Herbs with square stems and opposite, aromatic, exstipulate leaves. Flowers Axillary, in verticillasters, sometimes as if spiked or in heads. Corolla labiate

(rarely regular), upper lip 2-cleft or entire, arched or almost wanting, overlapping in bud the lower 3-cleft, usually larger lip. Stamens 4, didynauious, or only 2. Anthers 2-celled, cells often separated. Ouary free, deeply 4-lobed, the single style arising from the base of the lobes. Fruit composed of 4, or by abortion fewer, separable, 1-seeded nuts or achenia.

Illustrations in Figs. 75, 8G, 117, 825, 273, 351.

Genera 125, species 2350, chiefly natives of temperate regions, being most abundant between latitudes 40° and 50° of the northern hemisphere.

Properties.-This well known family is universally pervaded by an aromatic, volatile oil, and ft bitter principle ; the former rendering them eminently tonic, cordial, and stomachic ; the latter, where it prevails, febrifugal. The Pennyroyal, Lavender, Sage, Hoar-hound, Thyme, Spearmint, Peppermint, Horsemint, Rosemary, etc, etc, plants whose qualities are too well known to require particular mention here, are all members of this useful family. Not one spe-oies is poisonous or even suspicious.

Tribes And Genera

§ Stamens 2, perfect,-ascending beneath the galea ; anthers 1-celled. (Tribe IV.)

-exserted, distant; anthers 2-celled (d). § Stamens 4, perfect,-all declined towards the lower lip. (Tribe I.) -erect, or ascending towards the upper lip (2). 2 Stamens of equal length, corolla almost regular, 4 to 5-lobed (*c).

2 Stamens, the upper pair longer than the lower (outer) and calyx 13 to 15-velned. (Trib V.s 2 Stamens, the lower pair longer than the upper (interior) pair (3). 3 Stamens divergent, apart, mostly straight and exserted (e). 3 Stamens parallel, ascending and long-exserted from the upper side (b). 3 Stamens parallel, ascending in pairs beneath the upper lip (4). 4 Calyx 13-veined, 5-toothcd, and somewhat 2-lipped (f). 4 Calyx 5 to 10-veined, or irregularly netted (5).

5 Calyx strongly 2-lipped, upper lip truncate, closed in fruit (h). 5 Calyx not 2-lipped, 3 or 4-lobed, open in fruit (k). 5 Calyx subequally 5-toothcd, teeth not spincscent (m). 5 Calyx subequally 5-tcothed, teeth spincscent (n). 5 Calyx unequally S to 10-toothcd (o).

I.

OCIMODIEae. - Corolla upper lip 4- lobed, lower entire, flattish......................................

OCUMUM.

1

-Corolla upper lip 4-lobed, lower saccate, deflexed......

HYPTIS.

2

- Corolla upper lip 2 - lobed, lower 3 - lobed...........................................

LAVANDULA.

3

II..

AJUGOIDEae.-b Stamens exserted through a fissure in the tube....

TEUCICUM.

4

b Stamens very long, involute, arching the corolla....

Tricuostemma.

5

*C Corolla limb equally 5-lobcd. Stamens short.....

ISANTHUS.

6

III

. SATUKEJEae.-(Stamens diverging or asceuding, 2-celled. Cor. lobes fiattisb, spreading.)

*C Corolla limb 4-lobed, upper lobe broadest.........

Mentha.

7

d Corolla nearly regular, 4-lobed. Calyx naked in the throat.....

LYCOPUS.

8

d Corolla bilabiate,-cyanic, throat naked. Stamens straight.....

CUNILA.

9

-cyanic, throat naked. Stamens ascending...

Hedeoma.

10

-yellow, throat with a hairy ring inside......

COLLINSONIA.

11

e Calyx 15 - veined. Stamens exserted, divergent...................................................

HYSSOPUS.

12

e Calyx 10-veined, the veins obscured by hairs. Cor. yellow, fringed.

COLLINSONIA.

11

e Calyx 10 to 18-veincd,-throat naked.-Stamens straight, divergent..

PYCNANTHEMUM.

13

-Stamens ascending, anth. spurless

Satcrfja.

14

-Stamens ascending, anth. spurred.

DlCERANDRA.

15

- throat hairy - Bracts roundish, large................

ORIGANUM.

16

Bracts narrow, minute................

THYMUS.

17

f Tube of the corolla straight. Leaves small, subcrenate or entire....

CALAMINTHA.

18

f Tube of the corolla curved upwards. Leaves large, coarse-crenate...

MELISSA.

19

IV

MONARDEae.-Connectilo long, transverse, distancing the anther cell

SALVIA.

20

-Connectile continuous with fil. toothed at the juncture

.ROSMARINUS.

21

-Connectile inconspicuous.-Calyx subequally toothed

MONARDA.

22

-Calyx bilabiate, aristate..

BULEPHYLLIA.

23

V.

NEPETEae.-Stamens distant, exserted. Flowers in terminal spikes..

LCPHANTHUS.

24

-Stamens all ascending.-Anther cells divergent, much..

Nepeta.

25

-Anther cells divergent, little...

Dracocephaium.

26

-Anther cells parallel. Fls. lnrg

CEDROSNELLA.

27

VI

STACIIYDEae.-(Stamens parallel, ascending. Cor. upper lip galeate. Cal.Sto 10-veined.)

h Calyx lips toothed, upper, 3 teeth minute,lower 2 large..........................................

TRUNELLA.

