Herbs chiefly, without fragrance, the leaves and inflorescence various. Flowers irregular. 5-merous, didynamous or diandrous (rarely pentandrous). Calyx free from the ovary, persistent. Corolla monopetalous, imbricated in bud. Stamens inserted in the tube of the corolla, 1 or 3 of them usually rudimentary. Ovary free, 2-celled, with 1 style, a 2-lobed stigma, and becoming in fruit a 2-celled, many-seeded capsule, with axile placentae. Seeds albuminous. (Fig. 204, 326, 362, 399, 427, 463.)

Genera 180, species 1800, abundant in every part of the world, from the equator to the regions of perpetual frost. They constitute about 1-36 of the Phaeogamia of N. America.

Properties.-Generally acrid, bitter and deleterious plants. The most remarkable officinal species of the tribe is the Foxglove (Dig.talis), which exercises a wonderful control over the action of the heart, in regulating its pulsations. It is also employed in cases of dropsy, hemorrhage. Ac. Taken in excess it speedily causes death. The Veronica Virginica (Culver's Physic) and Linaria vulgaris (Foad-flax.) are purgative and emetic. Numerous species are cultivated for ornament. Many are parasitic and turn black in drying.

Suborders, Tribes And Genera

¶ Leaves alternate (in one garden plant mostly opposite, No. 6.) (*)

* Inflorescence compound, centrifugal, (Showy garden exotics.) (Tribo 1.)

* Inflor. simple, centripetal.-Stamens 5. Corolla rotate. (Tribe 8.)

-Stain. 4. Corolla spurred or saccate at base. (Tribe 4, a) -Stam. 4. Climbing vines, in gardens. (Tribe 4, b) -Stam. 4 or 2. Herbs small, creeping, leaves linear. (Tribe 7) -Stam. 4 or 2. Herbs erect. Cor. not galeate, (Tribe 8) -Stam. 4. Cor. upper lip galeate, vaulted. (Tribe 12, n) ¶ Leaves opposite (or in one southern species, scattered No. 29). (2)

2 Stamens 2, included. Corolla 2-lobed, the lower inflated. (Tribe 2)

2 Stamens 2, included. Corolla tubular, labiate. (Tribe 6, f)

2 Stamens 2, exserted. Corolla rotate or salver-form. (Tribe 9)

2 Stamens 4, perfect, the fifth rudiment about as large, conspicuous. (Tribe 5, c)

2 Stamens 4, perfect, the fifth rudiment minute or none. (3)

3 Inflorescence compound, in panicles or verticillasters. (Tribe 5, d) 3 Inflorescence simple.-Corolla labiate, not galeate. (Tribe 6, e) -Corolla labiate, and galeate. (Tribe 12, o) -Corolla salver-form. Anthers 1-celled. (Tribe 10) -Corolla bell or funnel-form, etc. Anthers 2-cellcd. (Tribe 11)

I.

SALPIGLOSSIDEae. (Corolla in bud plicate at the clefts. Inflorescence centrifugal.)

TRIBE 1. SALPIGLOSSEAE. - Stamens 2. Corolla deeply cleft.........

SCHIZANTHUS.

1

-Stamens 4. Corolla salver-form, tube long.....,

BR.OWALLIA.

2

II

ANTIRRHINIDEae. (Corolla in bud imbricate, upper lip covering the lower).

Tribe 2. Calceolarieae. Inflorescence compound. Calyx 4-cleft.......

CALCEOLARIA.

3

Tribe 3. Veruasceae. Inflorescence simple, centripetal. Cor. rotate...

VERBASCAL

4

Tribr 4.

ANTIRRHINEae. - a Corolla squrred at the base......................

LINARIA.

5

- a Corolla saccate at the base, large.............

ANTIRRHINUM.

6

- b Corolla gibbous at base, large............

MAURANDIA.

7

- b Corolla equal at base, large..............

Lophospermum

8

Tribe 5.

Cheloneae.-c Sterile filament a scale. Fls. small, lurid............

Scuopuularia

9

-c Sterile fil. shorter than the rest. Seeds winged........

CHELONE.

10

-c Sterile fil. equaling the rest. Sds. wingless...............

Pentstemon.

11

- d Corolla bilabiate. Herbs....................................

COLLINSIA.

12

- d Corolla tubular, bell-form. Tree.........................

PAWLONIA.

13

Tribr 6.

GRATIOLEae-e Calyx prismatic, 5-angled. Corolla long......

MIMULUS.

14

-e Calyx 5-parted, equal. (Lvs. many-cleft)............

CONOBEA.

19

-e Calyx 5-parted, unequal. (Leaves entire)........

HERPESTIS.

16

-f Calyx 5-parted. Sterile fil. short or 0 ...........

GRATIOLA.

17

-f Calyx 5-parted. Sterile fil. exscrtcd.....

ILYSANTHUS.

18

-f Calyx 4-lobed. Sterile fil. 0. Fls. minute..........

MICRNTIL.

18

III.

RHINANTHIDEae. (Corolla in bud imbricate, the lower or lateral lobes exterior.)

Tribr 7.

SIBTHORPEae. - Stamens 2. Corolla 4-cleft............................

