Plants shrubby or suffruticous, sometimes herbaceous with Lvs. simple, alternate or opposite, mostly evergreen, without stipules. Corolla regular or somewhat irregular, 4 to 5-cleft, the petals rarely distinct Stamens as many or twice as many as the petals, free, hypogynous. Anthers 2-celled, generally open by pores, often appendaged. Pollen (except in Monotropeae) compounded of 4 united grains. Embryo straight, lying in the axis of, or in the end of fleshy albumen. Illust. in figs 38, 45, 110, 203, 320, 345, 350, 355.

Genera 66, species 1086, dispersed throughout all countries, but comparatively rare in the torrid zone. The true Ericaceae (Heaths), are chiefly natives of the Cape of Good Hope, there being none in Asia, New Holland, and but one or two in America. The Tribe Vaccineai are chiefly natives of N. America.

Properties.-The Heathworts are, in general, astringent and diuretic. Some of them yield a stimulating and aromatic resinous matter. The Bearberry, (Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi) is a well known remedy in nephritic complaints. An infusion of the leaves is astringent, demulcent and diuretic. Similar properties arc also possessed by the Pipsissiwa (Chimaphlia umbellata). The species of Rhododendron and Kalmia are pervaded by a narcotic principle, rendering them (particularly their leaves) often actively poisonous. The honey collected from their flowers by the bees appears so have been so to some of the soldiers in the retreat of the immortal ten thousand (Xenophon'8 Anabasis). The berries of the Vaccineae (Whortleberries, Blueberries and Cranberries.) and of Gaultheria procumbens (spicy Wintergreen) are esculent and wholesome.

The true position of our suborders Cyrillae and Galacinae is not known. We follow De Can-dolle in appending them to Ericaceae rather from convenience, as their habit certainly points to this order.

Suborders And Genera

I.

VACCINEae. Shrubs. Calyx adherent Fruit a berry crowned by the calyx teeth. (*)

* Erect shrubs with 5-parted flowers and 10 -seeded fruit.

GAYLUSSACIA.

1.

* Erect shrubs with 5-parted flowers and ∞ -seeded fruit. No resinous dots..

Vacciniuim.

2

* Trailing shrubs. Corolla deeply 4-cleft - reflexed. Fruit red.............

Oxycocccs.

3

- spreading. Fruit white.................

Chiogexeis.

4

II.

EEICINEae. Shrubs or trees. Calyx free. Corolla and stamens hypogynous. Sds. ∞. (a)

a Flowers 4-parted, stamens 8. Capsule 4-celled - loculicidal...........

ERICA.

5

-septicidal. (b). (No. 13.)

a Flowers 5-parted, petals distinct or very nearly polypetalous. (f)

a Flowers 5-parted, petals united,-monopetalous. (b)

b Corolla saucer-form, holding the anthers in 10 pits..............

KALMIA.

6

b Corolla saucer-form, very fragrant. Trailing shrublet

EPIGAEA.

7

b Corolla funnel- or bell-form, with spreading lobes, (e)

b Corolla urceolate (ovoid, cylindric or globular), lobes small, (c)

c. Fruit fleshy, the matured ovary 5-seeded.........

ARCTOSTAPHYLOS.

8

c Fruit fleshy, the matured ovary 5-seeded........................................

GAULTHEERIA.

9

c Fruit dry, capsular, opening into the cells (loculicidal). (d)

d. Shrublet moss-like, with linear leaves. Valves 2-cleft..............

CASSIOPE.

10

d Shurbs with ample leaves. Valves entire.............................

ANDROMEDA.

11

d Tree with ample leaves and slender racemes.......................

OXYDENDRUM.

12

c Fruit dyr, capsular, opening between the cells.............................

MENZIESIA.

13

e Stamens 5, included. Plant and leaves very small............................

LOISELEURIA.

14

e Stamens 5 (rarely more), long-exserted. Corolla funnel-form....