28

h Calyx lips entire, upper with an appendage on the back..............

SCUTELLARlA.

29

k Calyx 3-lobed. Anthers all distinct. Flowers purpie; streaked......................

MACBRIDEA.

30

k Calyx 4-lobed. Anthers, the highest pair connate................

SYMANDRA.

31

m Corolla tube inflated in the midst, whitish. Lips small.......................................

PHYSOTEGIA.

32

m Corolla tube inflated at the throat, purple. Lower lip long...................................

LAMIUM.

33

m Corolla inflated in the broad, concave upper lip, purple or yellow.....................

PHLOMIS.

34

m Corolla not inflated, short.-Calyx salver-form, 10-ribbcd............

BALLOTA.

35

-Calyx broad-bell-form, netted...........

MOLLUCELLA.

36

n Anthers opening transversely, ciliate fringed. Lvs. notched.....

Galeopsis.

37

n Anthers opening lengthwise.-Achenia rounded at the top........

STACHYS.

38

-Achenia truncate, 3-angled at top..

LEONURUS.

89

- Achenia turncate, 3-angled at top......

MARRUBIUM.

40

o Corolla white, upper lip concave. Style unequally bifid......

LEUCAS.

41

o Corolla scarlet, exserted. Calyx upper tooth longest........

Leonotis.

42

1. O'CIMUM, L. Sweet Basil. (Gr.Tribes And Genera 1204 to smell; the plants arc strongly aromatic.) Upper lip of calyx orbicular, lower 4-fid; corolla resupinate, one lip 4-cleft, the other undivided ; stamens 4, declined, the lower pair longer, the upper often with a process at their base.- Verticels 6-tiowered, in terminal, interrupted racemes.

O. basilicum L. Lvs. smooth, ovate oblong, subdentate, petiolate; cal. cili-ate.-Tribes And Genera 1205 Plant 6 to 12' high, with peculiarly smooth and soft leaves, variously colored, exhaling a delightful odor. St. retrorsely pubescent above, branched. Stam. exserted. Fls. white or bluish. Jl.. Aug. ‡ E. India. Cultivated as a culinary herb.

2. HYP'TIS, L. (Gr.Tribes And Genera 1206 supine; from the apparently resupinate corolla.) Calyx 5-toothed, teeth acute or subulate; corolla tube cylindric, limb 5-lobed, the lower abruptly deflexed, contracted at its base, the 4 others flat, erect or spreading; stamens 4, deelinate; achenia ovoid or oblong.-In our species the flowers arc capitate.

1 H. radiata Willd. Herbaceous; lvs. glabrous, lance-ovate, unequally crenate-serrate, narrowed to a petiole; hds, globular, long-pedunculate; bracts lance-oblong, obtuse, forming an involucre, longer than the calyx, as if radiate; cal. teeth acutely subulate, rigid.-Tribes And Genera 1207 In damp fields, Car. to Fla. and La., common. St. 18 to 3f high, square and hollow. Lvs. with their stalks 3 to 5' long. Hds. hemispherical in flower, in fruit globular. In vol. about 12-leaved. Jl.-Sept.

2 H. spicata Poit. Branches aculeate-scabrous on the angles; lvs. ovate, unequally serrate, acute, petiolate, whitish puberulent beneath; hds. loosely racemed, semi-oval, scarcely as long as their peduncles; racemes panicled; bracts ovate, much shorter than the calyx.-Tribes And Genera 1208 In Fla. Plant 1 to 2f high. Hds. 4 to 7-flowered. Cal. inflated at base, truncate, with short, setaceous teeth. Cor. violet-blue.

3. LAVANDULA, L. Lavender. (Lat. lavarc, to wash. Used in perfumery.) Calyx ovoid-cylindric, with 5 short teeth, the upper one often largest; corolla upper lip 2-lobed, lower 3-lobed, lobes all nearly equal; tube exserted ; stamens included.-Tribes And Genera 1209 .

L. spica L. Lvs. linear-oblanceolate, tapering to the base, sessile, revolute at the edge, the upper ones linear-lanceolate, the highest shorter than the calyx; spike interrupted; bracts subulate.-Plant 12-18' high, suffrutieous, branching from the base. Leaves crowded at the base of the branches, clothed with a whitish down. Calyx villous. Cor. much exserted, lilac-colored. Jl. ‡-The plant is delightfully fragrant, and by distillation yields the well known oil of lavender.

4. TEU'CRIUM, L. Germander. (Teucer, the founder of Troy, is said by Pliny to have first employed it medicinally.) Calyx subeam-panulate and subregular, in 5 acute segments; corolla with the 4 upper lobes nearly equal, the lowest largest, roundish; stamens 4, exserted from the deep cleft in the upper side of the tube.

T. Canadense L. Plant erect, hoary-pubescent; lvs. lanceolate, acute, seriate, ' petiolate; bracts linear-lanceolate, about as long as the calyx; spike long, of many crowded verticils of Mowers; upper teeth of calyx broader.-Tribes And Genera 1210 Can. and U. S., fields and road-sides. St. about 2f high, usually simple, square, with concave sides. Lvs. 3 times as long as wide, somewhat rounded at base, green above, more or less hoary beneath. Fls. disposed in a terminal spike. Cor. purplish, apparently without the upper lip, instead of which is a fissure through which the stamens are exserted. Jl β. Virginicum. Lvs. ovate-oblong, crowded, large, subsessile. (T. Virgini-cum L.)-A well marked variety.