9 G. asprellum Mx. Bough Cleavers or Clivers. St. diffuse, very branching, rough backwards; lvs. in Gs, 5s, or 4s, lanceolate, acuminate or cuspidate, margin and midvein retrorsely aculeate; ped. short, in 2s or 3s. - Common in thickets and low grounds, Can: and N. States. St. weak, 2 to 5f long, leaning on other plants, and closely adhering to them by its minute, retrorse prickles. Lvs. 5 to 8" by 2 to 3'. Fls. white, small and numerous. Fr. minute, smooth, often slightly hispid when young. Jl.
10 G. trifidum L. Dyer's Cleavers. Goose-grass. St. decumbent, very branching, roughish with retrorse prickles ; lvs. in 5s and 4s, linear-oblong or ob-lanceolate, obtuse, rough-edged; parts of the fls. mostly in 3s. - . In low, wet grounds, Can. and U. S. It is one of the smallest of the species. Lvs. 3 to 6" by 1 to 2", often cuneate at base. Ped. mostly in 3s, and axillary. Fls. small, white. Jl.
ß. tinctorium Torr. St. nearly smooth; lvs. of the st. in 6s, of the branches in 4s; ped. 2 or 3-flowered; parts of the fl. in 4s. - A somewhat less slender variety than the first. The root is said to dye a permanent red. (G. tinc-torium L.) y. latifolium Torr. Lvs. in 4s, oblanceolate, obtuse; ped. 3-flowered; parti of the fl. in 4s.
11 G. concinuuin Torr. & Gr. St. decumbent, diffusely branched, retrorsely scabrous on the angles; lvs. in Gs. linear, glabrous, 1-veined, scabrous upwards on the margins; ped. filiform, twice or thrice trichotomous, with short pedicels; lobes of the corolla acute. - Dry woods and hills, Mich., Ky., Ind. Sts. very slender, 10 to 15' high. Lvs in numerous whorls, 5 to 8" by 1", slightly broader in the middle. Fls. minute and numerous, white. Jn.
12 G. Aparine L. St. weak, procumbent, retrorsely prickly; lvs. in 8s, 7s, or 6s, linear-oblanceolate, mucronate, rough on the midvein and margin; ped. axillary, 1 to 2-flowered. - (1) In wet thickets, Can. and X. States to Ind. (Plummer.) St3. several feet long, Inning on other plants and closely adhering by their hooked prickles to every thing in their way. Lvs. 12 to 20" by 2 to 3". Fls. numerous, Hinall, white. Fr. rather large, armed with hooked prickles. Jn. - The root will dye red. The herbage is valued as a domestic remedy. § ?
2. RU'BIA, Tourn. Madder. (Lat. rubra, red ; from the coloring matter of its roots.) Calyx tube ovoid, limb 5-toothed or obsolete; corolla rotate, 5 parted; stamens short; styles 2, united at base; fruit twin, roundish, baccate, smooth. - Herbaceous or shrubby. St. 4-angled, diffuse.
R. tinctdrum L. St. weak, its angles retrorsely aculeate; lvs. in whorls of 6, lanceolate, the margins and midveins aculeate; ped. axillary and terminal, 3-forked; cor. 5-parted, brownish yellow, with a callous point - From Europe. Cultivated for its roots which yield that valuable coloring matter, madder. Jl
3. PINCKNE'YA, Mx. (Dedicated to Gen. C. C. Pinckney, of S. Carolina.) Calyx tube campanulatc, limb 5-parted, one segment of several of the flowers dilated into a large rose-colored bract; corolla tube cylindrical, limb 5-lobed, somewhat imbricated in the bud; stamens 5, from the base of the corolla, exserted ; style slender; stigma 2-lobed ; capsule roundish, thinly coriaceous, 2-valved, many-seeded.- A small tree (or large shrub). Stip. caducous, leaving a strong ridge between the petioles.
P. pubena Mx. Swamps and along creeks, S. Car. to Fla., common. It is a singularly beautiful tree, 15 to 25f high in its native woods, with a straight and slender trunk. In cultivation it has more the character of a shrub, branching from the base and flowering when but l0f high. Lvs. large, ovate, acute or sub-acuminate at each end. Young branches and cymes downy. Cor. purple within, canescent without. Cymes splendidly radiant by the largely expanded marginal calyxes. Capsules as large as an ounce bullet. Hay, Jn. - Properties similar to the Peruvian bark. (Fig. 183.)
4. CEPHALAN'THUS, L. Button Bush. (Gr. , a head, , a flower; flowers in heads.) Calyx limb 4-toothed; corolla tubular, slender, 4-cleft; stamens 4 ; style much exserted. - Shrubs with opposite lvs. and short stip. Fls. in globous heads, without an involucre.
C. occidentalis L. Lvs. opposite and in 3s, oval, acuminate, entire, smooth; hds. pedunculate. - A handsome shrub, frequenting the margins of rivers, ponda and brooks, U. S. and Can. It is readily distinguished by its spherical heads of flowers, which are near 1' diam., resembling the globular inflorescence of the Sycamore. Height about 6f. Lvs. spreading, entire, 3 to 5' by 2 to 3'. The fls. are tubular, with long, projecting styles, and are inserted on all sides of the round receptacle. Jl.
5. MITCHEL'LA, L. Partridge Berry. (In honor of Br. John Mitchell, an English resident in Virginia.) Flowers 2 on each double ovary ; calyx 4-parted ; corolla funnel-shaped, hairy within ; stamens 4, short, inserted on the corolla; stigmas 4 ; berry composed of the 2 united ovaries. - Evergreen herbs smooth and creeping, with opposite lvs.
M. repena L. St. creeping; lvs. roundish-ovate, petiolate. - A little prostrate plant found in woods, throughout the IT. S. and Can. St. furnished with flat, coriaceous, dark green lvs., and producing small, bright red berries, remarkably distinguished by their double structure, and remaining on the plant through tho winter. The corollas are white or tinged with red, very fragrant, sometimes 5 or even 6-partod (Mr. Shriver). Fr. well-flavored but dry and full of stony seeds. June.
6. DIO'DIA L. (Gr. , twice, , tooth, alluding to the two calyx teeth crowning the ovary.) Calyx, corolla, stamens, style and fruit as in the next genus (Spermacoce) except that the (2 or 3) 1-seeded, separable carpels are in both indehiscent; seeds oval, peltate. - American, chiefly tropical herbs. Stip. fringed with bristles. Fls. small, white, axillary, sessile, solitary or few.