AZALEA.

15

e Stamens 10 (rarely fewer), exserted. Corolla bell-form.....................

Rhododrndron.

16

f Corolla very irregular,open before the leaves appear...............................

RHODORA.

17

f Corolla regular, - 7- petaled. Stamens 14..............................................

BEFARIA.

18

- 5 - petaled. - Capsule 5 - celled..................................

LEDUM.

19

- Capsule 3 -celled. - Fls. umbeled.............

Leiophyllum.

20

- Fls. racemed..............

CLETHRA.

21

III.

CYRILLEae. Shrubs. Cal. free. Pet. and stam. hypogynous. Cells of caps 1-seeded, (g)

g Flowers 4- parted, with 8 stamens and a 2-celled capsule..................

ELLIOTTH.

22

g Flowers 5 - parted, - with 5 stamens and a 2 - celled capsule................

CYRILLA.

23

-with 10 stamens. Capsule 8-celled, 2-winged..............

MYLOCARIUM.

24

IV.

PYROLEae. Herbs evergreen, woody. Cal. free. Pet 5, distinct. Testa of sd. loose, (h)

h Flowers racemed, many. Herbs neary acaulescent..........................

PYROLA.

25

h Flowers solitary (one only) Herbs low, acaulescent.......................

MONESES.

26

h Flowers umbeled, few. Stems ascending. Style very short.................

CHIMAPHILA.

27

V?

GALACINEae. Herb evergreen, aucaulescent Filaments 10, monadelphous,

alternately sterile ; anthers 5, one-celled. Capsule 3-celled, ∞-seeded

GALAX.

28

VI.

MONOTEOPEae. Herbs leafless, verdureless, with scale-like bracts, (k)

k Corolla polypetalous. Plant white, redish or tawny...............................

MONOTROPA.

29

k Corolla monopetalous, - campanulate, in a short spike..........................

SCHWEINITZIA.

30

- ovaid, in a loose raceme................................

PTEROSPORA.

31

Suborder I. VACCINEae. The Blueberry Tribe.

1. GAYLUSSA'CIA, H. B. K. Huckleberry. (In honor of the distinguished chemist, Gay-Lussac.) Calyx adherent, 5-toothcd ; corolla urceolate or campanulate, 5-cleft or toothed; stamens 10, anthers awn-less, the cells produced upwards into tubular beaks opening at the apex; berry drupe-like, globular, 10-celled, 10-seeded.-Shrubs resembling the Vaccinia. Lvs. often resinous-dotted beneath. Fls. in lateral, bracted racemes, white or reddish, small. Fr. black or dark blue, sweet. (Vac-cinium L.)

* Racemes axillary. Leaves evergreen, dotless, very smooth .....................

...No. 1

* Racemes lateral. Leaves dotted beneath,-mucronate, thick..............

...No.2

- not mucronate, thin...................

Nos. 3,4

1 G. buxifolia. Box Huckleberry. Very smooth; lvs. oval and ovate, finely crenale-dentale, thick and firm; rac. dense, axillary and terminal subsessile, the pedicels very short; cor. short-ovoid; filaments glandular; berries light blue!- Rocky hills, New Bloomfield, Perry Co., Penn. (Rev. D. H. Focht), W. Va. (Curtis) and E. Tenn. A handsome little evergreen, If high, with leaves (7-9" by 4-5") like those of the Box, and white fls. delicately tinged with red. May. (V. buxifolium Salisb. V. brachycerum Mx.)

2 G. dumosa Torr. & Gr. Branchlets, lvs. and pedicels sprinkled with minute bristles and resinous dots; lvs. obovate-oblong, subsessile subcoriaceous, obtuse, mucronate, entire or ciliate-serrulate; rac. with persistent bracts; pedicels bracteo-late in the middle; cor. cylindric-campanulate, including the stamens and style.- Swamps and thickets, Uxbridge, Mass. (Robbins), S. to Fla. A small shrub, 1f high, with leafy racemes. Lvs. about 16" by 7". Fls. white or purplish, each from the axil of an oval bract. Berries black, insipid, large. Jn. (V. dumo-sum Andr.)

