Herbs (or generally shrubs and trees) with opposite, exstipulate leaves. Flowers with a bilabiate or more or less irregular monapetalous corolla. Stamens 4, didynamous, rarely equal, sometimes only 2. Style 1. Fruit dry or drupaceous, 2 to
4-celled (1-cellcd in Phryma) forming as many 1-seeded nutlets. Seeds erect or pendulous, with little or no albumen.
Genera 56, speries 700, the herbs chiefly natives of temperate regions, the shrubs and trees of warm and tropical regions, where in some instances they are very large. The Teak-tree (Tec-toria grandis) of India, justly styled the " Oak of the East" is a timber tree of great size, often 100 feet in height. The wood is greatly durable, and contains si!ex. Medicinal properties unimportant. The order affords many fine ornaments for the garden.
§ Herbs. Fruit dry,-of 4 1-seeded carpels. Corolla 5-parted............
- of 2 one-seeded carpels. Corolla 4-parted....................
- of 1 one seeded nutlet. Corolla bilabiate ..................
§ Shrubs. Fruit fleshy.-Flowers 4-parted, axillary. Drupe 4-seeded
-Flowers 4-parted, axillary. Drupe 2-seeded.....
-Flowers 4-parted, terminal. Drupe 2-seeded___
-Flowers 5-parted.-Seeds 4 Leaves simple
-Seed 1. Leaves compound..
1. VERBE'NA, L. Vervain. (Celtic fer-fœm, to expel stone; hence Eng. vervain, Lat. verbena.) Calyx 5-toothed, with one of the teeth often shorter; corolla funnel-form, limb somewhat unequally 5-lobed ; stamens 4, included, the upper pair sometimes abortive; drupe splitting into 4, 1-seeded, indehiscent carpels.-Herbs or undershrubs. Lvs. opposite. Fls. sessile, mostly in spikes or hds.
*Spicate ; the open corollas lateral in slender spikes, (a)
a Stem simple (mostly) bearing a single spike. Leaves oblong...........
a Stem branched, with many spikes. - Leaves mostly simple..........
- Leaves much divided....................................
* Corymbed; the open corollas forming a terminal (spike) corymb................
1 V. angustifolia Mx. Erect, mostly simple ; lvs. oblong-linear, tapering to the base, remotely serrate, with furrowed veins; spikes filiform, solitary, axillary and terminal; cor. blue; bracts as long as calyx. A small, hairy species found on rocky hills and other dry soils, N. Y. to Va., TV. to the Miss. St. not more than a foot high, with narrow (2 to 3' by 3 to 5'), rough lvs. and slender spikes of deep blue fls. Jl. (V. rugosa Willd.)
2 V. Caroliniana L. Assurgent subsimple, scabrous-puberulent; lvs. oblong-obovate, obtuse or bluntly acute, crenate-dentate, sessile; fls. in a loose terminal spike; cor. large, rose-colored; bracts minute, half as long as the calyx; carp. 4, not separating.- Dry soils, S. States, common. St. 1 to 2f high. Lvs. 18" to 3', varying to oval, and in some specimens decidedly hastate! often acute. Spike 6 to 12' long. Fls. showy, 6" long, cal. 2". May-Jl
3 V. hastata L. Common Vervain. Erect; lvs. lanceolate, acuminate, incisely serrate, petiolate, the lower ones lobed or hastate; spikes erect, dense, slender, panicled; fls. imbricated.- Frequently by roadsides and in low grounds, mostly throughout the U. S. and Can. St. 3 to 6f high, with paniculate, opposite branches above. Lvs. rough and rugous, 2 to 4' long, variously toothed. Fls. small, blue, arranged in long, close, imbricated spikes which are erect and parallel. Jl.-Sept. § Eur. (V. panlculata Lam.)-Varies with the lvs. incised or pinnati-fid, and spikes loose-flowered;-evidently hybrids. (Engelm.)
4 V. urticaefolia L. Erect, subpubescent; lvs. ovate and ovate-lanceolate, serrate, acute, petiolate; spikes axillary and terminal, loose filiform ; fls. separate ; bracts shorter than the calyx.- About roadsides and rubbish. A weed of uninviting appearance, 2 to 3f high, with lvs. resembling those of the nettle. It has long, slender, weak, green divergent spikes remotely filled with small, white, distinct flowers. Seeds 4 Jl., Aug. § Eur.
5 V. stricta Vent. Mullein-leaved Vervain. Hirsute and hoary; st. thick rigidly erect, branched above; lvs. oval or obovate, unequally dentate, sessile, acute, rugous; spikes erect, strict, imbricate and dense-flowered.- An erect, rigid, and rather handsome species, in dry fields, TV. States, common. Very hirsute, 1 to 3f high. Lvs. 2 to 3' by 1 to 2', numerous, veiny and whitish beneath. Cor. blue, thrice larger (4' broad) than in V. hastata. Jl
6 V. bractiosa Mx. Decumbent, branched, divaricate, very hairy; lvs. laciniate, rugous; spikes terminal, thick, many-flowered ; bracts lance-linear, longer than the fls., thrice longer than the calyx.- Dry fields and roadsides, Mid. TV. and S.
States. Whole plant hairy and hoary, 8 to 16' long, remarkable for its squarrous, bracted spikes. Lvs. 1 to 2' long. Fls. small, blue. Jn.-Sept. (Zapania, Lam.)
7 V. spuria L. Assurgent, divaricately branching, hairy; lvs. ovate-lanceolate, 3-cleft, laciniately lobed and toothed; spikes slender, loose; bracts a little longer than the calyx.- Conn., Md. to Ga. An unsightly plant, with a square stem, 1 to 2f high, half erect, di- and trichotomous above. Lvs. attenuate and subpetiolate at base. Spikes 3 to 6' long, dense before flowering, loose after. Cal. 1" long, cor. 2", blue. Aug., Sept.-Differs from V. officinalis of Europe in its petiolate lvs and longer bracts.
8 V- strigosa Hook. Erect, rigid, strigous-pubescent, hoary, branched; lvs. ob long, 3-parted to the base, incisely lobed and toothed, sessile; fls. in loose, strict spikes; cor. large; bracts as long as the calyx; carp. 4, not separating.-N. Orleans (Hale). St. hollow, 2 to 3f high, acutely 4-angled. Lf. lobes all acute, very veiny. Cor. purple ? 4 to 5" long.
9 V. Aubletia L. Weak, assurgent, rather hairy; Ivs. ovate-oblong, 3-parted, pinnatifid or incisely lobed and toothed, acute at base and petiolate : spikes solitary, pedunculate; bracts half as long as the cylindrical calyx; corollas showy, corymbed, segm. emarginate. Va. to Ill. (Lapham), La. and Fla. in dry soils,
also in gardens where its beautiful flowers present every variety of color. Apr., May.
10 V. chamaedrifolia Smith. Ascending, hispid; Ivs. oblong, acute, serrate, lower somewhat lobed, upper subentire; spike long-peduncled; bracts a third as long as the long-cylindric calyx; cor. showy, corymbed ; segm. emarginate.- Many of the pretty garden Verbenas are varieties of this species from Buenos Ayres.