1962 the ancient name.) Flower ringent, sepals and petals similar, some of them ascending and arching over the column; lip turned downwards, produced at base beneath into a spur which is distinct from the twisted ovary; stamen 1, anther 2-celled; pollinia 2, one in each cell, composed of numerous waxy grains implicated in a cobweb tissue; pedicellate and attached to 2 glands of the stigma which are contained in one common little pouch. Fls. several, large, bright-colored, in a spike or raceme.