β. hirtella. Plant more or less hairy.

3 G. resinosa Torr. & Gr. Black Huckleberry. Branohes cinereous-brown, villous when young; lvs. oblong-ovate or oblong-lanceolate, rather obtuse, entire, petiolate; rac. lateral, secund ; pedicels short, subbracteolate; cor. ovoid-conic, at length, subcampanulate, 5-angled; berries black.-This common shrub of woods and pastures (Can. to Va. and Tenn.) is about 2f high, very branching. Lvs. 1 to 2' long, rarely acute, shining beneath, with resinous patches and spots. Petiole 1" in length. Fls. small, drooping. Corollas contracted at the mouth, greenish or yellowish purple, longer than the stamens but shorter than the style. Berries globous, sweet and eatable, ripe in August. May. (V. resinosum Ait.)

β. brevifolia. Corolla very short, when open as broad as long.-Quincy, Fla.

4 G. frondosa Torr. & Gr. Blue Dangles. High Blueberry. Lvs. oblong-obovate, obtuse, entire, glaucous beneath; rac. loose, bracteale; pedicels filiform, bracteate near the middle; cor. ovoid-campanulate, including the stamens; berries blue.-Grows in open woods, N. Eng. to Fla and La. A shrub 3 to 5f high, with round, smooth and slender branches. Lvs. twice as long as wide, the margin slightly revolute. Rac. lateral (not axillary), the bracts deciduous. Pedicels 5 to 10" in length. Fls. reddish-white, succeeded by large, globous, blue and sweet berries covered with a glaucous bloom when mature. May, Jn. (V. frondosum Willd.)

§ Anthers 2-awned back of the 2 horns. Leaves deciduous, (a)

a. Filaments smooth. Fr. 4 to 5 celled. Low alpine undershrubs....

Nos. 1,2

a. Filaments hairy. Fruit partly 10-celled. Taller (2 to 20f high.).....

Nos. 3,4

§ Anthers 2-horned, without the awns. Filaments 10, hairy, (b)

b Leaves evergreen. Flowers 4-parted. Fruit 4-celled........

No. 5

b Leaves evergreen. Flowers 5-parted. Fruit partly 10-celled....

Nos. 6, 7

b Leaves deciduous. Fruit partly 10-celled. Fls. in short, close racemes, (c)

c Corolla bell-shaped. Leaves hairy both sides, entire.......

No. 8

c Corolla cylindrical. Leaves smooth or nearly so..............

Nos. 9 - 11

c Corolla ovoid, evidently contracted at the mouth..............

Nos. 11-13

1 V. uliginosum. L. Bilberry. Procumbent; lvs. obovate, very obtuse, entire, smooth, not shining, glaucous and veiny beneath; fls. mostly solitary, axillary; cor. ovoid-globous, A-clefl; anth. 8, with 2 slender awns.-A low, alpine shrub, White-lite. Sts. with numerous rigid branches. Lvs. 4" by 3", scarcely petiolate, crowded near the ends of the branches, and of a bluish-green. Fls. half as long as the leaves, subsessile, sometimes 2 together. Berries oblong, deep blue, crowned with the stylo. Jn., Jl.

2 V. caespitosum Mx. Bilberry. Dwarf, cosspitous; lvs. obovate, attenuate at the bas3, thin, serrate, reticulate with veins, shining; ped. subsolitary, 1-flow-ored; cal. very short; cor. oblong, suburceolate, 5-toothed; stam. 10.-White Mts. (Oakes), N. to Hudson's Bay. St. a few inches high. Fls. numerous, nodding, on short pedicels. Anth. with 2 long awns at the back. Berries largo, globous, blue, eatable.