AMPHANTHUS.

20

- Stamens 4. Corolla 5-cleft.............................

LIMOSELLA.

21

Tribe 8.

Digitalkae.-Stamens 2. Calyx 4-parted. Flowers small...........

SYNTHIRIS.

22

-Stamens 4. Calvx 5-parted. Flowers large.........

DIGITALIS.

28

Tribe 9.

Veroniceae-Stamens divergent. Upper lvs. often alternate..........

Veronica.

24

Tribe 10.

BUNCHNERRae-Stam. approximate by pairs. Upper lvs. alternate....

BUCHNERA.

25

Tribe 11.

GERARIDae-Stamens long-cxserled. Corolla tubular......

Macranthera.

25

-Stam. short.-Cor. yellow, tube short as limb ..........

Seymeria.

27

-Cor. yellow, tube elongated...........

DASYSTOMA.

28

-Cor. purple. Lvs. very slender..

GERARIDA.

29

Teibe 12.

EUPHRASIEae. - n Anther-cells unequl, separted.............................

CASTILLEJA.

30

-n Anther-cells equal.-Calyx 10-ribbed......

SCHWALBEA.

31

-Calyx not ribbed.....

Pedicularis.

32

-o Cal. inflated. Sds. many, winged......

Rhinanthcs.

33

-o Cal. not infl.-Sds. many, wingless.....

Euphrasia.

34

-Sds. 1 to 4, oblong.......

Melampybum.

35

i. SCHIZAN'THUS, Ruiz & Pavon. (GrSuborders Tribes And Genera 1072 to cut, Suborders Tribes And Genera 1073 ; the cor. is much divided.) Corolla irregular, the upper lip 5-cleft, external in aestivation, lower much smaller, 3-parted; filaments 4, 2 of them sterile; capsule 2-celled.- Suborders Tribes And Genera 1074 from Chili. Lvs. pinnatifid, alternate. Cymes supra axillary.

S. pinnatus Ruiz & Pavon. Lvs. 1-2-pinnately cleft; cor. tube shorter than the calyx, middle segment of the posterior lip, 2-lobed, cucullate, lateral segment falcate-spatulate, middle segment of the anterior lip emarginate, lateral 4-lobed; sta. exserted.-Plant 1-2f high, with delicate and beautiful flowers in clusters opposite the leaves. Cal. and ped. viscid-pubescent. Cor. purple and yellow, with a dark spot in the midst.†

2. BROWAL'LIA, L. (Named for Bishop Browallius, a friend of Linnaeus, and defender of his system.) Corolla salver-form, with along tube, and oblique, 5-lobcd limb; anthers of the two posterior stamens halved, sub-1-celled ; lobes of the stigma broad, divaricate; capsule membranous, valves bifid.-South American herbs, with alternate, entire lvs. and cyanic fls.

1 B. dimissa L. Lvs. petiolate, ovate; lower fls. axillary, upper in a raceme ; calyx hairy.-St. 1 to 2f high, with spreading branches. Cor. tube slender, 6" long, limb blue or violet. † Brazil, etc. (B. elata L. is the same.)

2 B. grandiflora Grab. Upper lvs. sessile, subcordate; fls. loosely ra-cemed; cal. teeth nearly as long as the tube.-Cor. limb broader than in the other, pale blue, † Peru.

3. CALCEOLA'RIA, L. (Lat. calceolus, a slipper; alluding to the shape of the corolla.) Calyx 4-parted, valvatc in the bud; corolla slightly adhering to the calyx, the tube very short, limb 2-lobed, lobes entire, concave or spur-like, the lower inflated, and in the bud slightly covered by the smaller upper lobe ; stam. 2, lateral, with no rudiments, capsules ovoid-conical, valves bifid, seeds striate.-Herbs rarely shrubby, from S. America and N. Zealand. Lvs. opposite or verticillate. Fls. of all colors, endlessly variegated in cultivation, very curious.

1 C. Corymbosa Ruiz & Pav. Somewhat shrubby, erect; root lvs. ovate, crenate-dentate, cauline few, opposite, ovate or oblong, sessile; corymb loose; cor. upper lip shorter than calyx, lower broadly ovate, obtuse, contracted at base, open beyond the middle.-Yellow, † Chili.

2 C. angustifolia Ruiz & Pav. Half-shrubby, very branching; lvs. often whorled in 'is, lance-ovate, acute, sharply serrate, pubescent; panicle oblong; cor. upper lip very short, lower ovate, acutish, incurved-spreading, with a long, contracted, narrow base, open beyond the middle.-Yellow, † S. Am.-Mr. Ben-tham enumerates 114 species of Calceolaria, many of which have found their way into our greenhouses. Wo must omit farther notice of them.

4. VERBASCUM, L. Mullein. (Lat. barba, beard; a name significant of the beard with which the plant is covered.) Corolla rotate, 5-lobed, unequal; stamens 5, deelinate, all perfect; capsule ovoid-glo-bous, 2-valved.-Suborders Tribes And Genera 1075 rarely Suborders Tribes And Genera 1076 or suffruticous. Lvs. alternate. Fls. in spikes or paniculate racemes.