Trees, shrubs, or rarely herbs, often climbing or twining, with opposite, exstipu-late leaves. Flowers monopetalous, irregular, 5-merous, showy. Stamens 5, 1 or 3 sterile, didynamous, or diandrous. Anthers 2-celled. Ovary 2-celled, seated in a fleshy disk. Style 1. Stigma of 2 plates. Capsule coriaceous, 1 to 2-celled, 2-valved, many-seeded. Seeds generally winged, destituto of albumen.
Genera 44, species 450. mostly South American. Others are diffused in all countries, particularly within the tropics. Several of the Brazilian species of Bignonia afford a valuable timber. But this order is best known for the beauty of its flowers. (Figs. 210, 284, 235, 279.)
* Leaves compound. Valves of the pod parallel with the partition......
* Leaves compound. Valves of the pod contrary to the partition .......
* Leaves simple. Pod straight, cylindic. Partition subcylindric......
1. BIGNO'NIA, Tourn. (Named for the Abbe Bignon, Librarian to Louis XIV.) Calyx margin 5-toothed or entire; corolla somewhat bilabiate, 5-cleft, funnel-shaped; stamens didynamous, 4 fertile, 1 a sterile filament; capsule long and narrow ; valves fiat or scarcely convex, parallel with the partition.-Trees, shrubs, or woody climbers, often with tendrils.
B. capreolata L. Cross-vine. Climbing, glabrous; Ivs. binate, cirrhous, leaf., lets 2, lance-ovate, cordate, acuminate, entire, a branched tendril between; ped. 1-flowered, 2 to 3 together, axillary; calyx nearly entire.-Woods, Va. and Tenn. (Miss Dana), to Fla. and La. A vine with smooth, reddish brown bark, 30 to 50f long, very slender, over shrubs, up tall trees. Fla. large, red, orange within. Pods 7 or 8' long, 3/4' wide, curved, flat, with many broad-winged seeds both sides of the broad partition. Mar.-May.
2. TECO'MA, Juss. (Bignonia L.) Trumpet Flower. Calyx cam-panulate, 5-toothed; corolla tube short, throat dilated, limb 5-lobed, subbilabiate or equal; stamens 4, didynamous, with the rudiments of a fifth, anther-cells 2, diverging; capsule 2-celled, 2-valved, the valves contrary to the partition ; seeds winged.-Trees or shrubs, often climbing. Lvs. opposite, digitate, or unequally pinnate.
1 T. radicans Juss. Climbing by radicating tendrils; lvs. unequally pinnate, lfts 4 or 5 pairs, ovate, acuminate, dentate-serrate, puberulent beneath along the veins; corymbs terminals; cor. tube thrice longer than the cal.; stam. included.- A splendid climber in woods and thickets, along rivers, Penn. to Fla., W. to Ill. St. 20 to 80f in length, ascending trees. Lvs. 10 to 15' long, lfts. 2 to 3' by 1 to 2'. Fls. 2 1/2' long, of a bright scarlet. Pods 6' long, curved. A transverse section showing a cross. Seeds very numerous. Jn.-Aug.†
2 T. Capensis Lindl. Glabrous; lvs. unequally pinnate, lfts. 3 to 4 pairs, roundish-ovate, acuminate, serrate, bearded in the axils of the veins beneath; racemes pedunculate, dense-flowered; cor. long, tubular, incurved; stam. and sty. ex-serted.-Cultivated. Cor. 2' long, yellow scarlet. The style far projecting, † Cape of Good Hope.
3 T. grandiflora Delaun. Chinese Trumpet Flower. Climbing, glabrous; lvs. unequally pinnate, lfts. 3 to 5 pairs, ovate-acuminate, dentate-serrate; panicle terminal; pedicels nodding, biglandular; cor. tube scarcely longer than the 5-cleft calyx.-Fls. of a rich scarlet, shorter and broader than in T. radicans. † China and Japan.
3. CATAL'PA, Scop. Catalpa. (The Indian name.) Calyx 2-parted ; corolla campanulatc, 4 or 5-cleft, the tube inflated; stamens
2 fertile, 2 or 3 sterile; stigma 2-lipped ; capsule 2-celled, long, cylin-dric.-Trees. Lvs. opposite or ternate-verticillate, simple, petiolate. Fls. in large, showy, terminal panicles.
C. bignonioides Walt. Lvs. membranous, ovate-cordate, pubescent beneath, acuminate, subentire ; branches of the panicle di-trichotomous; cal. lips mucro-nate.-A fine, wide spreading tree, native in the Southern States, but cultivated at the North for ornament and shade. In favorable circumstances it attains the height of 50f, with a diam. of nearly 2f. Lvs. beautifully heart-shaped, with a silky luster, often a foot in length. It blossoms in great profusion. Cor. cam-panulate, white, with yellow and violet spots. Caps, cylindric near a foot in length ; seed winged. May-Jl (See Figs. 210; 284, 5; 463.)