Trees or shrubs, mostly with a milky juice, and simple, entire leaves. Flowers small, regular, perfect, mostly in axillary clusters. Calyx free, persistent. Corolla hypogynous, short, stamens usually as many as its lobes and opposite to them, inserted into its tube along with one or more rows of appendages. Anthers cxtrorse. Ovary 4 to 12-celled, with a single anatropous ovule in each cell. Seeds largo, usually albuminous.
Genera 21, species 212, chiefly tropical.
Valuable for their succulent fruit, as the marmalade, star-apple, etc., for their febrifugal bark. some species of Achras being used as a substitute for Cinchona, and their gum resins, as the Gutta-Perrcha obtained from the tree Isouandra Gutta.
BUMELIA, Swarts. (The Greek name of the Ash.) Calyx 5-parted corolla 5-cleft, with a row of 10 narrow appendages on the edges of the lobes ; stamens 5, opposite the lobes, alternate with 5 petaloid, sterile stamerns ; ovary 5-celled; style filiform; drupe ellipsoid, 1-seeded. -Shrubs and trees, with a very hard, firm wood. Branchlets often changed to spines. Lvs. entire, of a firm texture. Fls. aggregated with the lvs. from buds of the preceding year, white or greenish. Our species are all more or less spiny.
* Leavis hairy beneath...........Nos. 1, 2.
** Leaves glabrous both sides......Nos. 3, 4
1 B. tenax Willd. Clusters and lvs. beneath silky-ferruginous; Ivs. wedge-oblong or obovate, obtuse, attenuated to the slender petiole; clusters 20 to 35-flowered, pedicels 3 to 5 times longer than the flowers, louger than the petioles ; cor. and appendages exceeding the calyx; drupe oval.-Dry sandy soils, S. Car. to Fla. and La. Tree 20 to 30f high, with tough twigs (as all the rest have). Spines stout, 6 to 12' long. Lvs. 2 to 3' long, 5 to 8 ' wide, shiuing, rusty or tawny but glistening beneath. Drupe beautifully corrugated when dry. Jn., Jl
2 B. lanuginosa Pers. Lvs. oval-lanceolato varying to obovate, membranous woolly ferruginous beneath, obtuse or rather acuto ; fascicles few (6 to 1 flow-ered, pedicels short, but as long as, or longer than the petioles, both woolly; drupe globular.-Wet soils, S. Ill. to Car. and La. Shrub 8 to 12f high, with speeding, spiny branches. Lvs. 18" to 3' long, woolly, not silky beneath. Pedicels 2 to 4' long. Jn., Jl.-Variable. (B. tomentosa DC, B. oblongifolia Nutt.)
3 B. lycioides Gaert. Glabrous, or nearly so; lvs. wedge-elliptical-, rather acute, attenuated to the slender petiole; clusters densely (20 to 30)-flowered; pedicels twice longer than the fls. but rather shorter than the petioles; cor. near twice longer than the cal.-Damp soils, Ky., N. Car. to La. A small tree with the branches nearly straight. Spines on the older branches short, stout Lvs. including the petiole 2 to 3' long, pedicels 3", fl. 1", greenish-white. May, Jn.
4 B. reclinata Vent Glabrous; branches divaricate; lvs. obovate, obtuse, small, narrowed to a short petiole; clusters 15 to 20 flowered; pedicels slender, half as long as the leaf; cor. twice as long as the calyx.-Rivers banks, Car. to Fla. A straggling shrub. Lvs. scarcely 1' long. Jn., Jl