Herbs with alternate or opposite leaves and 5-parted, regular, showy flowers. Corolla monopetalous, the lobes convolute, rarely imbricate in asstivation. Stamens 5, adherent to the corolla tube, and alternate with its lobes. Ovary 3-celled, stigma 3-cleft; capsule 3-celled, 3-valved, loculicidal Seeds few or many, albuminous, attached to a permanent columella. (Illustr. in Fig. 301.)
Genera 17, species 104, chiefly N. American. They are valued and cultivated only as ornamental plants.
trii;es and genera.
POLEMONIEae. Sepals united at base. Lobes of the corolla convolute in bud. (a)
a Corolla salver-form. Filaments unequal. Leaves entire.........................
a Corolla bell-form. Filaments equal. Leaves pinnate............................
a Corolla funnel-form. Filaments equal. (Leaves pinnately dissected).................
DIAPENSIEae. Sepals distinct, oval. Lobes of corolla imbricated......
1. PHLOX, L. Phlox. Lychnidia. (Gr. a flower; from the color and profusion of the flowers.) Calyx prismatic, deeply 5-cleft; corolla salver-form, the tube more or less curved; stamens very unequally inserted in the tube of the corolla above the middle; capsule 3-celled, cells each 1-seeded.-A highly ornamental, North American genus. Lvs. mostly opposite, sessile, simple, entire. Fls. in terminal, cymes, corymbed or panicled. (Fig. 301.)
* Lobes of the corolla rounded and entire at the end (1)
1 Plancile of cymes oblong or pyramidal, many-flowered.......................
1 Panicle of cymes coryinbed, level-topped, flowers fewer. (2)
2 Plants glabrous. Calyx teeth shorter than its tubes.....................
Nos. 3, 4
2 Plants hairy. Calyx teeth attenuated, longer than the tube. (3)
3 Leaves narrow, liner or nearly so...............................................
Nos. 5, 6
3 Leaves broad, ovate or lanceolate, etc.....................................
Nos. 7, 8, β., 9
* Lobes of corolla notched or bifid at the end.-Leaves distant.....................
- Leaves imbricated................
1 P. paniculata L. Glabrous, erect; lvs. oblong or ovate-lanceolate, acuminate at each end, or the upper abrupt at base, rough-edged, flat; corymbs paniculate, subpyramidal, many -flowered; cal. teeth setaceous-acuminate, nearly as long as the tube; pet. roundish-obovate, entire.- This favorite is found native in woods and river banks, W. States to Penn. and Car. St. 2 to 3f high, ending in a large, oblong-pyramidal panicle of innumerable pink-colored, scentless flowers. Lvs. 3 to 5' by 9 to 16", lower ones distinctly petioled. Cor. tube a little curved, 12 to 15" long. Jl.-Sept. †
8. acuminata. Lvs. ovate-acuminate, pubescent beneath as well as the stem panicle with fewer flowers.-In rich alluvion. (P. acuminata Ph.)
2 P. maculata L. St. erect, scabrous or nearly smooth, purple-spotted; lower lvs. lanceolate, the highest ovate, cordate at base, all subcoriaceous, roughish or smooth; panicle oblong or subpyramidal; cal. teeth lanceolate, acute, about half as long as its tube; pat. orbicular.- Moist fields, Penn. to Car. and Western States. Stem 2-3f high, mostly punctate, with purple spots. Lower branches of the panicle shorter than the leaves, or often elongated. Corolla tube more or less curved, smooth. Petals obtuse or retuse, purple, varying in gardens from white to crimson. Jn. † (P. pyramidalis Sm.)
β. gracilior. Tall, slender, scabrous; lvs. linear and lance-linear. Ga. (Feay). γ. suaveolens. Smooth; fls. white, sweet-scented.-Gardens. (P. suaveo-lens Ait.)
3 P. Carolina L. Glabrous; st. declinate at base, ascending, often branched; lvs. lanceolate from an ovate (rarely cordate) base, acuminate or gradually acute ; panicle corymbous, of dense, few-flowered cymes; cal. teeth lanceolate, acuminate.- Woods, prairies, Mich, to Ga. St. often procumbent at base, thickish, smooth, 9' to 2f high. Lvs. 2 to 4' long, variable in form. Corymb simple or often compound and rather diffuse. Sep. united two-thirds their length, the points soft, spreading. Cor. tube 1', lobes rose purple, roundish, spreading 1'. May-Jl. †
β. ovata. St. roughish or puberulent; lvs. broad (1); corymb loose.-South.
(P. ovata Ph.) γ. Nitida. Lvs. lance-oblong, dark green, shining.-S. W. (P. nitida Ph. ?)
4 P. glaberrima L. Glabrous; sts. slender, clustered, subsimple, erect; lvs, lance* linear or oblong-linear, gradually acute or acuminate, rounded or acute at base, thickish, often with revolute margins ; corymb subsimple, few-flowered ; cal. teeth lanceolate, sharply acuminate.-Prairies and barrens, Wis. to Ga. and Tenn. Sts. 1 to 3f high, with light green foliage. Lvs. 2 to 3 to 4' long, 3 to 5" wide, very smooth except the rough edges. Sep. united two-thirds their length. Cor. tube 9 to 12" long, slightly curved, lobes pale pink. Jn., Jl.
5 P. pilosa L. Smooth or puberulent below, glandular pilous above; st. declinate at base, slender, assurgeut, subsimple; lvs. linear and lance-linear, margin sub-revolute, base half-clasping, attenuate to an acute apex; panicle corymbous, few-flowered, loose; cal. segm. subulate-aristate, much longer than the tube.-Prairies and copses, Wis. to N. J., Ga., Fla. and La. A common, slender Phlox, 1 to 2f high. Lvs. 1 to 3' long, rigid. Cor. small, pale red or bluish, tube 1 to 8" long, lobes spreading 7 to 8". May, Jn. (P. aristata Mx.) Varies to glabrous (La. Hale) when it still differs from No. 4 by its long setaceous calyx teeth.
β. Floridana. Smoothish below; lvs. oblong-lanceolate; sep. lanceolate-setaceous.-Fla. (at Quincy!) and elsewhere. Approaches the next. (P. Floridana Benth.)
6 P. involucrata. Hoary-pubescent; sts decumbent and branching at base, thin, simple and erect; lvs. linear-oblong, rather obtuse at each end, half-clasping, sub-erect, flat, the floral similar and closely subtending the dense corymbs as if involu-crate; cal. teeth longer than its tube, linear or subulate-spatulate; cor. lobes roundish-obovate, angled at apex.-Very elegant, common in dry soils, throughout the S. States. Sts. 6 to 12' high. Lvs. about 1' long. Cor. deep purple varying to carmine-red. May, Jn. (P. pilosa Walt., Mx., Benth., etc., not L. β.? Walteri, Gray.)
7 P. reptans Mx. Stolons creeping ; sts. assurgent; lvs. ovate, obovate or oblong, obtuse ; corymbs few-flowered; cal. puberulent, segments linear-subulate; pet. obovate, entire.- Hillsides and mountains, Ind. (Plummer) to S. Car.
, Flowering-stems 6' high (Southern specimens 6 to 12'), with small (4-9" by 2-4") and remote leaves. Stolons with leaves 2-3 times larger, somewhat crowded at the end. Flowers 3-8. Corolla bluish-purple, tube scarcely twice longer than the calyx. June.